Test 2: Week 1 - Anthro 150
Test 2: Week 1 - Anthro 150 Anthro 150
Popular in The Ancient World
Popular in anthropology, evolution, sphr
This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Elizabeth Pletzer on Thursday October 15, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Anthro 150 at University of Wisconsin - Oshkosh taught by J. Karsten in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 56 views. For similar materials see The Ancient World in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of Wisconsin - Oshkosh.
Reviews for Test 2: Week 1 - Anthro 150
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
Date Created: 10/15/15
Anthro 150 The Ancient World Lecture by Dr Jordan Karsten Notes by Elizabeth Petzer October 5 2015 Start materials for Test 2 0 Hunter Gatherers o Neanderthals I Late Pleistocene Period I Europe and Southwest Asia I Unique enough to be considered own species 0 Homo neanderthalensis No 0 Considered a subspecies of Homo sapiens o 13000 30000 years ago quotclassic Neanderthals west Europe after 75000 years ago I Traits o Cranial capacity 1520 cm3 larger than modern humans 0 Receding forehead quotfootball shape 0 Occipital bun bony quotbunshaped protrusion on back of skull o quotfurrowed browridge o Midface Prognathism 0 Typical of ice age era Europeans lower half of face projects out 0 Also had larger nose likely to increase surface area in order to warm air before reaching the lungs o No chin 0 Retro molar gap gap behind molars between teeth and jaw hinge 0 Highly robust postcranial skeleton with relatively short limbs 0 Highly robust high physical activity 0 Short limbs less surface area to conserve heat 0 quotstuffandcut marks on teeth 0 quotstuffandcut shoving large bits of food into mouth and slicing off the extra with some sort of knife 0 Direction of mark slanting indicates hand dominance I Characterized by use of Mousterian tools 0 12000030000 years ago 0 MidPaleolithic o Complicated to make 0 Involves working the flake while still attached to the core and breaking off finished product I Large game hunters 0 Large amount of trauma to head and neck in male Neanderthal skeletons 0 Similar to injury patterns in rodeo riders o Isotopic studies indicate a diet high in animal proteins Anthro 150 The Ancient World Lecture by Dr Jordan Karsten Notes by Elizabeth Petzer 0 West consumed mainly reindeer 0 East mainly mammoths I Buried dead in purposeful graves o Often accompanied by grave goods 0 Flowers indicate ritual behavior food tools etc I Cannibalism o Krapina Croatia remains of at least 13 individuals discovered 0 Found in refuse piles among animalfood waste I Cared for sick and elderly 0 Shanadaar Iraq 0 Skeleton with many injuries I Orbital fracture severe most certainly blind I Injury to humeri paralyzed on left half 0 Atrophy lost the bottom half of arm I Arthritis I Patterns of healing in injuries indicate long life after they occurred 0 Neanderthals care for the aging and sick 0 Homo sapiens anatomically modern humans I Evolved 200000 years ago 0 According to fossil and genetic evidence I Evolved in Africa 0 Most likely descended from Homo heidelbergensis 0 50000 years ago dispersed throughout Old World and Australia 0 15000 years ago populate North America I Traits 0 Vertical forehead o Bony chin o Canine fossa hollowed pit below cheekbone o Postcranially gracile o Distal phalanx 0 23 length of proximal phalanx o Distal phalanx thumb o Distal separated o Thinner cortical bone 0 Limbs long relative to trunk I Evolution and World Population Ideas 0 Multiregional continuity model 0 Evolved all over the world at approximately the same time I Originate from whatever regional hominin species were present at the time o Involved gene flow migration and interbreeding of populations Anthro 150 The Ancient World Lecture by Dr Jordan Karsten Notes by Elizabeth Petzer 0 Not a likely explanation 0 Replacement Model 0 quotOut of Africa 0 Evolved in Africa and then spread to populate the rest of the world 0 Complete vs Partial Replacement I Complete outcompeted or killed off other hominin species I Partial coexisted and possibly interacted with other hominin species until eventually outlasted them 0 Neanderthal and Denisovan DNA can be found in modern humans nonAfricans 0 Supports left Africa and interacted with European hominin species 0 Hominin Evidence I Africa 0 Omo Kibish 0 195000 years ago 0 Omo 1 oldest anatomically modern Homo sapiens I Vertical forehead and bony chin o Omo 2 I More robust less modern features 0 Klasies River Mouth 0 120000 80000 years ago 0 Location suggests possible migration from East to South I Did Homo sapiens retreat back into Africa 0 Evolution possible that they evolved there 0 Border Cave 0 Herto Bouri 0 Most complete adult cranium I Long cranial vault I 1450 cm3 cranial capacity I Large arching brow I Occipital bun I Orthognathic 0 160000 154000 years ago 0 Homo sapiens idaltu o Qafzeh Cave 0 20 modern individuals 0 120000 92000 years ago 0 Skhul Cave Mt Carmel o 10 Homo sapiens 0 130000 100000 years ago Anthro 150 The Ancient World Lecture by Dr Jordan Karsten Notes by Elizabeth Petzer o Tabun and Kebara Neanderthals I Located in the same spot dated to the same time what s the relation I China 0 Tianyuan 0 40000 years ago o Zhoukoudian 0 10000 29000 years ago 0 Niah Cave 0 Modern 0 45000 40000 years ago I Australia 0 55000 years ago 0 Lake Mungo 0 30000 25000 years ago 0 Kow Swamp 0 14000 9000 years ago 0 Receding forehead 0 Heavy supraorbital tori o Pleistocene Humans I Major cultural changes occur I Tools more complex 0 Bone wood shell ivory I Increased artifact diversity I Appearance of art 0 Upper Paleo Europe 0 40000 10000 years ago I Use of tailored clothing 0 Discovered through study of lice 0 Head lice present for millions of years 0 Body lice I Evolved between 72000 42000 years ago I Hyoid bone 0 Allows for language 0 Neanderthals had one nearly identical to modern humans 0 Likely had complex and developed language like modern humans I Language brain developments 0 Endocasts 0 Provide clues to brain organization Anthro 150 The Ancient World Lecture by Dr Jordan Karsten Notes by Elizabeth Petzer o Lateralization o Hypoglossal nerve controls movement of tongue for speech 0 Throat anatomy 0 Language reconstruction 0 quotmother tongue likely developed approx 100000 years ago October 7 2015 Unable to attend class no available notes October 9 2015 o Pleistocene Humans Paleolithic Art 0 Dolni Vestonice Czech Republic I Semisubterranean structure 0 Located 250m from main site 0 20ft in diameter 0 Hollow bird bones with ends cut off found within structure 0 Potentially musical instruments 0 Domed clay oven hearth 2300 clay figurines Oldest example of fired clay Many fragments of animal figurines Mainly fired clay lumps I Possibly used for counting I Site of year round occupation I Variety of Gravettian tools I Mediterranean shells site is a landlocked area 0 Evidence of longdistance travel or trade I Ritual o Carved masks drooped left side of face 0 Skeleton of old woman with exact facial features as art 0 Depicted multiple times person of importantce 0 Fetal position burial o Ritualistic behavior 0 Maybe they just didn t want to dig a big hole 0000 o Paleolithic Cave Art 0 Focused and abundant in France 0 Also present in Northern Spain 0 Lascaux Cave France I Upper Paleolithic Anthro 150 The Ancient World Lecture by Dr Jordan Karsten Notes by Elizabeth Petzer I Mural style paintings I Portable art present I 17000 years ago I Magdalenian period I Paint colors 0 Black charcoal and manganese oxide 0 Yellow and Red iron oxide and clay 0 White clay and calcite I Rope pine torches and oil lamps found in cave I Height of some paintings would ve required some form of scaffolding I The caves were not living spaces I Most paintings depicted animals I Humans were more common in engravings I Handprints accompanied paintings rarely a whole hand 0 Perhaps some form of signature I Paintings 0 Usually an outline in mono or polychrome 0 Animals generally depicted in profile 0 Lascaux o Reindeer appear only once I Odd I Location would suggest that reindeer were primary diet 0 Carnivores and dangerous animals appeared only in hard to reach places 0 Only a single human appears in all of cave I Located in a small shaft I Painted near 0 Wooly rhino with raised tail 0 Wounded bison impaled by a spear 0 One legged bird I Human possesses birdlike face 0 Possibly clan identification I Potentially a hunter being honored o Meanings behind art 0 Fertility pregnant animals often painted 0 Meat meatiest parts of animals accentuated 0 Art created simply because they wanted to art gallery 0 Temples possible place of ritual significance 0 New Discoveries I Chauvet Cave 36000 years ago I Cosquer Cave 18500 years ago 0 Portable Art I 35000 years ago Anthro 150 The Ancient World Lecture by Dr Jordan Karsten Notes by Elizabeth Petzer I Venus figurines 0 25000 years ago 0 Engraved on cave walls 0 Carved from ivory wood and stone 0 Modeled in clay o Exaggerated female features 0 Pubic triangle often outlined 0 Some pregnant I 80 from Magdalenian period I Quality depended on use and life of object I More common in large settlements 0 Art and ritual activity 0 Unusual decorations I Some suggested awareness of seasons I Counting of days or years I Abri Blanchard piece 0 69 marks made by 24 different tools 0 Patterning suggests counting moon phases over 6 months 0 Astronomical awareness o Peopling of the Americas 0 Before 15000 years ago 0 8000 BC all of Americas occupied o quotBeringiaquot Bering land bridge I ce free corridor existed after 14000 years ago I No sites have been found along strip where corridor would have been 0 Sites earlier than 14000 years ago have been found 0 Possibly came by boat along coast 0 Ushki Northeast Asia I 14000 years ago o It is still unclear what route was used in peopling the Americas