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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Haylee Smith on Thursday October 15, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 311 at University of South Carolina Upstate taught by Mr. Travis in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Industrial-Organizational Psychology in Psychlogy at University of South Carolina Upstate.
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Date Created: 10/15/15
IO Psychology Then and Now What is IO Psych De nition application of psychological principles and theories in the workplace 0 And how you might describe it to friends and family the study of how people behave and related at work and how they are able to perform their jobs Industrial vs Organizational Industrial Organizational quotpersonnel psychologyquot Motivation Job analysis Work attitudes Training Leadership Selection Organizational structure culture and process Performance managementappraisal Overlap among issues lnterdependent related areas that form this subspecialty Performance is very hard to measure IO Psychology Training 0 Professional association society for Industrial organizational psychology SIOP Approach to training IO psychologists SIOP training guidelines is the ScientistPractitioner Model 0 IO psychologists are the generators on knowledge scientist and consumers of knowledge practitioners All information must be useful Scientist practitioner gap 0 Most IO psychologists have a PhD or Master39s degree 0 Typically 2 years Master39s to 45 years Doctorate 0 Doctorate requires dissertation Main goal of graduate training in IO psychology is develop competencies 0 Skills behaviors and capabilities allowing employees to perform successfully What do IO psychologists do 0 Most IO psychologists choose a career that emphasizes 0 Research and science OR 0 Practice Usually have to choose on or the other Major areas in which IO psychologists work 0 Selection Training and development Organizational development Performance appraisalmanagement Quality of work life Consumer psychology 0 Human factorsengineering ergonomics IO Psychology History PreWorld War I 0 Walter Dill Scott OOOOO Gave talk on psychology of advertising 0 Published the theory of advertising First professor of applied psychology Carnegie Tech 0 Hugo Munsterberg Published Psychology and Industrial Ef ciency in 1913 0 IO was developing faster in Europe World War I through 19205 0 IO psychology involved in military personnel work 0 Robert Yerkes APA president developed the Army Alpha and Beta mental ability test 0 IO expanded beyond the military and academic venues into government and private industry 0 Frederick Taylor scienti c management 0 Lillian Gilbreth The psychology of Management 0 quotFirst Lady of Managementquot and the Mother of Scienti c Managementquot 0 Created the step trash can and shelves in fridge doors The 19305 to PreWorld War II 0 Period marked by the Great depression 0 Hawthorne Studies Illumination and productivity experiments at the Western Electric Plant 0 Greater focus on and psychological conditions of work 0 Team development supervision group process motivation World War II to the Mid19605 0 Organizational Psych began in 1960s 0 A lot of growth lO in the 21St century 0 People were not worried about the effects of people sitting behind a computer screen because it didn39t happen but now it does 0 What issues will affect lO psychology and vice versa in the 21 century 0 Global competitionneed to have skilled well trained and competent workforce bridging cultures in multinational companies 0 Downsizing Assist laid off workers compete for new jobs 0 Help downsizing quotsurvivorsquot handle diverse jobs and workload lO had to help people become more competitive in the job world 0 A single worker in the US is 16x more effective than in the 1940s because we have given them more diverse things to do Allowing people to work from home people who work at home work harder than people at work because they know the people at the of ce are probably thinking they do nothing 0 Having a 247 email responsibility 0 Flatter organizational structure helping employees work in lean organizations self management empowerment 0 Greater diversity in the workplacecoordinate and educate for sensitivity to differences race gender age ethnicity thought expectations culture 0 Age of cars where people have to travel to and for work when before you worked in your town where people were probably similar to you Know lO competencies scientist practitioner model know what IO psychologists did in history test for selection and management Lilian Gilberth work for military where are we going now relevancy Methods What is science Process ofmethod for generating a body of knowledge 0 Represents a logic ofinquiry way of doing things to increase understanding of concepts processes and relationships ls psychology a science 0 Yes It relies on formal systematic observation to answer questions about behavior Goals of science Description accurate portrayaldepiction f phenomenon Explanation gathering knowledge about why phenomena exists or its causes Prediction anticipate an event prior to its occurrence Control manipulate of conditions to affect behavior Three Assumptions of Science Empiricism generate predictions based on theory gather data and use the data to test predictions Determination behavior is orderly and systematic Discoverability behavior can be experienced examined and discovered refer to empiricism Theory lnterrelated constructs concepts de nitions and propositions that present a systematic view of phenomenon by specifying relations among variables with the purpose of explaining and predicating the phenomenon Good theory page 26 Parsimonious explains a lot yet simple 0 Simple is better but sometimes it isn39t simple but you want your theory to be simple and easy to understand 0 Explain as much as it can but still be simple Precision speci c and accurate in its wording Testabiity veri able by experimentationstudy o If it is untestable it is not a theory repressed memories is untestable not a theory Useful practical helpful in describing explaining predicting important phenomena Generativity stimulates additional researchlines of questioning Cyclical Inductive and Deductive Model of Research Deduction you start with a theory blank slate and move forward 0 Doesn39t happen a lot in IO psych Induction start with data collection and try to explain it gt test it gt does the data support your theory You never disprove a theory you support it or you fail to support it Research Terminology and Basic Concepts Overview Causal inference can be made when data indicate that a causal relationship between two variables is likely 0 Can never prove causality due to other variables Key terms 0 Independent variable IV anything that is manipulated came rst predictor precursor o Dependent variable DV outcome criteria consequence what the experiment is designed to assess o Extraneous variable any other variable that contaminated the results 0 Control variable Important to ensure that causal inference can be made about the effect of the IV on DV Internal and External Validity Internal validity extent to which causal inferences can be drawn about variables 0 Ruling out alternative explanation External validity extent to which results generalize to other people setting time 0 Student participants and quotreal worldquot applicability Note important tradeoff between internal and external validity control versus generalizability Types of research designs Two factors characterize experimental methods Random assignment each participant is chosen randomly Manipulation of NS Lab Experiments Lab experiments have random assignment high internal validity but it can seem fake Random assignment and manipulation of NS are used to increase control Take place in contrived setting for control 0 Very high internal validity 0 External validity generalizability questioned How can you increase generalizability external validity 0 Make the experiment more tting to who you are testing EX studying interview reaction in a 26 year old vs an internship interview with a freshman Field and Quasiexperiments Field experiments random assignment and manipulation of IV in a naturally occurring realworld setting Quasiexperiment very common in IO eld experiment without random assignment not always practical to randomly assign participants use of intact group Imagine having to give different people applying for different positions varying interviews hard and confusing so you use quasi and therefore accountants get a speci c interview and janitors get another interview but there is a difference between accountants and janitors so you still use quasi but have one branch of the company do one interview and the department of another branch of the company do a different interview Observational Methods for descriptive research No random assignment or manipulation You just watch Make use of available resources Draw conclusions Naturalistic observation observing someone in their natural environment 0 Participant observation observe tied to blend in with those wo are observed 0 Unobtrusive observation observe objectively observes individuals without drawing attention to himhimself does not try to blend in Data collection techniques Naturalistic observation case studies archival research surveys Naturalistic observation observation of someone or something in its natural environment Participant observation observer tries to blend in with those who are observed Unobtrusive observation observer objectively observers individuals without drawing attention to himherself does not try to blend in Archival Research answering a research question using existing secondary data sets Surveys Selfadministered questionnaires o Competed by respondents in absence of researchers 0 Commonly used in both lab and eld settings 0 Useful for 3 reasons Ease of administration Can be administered to large groups at one time Provides respondents with anonymity Interviews investigator administered 0 Usually conducted face to face or sometimes over the phone 0 More time consuming than selfadministered questionnaires 0 Clear bene ts Experience sampling methodology ESM o Captures momentary attitudes and psychological states 0 PDA quotsignals participants to answer questions at predetermined time 0 Popular for the study of emotions at work Measurement overview Measurement assignment of numbers to object or events using rules in a way that represents speci ed attributes of the object Attribute dimension along which individuals can be measured and along which they vary 0 Need variance to predict Because accuracy of measurement is important there are two major concerns 0 Reliability consistency or stability of a measure Predictors must be measured reliably Measurement error enders measurement inaccurate or unreliable Measurement error anything other than what you wanted to measure bias dim lights distraction loud noise 0 Everything has measurement error 0 Observed true measurement error Test retest reliability Coef cient of stability 0 Participants are given a test at time 1 and then given the exact same test at time 2 Minimize error 5 that high scorers at time 1 are also high scorers at time 2 0 Virtually no measure used in IQ has perfect reliability Parallel forms reliability 0 The extent to which two independent forms of a test are equivalent measures of the same construct 0 Important to ensure that the two tests are measuring the same thing 0 Particularly important in recent years Coef cient of equivalence lnterrater reliability 0 The consistency with which multiple raters view and thus rate the same behavior or person 0 Relevant in performance appraisal 0 Measured by examining correlation between ratings of two judges Internal consistency reliability Indication of the relatedness of the test items 0 Tells us how well out test items are hanging together 0 Split half reliability split the test n half to see if one half is equivalent to the other 0 Interitem reliabilitv Cronbach s coef cient alpha examining the correlations among all test items to determine consistency Rule of thumb for reliabilitv level is 70 Most common and has high internal consistency We cannon accurately predict outcomes with variables that are not measured well 0 Validity Construct validity the extent to which a test measures the underlying construct it was intended to measure Two types of evidence used to demonstrate construct validity Content validity degree to which a testpredictor covers a representative ample of the quality being assessed Criterionrelated validity degree to which a test is a good predictorf attitudes behaviors or performance Predictive validity the extent to which test scores obtained at one point in time predict criteria obtained at some later time 0 Ex SAT predicting GPA Concurrent validity how well a test predicts a criterion that is measured at the same time the test is administered Convergent validity degree to which measure is related to or predicts measures of other similar constructs Divergent validity degree to which measure is not related to measures of dissimilar constructs Both types of validity are demonstrated by using predictive andor concurrent validation designs 0 Ex page 49 Chapter 3 Job analysis Job Analysis Overview Process of de ning a job in terms of its component tasks or duties and the knowledge or skills required to perform them Foundation for most work in IO 0 Most important building block for quotIquot psychology performance appraisal selection training Job analysis Job evaluation Job description gt Job speci cations Compensation Criterion development Selection Performance appraisal Placement Job designredesign Training Job Analysis Terminology Element smallest unit of work activity Task multiple elements activity of work that is performance to achieve a speci c objective Position comprised of tasks performed by an individual in an organization Job collection of positions similar enough to one another to share a job title Page 65 KSAO knowledge skills abilities and other characteristics Approaches to Job Analysis Joboriented approach describing the various tasks performed on the job jobspeci c Workeroriented approach examining broad human behaviors involved in work activities physical interpersonal mental factors 0 The is some crossover between the two approaches one approach is not necessarily better than the other Hybrid method more recent gathering information about the work and the worker at the same time Job oriented technique Task inventory approach 0 Task statements generated by subject matter experts SMEs Incumbents people currently occupying he job of interest 0 Task statements are rated by incumbents on performance importancecriticality relative time spend on job performing task 0 When trying to understand a job you want to talk to the SMEs who they answer to and who is evaluating them Functional Job approach FJA 0 Highly structured approach developed by Sydney Fine 0 Data are obtained about what tasks a worker does and how those tasks are performed 0 Job relevant tasks are related on dimensions data people and things Understanding he extent to which these dimensions interact Dimensions on which tasks are evaluated 0 Data extent to which the job requires handling information idea facts 0 People extent to which the job requires using the interpersonal resources 0 Things extent to which the job requires using physical tasks Dictionary of Occupational Tites DOT 0 1930s dept of labor used FJA to develop DOT 0 Tool that matches people with jobs 0NET occupational information network httponetcenteroro o Developed by dept of labor to replace DOT database of over 950 occupations 0 Purpose identify and describe the key components of modern occupations 0 Based on data gathered in a variety of ways hybrid approach 0 Highly accessible searchable online database relatable occupations Criticisms 0 Two narrowly focused on the tasks for a particular job 0 May miss similarities in jobs due to high level of task speci city technological and behavioral WorkerOriented Techniques Overview 0 Greater focus on the human characteristics that contribute to successful job performance 0 More effective for comparisons across jobs Job element method JEM 0 Job elements knowledge skills abilities and other characteristics KSAOs required for successful job performance 0 Aim is directly connect job analysis to the selection context through KSAOs 0 Steps SMEs develop a list ofjob elements and sub elements SMEs provide work examples of each elementsub element 0 Criticism ignores speci c job tasks Position Analysis Questionnaire PAQ 0 Best known job analysis method useful in describing many jobs 0 Standardized instrument 187 items describing general work behaviors work conditions and job characteristics 0 Three major criticisms high reading level not wellsuited for managerial job items to abstract Harvey expert in job analysis Levy CMQ CommonMetric Questionnaire 0 Recently developed by Harvey 1998 o Re ects two beliefs about worker oriented approach 0 Must describe work activities using a common set of items written at an abstract level 0 Rating scale must have the same meaning across all jobs 0 Consists of 2077 items organized along 80 dimensions computerbased 0 Improvement over PAQ Reading levels are lower More behaviorally speci c Criticism time to complete 3hours Advances in Job Analysis Practice and Research Use of the internet to gather and organize job analysis information Development of metrics to help analysis job analysis data Advancements in understanding SME ratings 0 SMEs may engage in selfserving behavior o SMEs endorse ability statements as important when they are not 0 quotJob craftingquot can result in unreliable job analysis data Job crafting autonomy in the work place Job description written statement of what jobholders do how they do It and why they do it presents the task requirements of the job Job speci cation delineate KSAOs deemed necessary to perform the job Purposes ofJob analysis Job analysis is necessary to the success of HR functions Increased emphasis on workplace laws makes for more desirable for companies to use job analysis as a rst line of defense Job classi cation categorizing jobs into families nancial operations etc Criterion development and performance appraisal clearly stipulates goals objectives and criteria on which employees can be evaluated Selection and placement 0 Identify the KSAOs necessary for successful job performance 0 Competency modeling vs job analysis Competency modeling is more workeroriented than job analysis Competency medical s broader in focus Some researchers suggest a blended approach blending of KSAO model and competency model Used interchangeably with KSAOs Competency modeling 0 Foundation basic requirements for everyone who works in the organization reading writing 0 Industry related what you need to work in the organization customer service value 0 Occupational related what you need to perform a speci c job Much more broad company wide than KSAOs Job design and redesign 0 Can uncover problems with a particularjob to improve ef ciency 0 Work design questionnaire WDQ Comprehensive measure ofjob design 77 items 21 dimensions of work characteristics 0 Training can identify areas in which training programs are needed Job evaluation trying to gure out how much to pay people 0 Quantifying differences to fairly set salaries based on contribution of value ofjobs 0 Point system Most frequently used job evaluation approach Involves estimating the value ofjobs based on points assigned to predetermine dimensions Compensable factors effort skill responsibility and working conditions 0 Comparable worth two people working the same job the same way should be paid the same 2002 difference between men39s and women39s wages 23 Equal PayAct1963 stipulates that men and women who do equal work must receive equal equal pay 0 Does not address gender differences across dissimilar jobs 0 Doctrine of comparable worth Jobs of equal or comparable worth to the organize should be compensated equaHy Proponents suggest that job evaluation should play a longer role than the market in determining compensation focus on job behaviors rather than job performers to decreased likelihood of gender bias in compensation
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