IOpsychology2.pdf Psych 311
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This 19 page Class Notes was uploaded by Haylee Smith on Thursday October 15, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 311 at University of South Carolina Upstate taught by Mr. Travis in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Industrial-Organizational Psychology in Psychlogy at University of South Carolina Upstate.
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Date Created: 10/15/15
Criterion Management De ning Criteria and Their Properties Criteria evaluative standards that can be used as yardsticks for measuring employee39s success or failure 0 Uses appraising employee performance training program evaluation selection validation layoffpromotion decisions Performance actual onthejob behaviors that are relevant to the organization39s goals 0 Also referred to as criterion performance and performance criterion Ultimate Criterion Encompasses all aspects of performance that de ne success on the job Theoretical construct that we develop as a guide or goal to shoot for in measuring performance success Thorndike 1949 Personnel Selection book 0 Ultimate criterion is very complex and is not accessible 0 We can never completely de ne and measure every aspect of performance Actual Criterion Best realworld representation of the Ultimate criterion We develop it to re ect or overlap with the ultimate criterion as much as possible Includes only those elements of the ultimate criterion that we intend to measure We can never make it meet the ultimate criterion because of error Criteria for the Criteria John Cambell the guru ofjob performance What makes a good criterion 0 Bernardin and Beatty 1984 gt25 characteristics for measuring the effectiveness of a criteria We Will discuss ve of these characteristics pg 96 0 Relevance 0 Reliability 0 Sensitivity o Practicality o Fairness Relevance degree to which the actual criterion is related to the ultimate criterion 0 Degree to correlation or overlap between actual criterion and ultimate criterion we want as much as possible Percentage of variance in the ultimate criterion accounted for by the actual criterion When performance is different it can be measure by your measure relevance 0 Conditions Limiting Relevance Criterion de ciency occurs when a major source of variance in the ultimate criterion is not in the actual criterion 0 See Figure 41 Criterion Contamination Occurs when the actual criterion measures things that are not part of the ultimate criterion Occurs two ways 0 random measurement error always some measurement error unreliability o bias most prevalent when criteria judgements made by individuals systematic in nature does the manager like you is the manager affected by the scores they give are you attractive to the manager has the manager known you outside the job Reliability when a measure is unreliable we cannot use it to make decisions Sensitivity extent to which criteria distinguish between effective and ineffective performers o The variance between individual performance Practicality extent to which a criterion can and will be used by decision makers Fairness Extent to which evaluated employees perceive criteria to be just and fair The Criteria Problem It is impossible to point to any one performance criterion and argue that it is perfect measure of performance Performance the criterion in which most organizations employees managers and lO psychologists are interested 0 Usually comprises gt1 dimension 0 Can be suitable for different types of decisions 0 No one criteria is suitable for all purposes Two Major Components of the Criteria Problem 99101 Multiple vs composite criteria 0 job performance is composed of multiple criteria 0 Campbell s eight factor model developed to account for performance variance in every job in the DOT now the ONET Three dimension are necessary components of every job job speci c task pro ciency demonstrating effort and maintaining personal discipline Performance skill motivation Campbell s taxonomy of Performance pg 101 job speci c task pro ciency core tasks central to job 0 Ex a receptionist answers phone calls Nonjob speci c task pro ciency tasks not speci c to a particularjob 0 Ex plumber has to answer the phone Written and oral communications tasks pro ciency for writing and speaking Demonstrating effort consistency and persistence in work effort Maintaining personal discipline avoidance of negative behaviors eg substance abuse 0 Ex a nurse who knows he is on call so he doesn39t get drunk Facilitating peer and team performance helping and supporting peers with job problems Supervision managing of supervising employees 0 Performance appraisal setting goals forecasting needs Managementadministration all management behaviors outside of supervision Multidimensional Criteria and HR decisions Performance consists of multiple criteria so how do we make HR decisions 0 Create a composite criterion weighted combination of the multiple criteria But that s treats performance like a single construct which it39s not 0 Unequal weighting so that criteria dimensions are weighted differentially Should be based on value judgements made based on organizational goals and research If you want to understand criteria then you shouldn39t combine them you should look at them individually Decisions on how to treat multiple criteria should be based on purpose 0 For psvcholooical understandino multiple criteria should be examined in light of predictors and not be combined For decisions making with an economic focus combine criteria Dynamic Criteria measures that re ect performance levels which change over time Problem for lO psychologists because validity of predictors may deteriorate over time Most effective employees during the rst six months on the job are not always the same as those at the end of the next six months Dynamic Criteria Research Day Sin and Chen 2004 o Examined NHL hockey players who had recently become captains of their time 0 Relative increase in productivity index of points based on goals and assists as a function of new leadership responsibilities Lievens Ones and Dilchert 2009 o Examined the relationship between personality variables and GPA in European medical students 0 Personality predicts success later in curriculum much better than it predicts success in earlier classes Types of Performance Criteria short answer Objective criteria also known as hard or nonjudgmenta criteria 0 Cleanest because they generally do not require judgment 0 Ex table 44 rates of absenteeism turnover lateness turnover 0 Mot typical objective criterion is productivity number of acceptable products produced in a given time period 0 Suitable for nonmanagerial jobs only Subjective criteria also known as soft or judgmental criteria 0 Based on judgments or evaluations of others 0 Typically include ratings or rankings of employees supervisors coworkers subordinates 0 Excellent alternative when objective criteria do not exist but more likely to be affected by biases attitudes and beliefs of raters Contextual Performance 0 Expansion of the criterion domain to include more than traditional objective and subjective criteria 0 Task performance world related activities performed by employees that contribute to the technical core of the organization Behavior speci c to you work 0 Contextual performance activities performed by employees that help to maintain the broader organizational social and psychological environment Behavior that helps the group Asking questions in class bene ts others in class Helping a coworker with a problem 0 OCBs Similar to organizational citizenship behaviors POBs prosocial organizational behavior 0 Borman and Motowidlo 1997 ve dimensions of contextual performance Working with extra enthusiasm and effort Volunteering for thing not formally pat of the job Helping others with theirjob sportsmanship organizational courtesy Meeting deadlines and complying with organization39s rules and regulations civic virtue or conscientiousness Supportingdefending the organization Task vs Contextual Performance 0 Major distinctions between task performance and contextual performance Task activities vary a great deal across jobs contextual performance does not Task activities are more likely to be formally instituted as part of job descriptionperformance appraisals than contextual performance Task activities have different antecedents cognitive ability than OCBs conscientiousness Contextual Performance research 0 Researchers have begun to propose selection instruments to predict employees39 likelihood of OCBs 0 Framework proposed that OCBs result in favorable relationships among coworkers which serve as quotsocial capital Social capital affects the organization39s performance and effectiveness 0 OCBs as a grouplevel phenomenon o Metaanaylsis Nielsen Hrivek and Shaw 2009 of 38 students over last 10 years Positive relationship between OCBs at group level and group performance Group level OCBs improved social processes communication within teams OCBs identi ed in US samples seem to apply in international contexts Belgium as an example Counterproductive Work Behaviors CWB Not the opposite of OCBs they are negatively correlated however it isn39t a continuum Behaviors that somehow harm or detract from the organization 0 Ex theft sabotage abuse of others withdrawal behaviors 0 Sometimes people may exhibit both OCBs and CWBs o CWBs have strong negative effects on business unit performance and productivity 0 Research counterproductive behaviors are more strongly related to organizational and individual performance than OCBs How Predictors Why is PM broken People aren39t rating performance well because manager s are afraid to lose favor with their associated Need for improving manager associate performance Murphy Chapter 5 Performance Appraisal Overview The systematic review and evaluation ofjob performance and the provision of performance feedback Purposes of Performance Appraisal Personnel decisions used in deciding who gets promoted re demoted or laid off also used in decisions about raises Developmental purpose informs employees of their performance strengthsweaknesses o Facilitates employee advancement which is good for the organization Documentation of organizational decisions 0 Important to keep track of employees39 performance patterns over time 0 Provides detailed account of inadequate performance Ineffective performance appraisal system can have widespread implications for the organization and employees Performance Appraisal Implications Negative repercussions if not carefully developed and implements 0 Wrong person could be promoted transferred or red 0 Inequitable feelings could develop if good employees receive smaller rewards than bad employees 0 Legal suits based on a weak system 0 Disgruntled employees decrease effort ignore feedback or look for otherjobs A quotGoodquot Performance Appraisal System Wellreceived by rates 0 It has to be accepted and liked for people to use it Based on carefully documented behaviors Focused on important performance criteria Inclusive of many perspectives Forward looking focus on improvement Role of IO Psychology in Performance Appraisal IO psychologists are often hired to help develop and implement performance appraisal systems 0 Due to measurement expertise human resourceorganizational psychology background Company human resource departments also employ IO psychologists to oversee performance management PM vs PA 0 PM includes PA plus maintaining behaviors coaching providing feedback 0 PA evaluate actual performance PM a motivational system of individual performance improvement DeNisi amp Pritchard 2006 Objective goal setting Continuous coaching and feedback Performance appraisal Developmental planning Components are linked to company goals Implemented on continuous cycle not just annually Sources of Performance Rating Multisource Feedback Also called 360degree feedback getting multiple raters to rate Involved multiple raters at various organizational levels who evaluate and provide feedback to a target employee 0 Subordinates peer supervisor clients or customers selfrating Used for purposes consistent with greater employee expectations and 21 century organization Most of time it39s the boss rating an underling Three basic assumptions about 360 degree feedback 0 When multiple raters are used participant are happier because they are involved in the process 0 When multiple raters are used the idiosyncrasies or biases of any single rater are overcome 0 Multiple raters bring multiple perspectives for a broadermore accurate view of performance Upward appraisal rating ratings provided by individuals whose status in the organizational hierarchy is below that of rates Majority of research on 360 degree feedback has focused on measurement properties of the ratings eg agreement among rating sources No such thing as downward rating because that had always been the case a boss rates their employee Recommendations for implementing 360degree feedback 0 Be honest about how ratings will be used 0 Help employees interpret and deal with the ratings 0 Avoid presenting too much information Goodyear 0 Uses 360degree feedback system consisting of four main tools 360 degree development questionnaire 360 degree feedback report Development workbook Development guide New Challenges in Telework and eHR Recent trend in organizations is the increase frequency of telework employees working from home or some other location 0 Results in altered forms of communication emails phone calls text message rather than face to face 0 Supervisor must reply on indirect sources of performance information for appraisals and their tendencies to downplay indirect information suggests potential room for errors eHR systems electronic HR system Rating Formats overview Graphic rating scales 0 Among the oldest formats used 0 Consist of a number of traits or behaviors Needs improvement 0 Raters judge how much of each particular trait the rates possess or where on the dimension the rates fall with respect to organizational expectations average above average BARS behaviorally anchored rating scales Similar to graphic rating scales expect for behavioral descriptions as quotanchorsquot Same scale but has speci c behaviors at points Process for developing BARS 0 Step 1 SMEs identify and de ne several dimensions that are important forthejob 0 Step 2 another group generates a series of behavioral examples critical incident technique 0 Step 3 retranslation stage ort critical incidents into appropriate dimension 0 Step 4 rating behavioral examples on effectiveness 0 Step 5 choose items that represent performance levels Drawback is that BARS development is painstaking costs a lot of time and money Checklists Weighted checklist have a series of items and people would weight them on importance or effectiveness items indicate desirable and undesirable behavior but the supervisors don39t see the weights Forced choice checklist raters choose two items from a group of four that best describe the employee purpose is to reduce rater biasdistortion o Tring to eliminate bias Drawback is that raters do not like it feel like they lose control over the rating process Employee Comparison Procedures Evaluation of rates with respect to how they measure up to or compare with other employees 0 Rank ordering can be useful for promotion decisions 0 Paired comparisons becomes more complex as number of rates increases 0 Forced distribution often done because ratings are tied to raises public lawsuits have involved these systems quotrank and yankquot 0 Rating scales do not follow the normal distribution Know Appraisal Advantages and Disadvantages chart in notesbook Contemporary Trends in Rating Formats Use of narrative comments supervisors39 and suborinates comments are clearer than peer comments Feedforward interviews FFls for performance appraisal Cognitive Processing Model of Performance Appraisal Observe behavior rater may miss important behaviors or see what he wants to see Encode information incorrectly labeled information Store information Retrieve information Integrating information Halo Error Rater39s tendency to use global evaluation of a rate in making dimensions speci c ratings OR Rater39s unwillingness to discriminate between independent dimensions of a ratee s performance True Halo Accurate intercorrelations among performance dimensions You know a little information and generalize it to everything Leniency The mean of rating across rates is higher than the mean of all rates across all raters Or The mean of their ratings is higher than the midpoint of the scale Why 0 Raters want to be liked look good and keep the peace Central Tendency Severity opposite of central tendency Distributional errors Leniency central tendency and severity are distributional errors Rater Training Rater error training RER show them what mistakes they make and help them x it o Raters might overcompensate not effective but still useful 0 Accuracy is not improves necessarily Frame of reference training FOR focuses on enhancing rater39s observational and categorization skills establishes a common frame of reference lmproves appraisal accuracy especially when combined with behavioral observation training BOT Rater Goals and Accountability Raters may have different goals for various reasons When held accountable to various goals rating accuracy rating leniency raters provide ratings consistent with those goals Importance of Socialpsychological context rate article for Wednesday to this Early researchers focused on rating scle formats and believe that accuracy was the primary goal of appraisal 0 Rating formats and rater errors were the focus Reaction criteria How people respond and react to appraisal can be just as important to the accuracy of the appraisal People may respond negatively to a accurate appraisal and may want to leave Supervisorsubordinate relationship Leadermember exchange theory LMX o Supervisors have different types of relationships with subordinates Some may believe that giving a associate too high of a score it will help them improve and others believe that giving a associate too low of a score will help 0 Performance appraisal research has ignored the role of LMX important because relationship bw employee and supervisor plays a role in the performance APPRAISAL PROCESS Organizational Politics Deliberate conscious attempts to manipulate change enhance selfimage deteriorate someone else39s reputation Executives intentionally manipulate performance appraisal to their own gain department looking good send message to subordinate promotion Subordinates also used impression management to bring about a favorable appraisal control their behavior to make a good impression on their supervisors 0 Counterproductive work behaviors making another person look bad to make yourself look good Trust Trust extent to which raters believe that fair and accurate appraisal has beenwill be made in their organization Trust in the Appraisal Process Survey TAPS low scoring raters were more lenient than highscoring raters Performance Appraisal Discomfort Scale PADS raters with greater discomfort in evaluating others and providing them with feedback are among the most lenient raters Raters can be trained to be more comfortable doing the performance appraisal Trust and Justice Justice if raters see the appraisal process as unfairbiased its psychometric quality will be irrelevant lmplicit Person Theory IPT extent to which an individual believes that people can change impacts performance appraisal Supervisors who tend to believe that people can change are perceived by subordinates as more just in their appraisals Participation Can be in the form of a selfassessment orjust expressing ideas during the appraisal sessioninterview People report high levels ofjustice in the appraisal when they feel like they have a say Belief of motivation fairness usefulness of the appraisal Knowledge of the Appraisal System Perceived System Knowledge PSK 0 Employees39 understanding of the performance appraisal system is an important contextual variable 0 The leniency commonly found in selfrating is signi cantly reduced when employees understand the appraisal system 0 Managers39 report greater PSK than nonmanagers o PSK is positively related to job attitudes and appraisal reactions Performance Feedback Providing performance feedback The feedback process Feedback environment and orientation If there are no performance feedbacks then development is gone Providing Performance Feedback Employee development is largely a function of their receptivity to feedback and the organization39s approach to or emphasis on feedback Continuous employee development quotCyclical process in which employees are motivated to plan Feedback Process Key steps to PM cycle 0 Attend 0 Process 0 Use What makes feedback good 0 Focused on the tasks not on the employee Makes it less personal Feedback environment FE Organization39s climate and attitude toward feedback 0 Includes source credibility feedback quality and feedback delivery Climate of giving feedback Favorable FE link to satisfaction with and motivation to use feedback interest in seeking feedback high levels of organizational commitment Feedback Orientation lndividual39s overall attitude toward feedback or receive it lf attitude is positive they are more likely to use it Legal Issues in Performance Appraisal In the United States illegal to discriminate in performance appraisal on the basis of nonperformancerelated factors age gender race ethnicity religion nationality and disability Eight legal recommendations read Chapter 6 Predictors Role of Predictors In selection we do not have access to criteria and must use predictors as substitutes for criteria 0 Predictors would be unnecessary if we knew which applicants would be good performers Predictors are used to forecast criteria since we do not have criterion data Classi cation of Tests Test systems of measurement that will ascribe a numberoutcomescore Observe behavior and describe it with the aid of numerical scales or xed categories Systematic means administered in the same way across groups Testpredictor Use job analysis to identify relevant criteria for job success and then locate deveop create or modify predictors that are valid indicators of criteria Allow us to nd the relationship between predictors and the outcome Mental Measurement Yearbook evaluations of tests in a variety of areas Cognitive Ability Tests Among the most frequently used predictors in selection because mental functioning or intelligence is important for most jobs Also called intelligence tests Two classes 0 General cognitive ability tests 0 Speci c cognitive ability tests General Cognitive Ability Tests Evidence suggests that general cognitive ability accounts for a large proportion of variance in criterion performance 0 Validity coef cient 53 or rquot2 25 0 There is still 75 percent left unexplained Can we do better Incremental validity above and beyond can we do better Unique variance being tested conscientiousness Predicts performance similarly across countries Example Wonderlic personnel test 0 Given to football players to see if they will play well together 0 Proprietary 0 See page 155 Researchers continue to determine what other predictors might help account for a greater percentage of criterion variance incremental validity Recent metaanalysis 0 General cognitive ability accounts for up to 25 of variance in performance 0 However speci c cognitive ability sometimes plays more important role in predicting performance Speci c Cognitive Ability Predict the likelihood that an individual will do well in a particularjob given hisher speci c abilities 0 Mechanical ability tests spatial ability tests clerical ability tests 0 Prediction on one of these tests might give the same score as the wonderlic 0 Easier to argue about why a speci c test is valid even if it seems to discriminate than wonderlic39s unspeci c questions that may not relate to the job Validity coef cients range from 40 to 50 Project A study of gt4000 enlisted army personnel 0 general cognitive ability validity coef cient 63 0 Spatial ability validity coef cient 56 0 Neither test was a good predictor of discipline Use the predictor that ts the criterion Emotional Intelligence El also social intelligence social skills Ability of individuals to generate recognize express understand and evaluate their own and others emotions o Leads to effectiveness in the workplace and in their own personal life Recent research 0 El may be an important predictor of work performance signi cant correlation between El and task performance r47 0 Not enough to have high El must be motivated too 0 El is better predictor of peer social interactions than cognitive ability But intelligence cannot change it is supposed to be stable but if it is a skill then it can be improve and taught which doesn39t go with intelligence Performance is motivation and skill Allows people to read control and adapt to other s emotions and respond in an appropriate way can cause people to like you more Psychomotor tests Measures sensory abilities that evaluate the speed and accuracy of motor and sensory coordination Ex Purdue pegboard traditional vision and hearing tests Validity 40 to 53 depending on the type ofjob These are not suitable for all jobs Personality Tests Personality an individual39s traits or predispositions to behave in a particular way across situations Conscientiousness reliable follow procedure detail focused 0 Best predictor ofjob performance 40 of Fortune 100 companies use in screening job applicants Typically selfreport NEO neuroticism extraversion openness and Hogan inventories 6 Personality Factors Questionnaire Generally measure the BIG FIVE openness to experience conscientiousness extraversion agreeableness neuroticism 0 OCEAN Personality measures are valid predictors ofjob performance 23 validity coef cient 0 Some say this is an underestimate because personality dimensions are used to predict speci c behaviors o Conscientiousness and emotional stability have been reported to be the best predictors BIG FIVE model and NEO hold up consistently across cultures Look at speci c tests instead of broad ones for speci c things you want to measure Problem 0 Faking 0 Motivation to fake in uenced by demographic characteristics individual differences perceptual variables 0 About onethird of applicants fake and quotfakersquot engage in more counterproductive behavior than nonfakers 0 Much debate about the effect of faking on validity coef cients of noncognitive tests Integrity Tests Attempt to predict whether an employee will engage in counterproductive or dishonest workrelated behaviors eg cheating stealing sabotage Overt integrity testmeasures attitudes toward theft and actual theft behaviors selfreport Personalitytype integrity test measures personality characteristics believed to predict counterproductive behavior Clear empirical support Appear valid for predicting both counterproductive behavior r47 and job performance r34 Faking also appears to be possible on some integrity Not much research on integrity tests in other cultures Work samples Different from the predictors discussed so far Work samples attempt to duplicate the performance criteria measures and use them as predictors Developed by creating smaller tests that measure the actual job performance criteria quotmini replicasquot of the job Validities as high as 505 Situational judgement tests SJTs 0 paper and pencil tests 0 quothow would you handle Scored by SMEs 0 Have incremental validity over personality job experience and cognitive ability o R 38 with job analysis r 29 without job analysis Assessment Centers Multiple raters assessors evaluate applicants or incumbents on a standardized set of predictors exercises that simulate job Many people trained IO psychologists will sit around and rate people Expensive Many large companies use them Created in German ATampT management progress study conducted by Bray and colleagues 1974 traced career development of employees who went through AC 0 Assessors correctly identi ed 94 as unlikely to be promoted R 37 to 45 Two popular assessment center exercises o lnbasket assesse responds to a series ofjobrelated scenarios and information that would typically appear in a manager39s inbasket takes action and makes decision about how to proceed 0 See page 168 o Leaderless group discussion LGD group execise designed to tap managerial attributes requires small group interaction Given an issue to resolve no roles assigned See page 170 Biographical Information Assumes past behavior is best predictor of future behavior Typically collected in one of two ways 0 Application blank 0 BioData questionnaire Interviews Among the most popular selection devices and typically used across all jobs Unstructured interview no consistency of questioning across applicants less usefultough to make comparisons Structured interview standardized job analysisbased questions that are asked of all candidates increased reliability allows for fair comparison Structured Interview Formats Behavior description interview 0 Focuses on past behavior interviewees are asked questions to describe speci c ways in which they ave addressed past situations Situational interview 0 Asks intervever been treated by a psiewee how they would handle a situation if it happened Interviews Initial evidence suggested that interviews have low validity r 14 why 0 Interview is a communication process where both organization and candidate gathers information o 39realistic job preview RJP o Shouldn39t ask 0 Have you ever been treated by a psychologists 0 Have you ever been arrested 0 How old are you Estimates of Validity Coefficients General cognitive ability appears to be the best predictors followed by psychomotor ability ACs and biodata Need to be careful and diligent when choosing predictors for use in section 0 Using multiple predictors is likely to account for more variance in the criterion 0 Some predictors are more useful than others in predicting certain criteria Macan Using BARS vs conventional scales on traditional questions 0 No difference between someone who is trained to examine the job versus experts Why do people like unstructured interview more 0 Structured interviews takes feelings and emotion out of the interview 0 Expensive 0 People like informal contact like to know the person in a way that doesn39t relate to the job Procedure accountability 0 When interviewers are held accountable for the procedures that is more accountable than supervisor ratings 0 Doesn39t increase validity 0 Means that someone is going to watch a video of the interview and make sure the interviewer asked the questions in a certain way Structured Interviews measure 0 Whatever you want Unstructured interview 0 Liking and physical attractiveness It is easier to fake pencil and paper ON TEST Schmidt and hunter Kevin murphy and pulachos Criteria and how they are developed Task vs contextual performance Ra ngs Technical aspects contextual aspects types of predictors employment interview Test on Monday Read bargh and shmidt Murphy also echoes Pulcos that rating formats don39t matter that morning there is more than just random measurement error or your actual performance that goes into performance rating in Onefactor model You have systematic measurement error as well such as if your supervisor likes you multifactor models tries to x this by controlling systematic error Mediated model agree that you have to control for system characteristics and individual characteristics in uence raters but it adds the fact the rater may have different intentions giving too low or too high of rating to motivate employees mediation a affects b and a affects c and the effect of a on b affect c the context and ethical climate of the company counts
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