Week 3 notes
Week 3 notes Psych 413
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lynette Walker on Thursday October 15, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 413 at University of Washington taught by Kathryn Monahan in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 34 views. For similar materials see Adolescent Development in Psychlogy at University of Washington.
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Date Created: 10/15/15
Psych 413 Week 3 Chapter 2 Continued 101215 Brain Development During Adolescence Measuring Brain Development gt Studies of Structure 0 Animal Studies 0 Examining brain tissue after death parts donated to science gt Studies of Structure AND Function 0 EEG Electroencephalogram Use to map synaptic activity in brain Method monitoring electrical activity Findings the way people use their brains changes as they develop 0 fMRl Functional MRI Use identifying what brain structures are active at what times Method measuring blood ow where there is blood there is activity Finding very helpful in identifying primary structures in brain needed to perform certain tasks 0 DTI Diffusion Tenor Imaging Use to measure connectivity between different brain structures Method compares differences in density of fatty cells myelin Finding the way in which the brain structures of the adolescent brain talk to each other is different than that of the adult brain 0 Ultimately the brain becomes more efficient The 4 Lobes of the Brain gtFronta Lobe behind forehead o Reasoning planning decisions emotional regulation impulse control etc gtOccipita Lobe back of head oVision gtTempora Lobe either side of head near ears o Hearing gtParietal Lobe crown of head 0 Motor touch temperature Peak Changes in Brain Development gtStages in lifespan where brain development peaks Most change over time o Prenatal o 23 yrs old o 1415 yrs old gtThe brain re nes itself throughout the lifespan 30 yrs usually done with major organizational changes Major Changes in Brain During Adolescence gt Remodeling of Synapses o lnfancy Overproduction of synapses connections o Adolescence quotPruningquot primarily in cortex Programmed elimination of less used less efficient synapse pathways Less is more Environment determines of synaptic pathways o Different regions are pruned at different points of development Sensorimotor cortex oFirst to be re ned starts at prenatal peaks at birth fully re ned at 4 yrs old Parieta and Temporal Association 0 Peaks at 68 months mostly re ned at 8 yrs Prefronta Cortex Last to be re ned peaks at 24 yrs pruning lasts to 16 yrs gtlncrease in Myelination o Myelination brain becomes more ef cient Glial cells fatty brain cells wrap around neuron axons to increase speed of transmission Happens throughout childhood and adolescence During adolescence it is seen primarily in prefrontal cortex ncrease in response time gt Maturation of Prefrontal Cortex and its Association with Limbic System 0 Decrease in grey matter increase in white matter o Development in both prefrontal cortex and limbic system work together to re ne selfregulatory behavior o Prefrontal Cortex structure ongoing development into age 2030 Dorsoatera Planning ahead and controlling impulses Ventromedial Works with limbic system the most Gut level decision making O 0 O 0 Strong connection in adults between VM and limbic system weaker in adolescence Orbitofrontal Evaluates risks and rewards Functional changes in Prefrontal cortex Response inhibition Suppression of a behavior that is no longer appropriate or required greater synaptic pruning and myelination between prefrontal and limbic system Teens use more parts of their brain than younger individuals Abigai Baird quotSwimming with Sharksquot Safe or Dangerous Asked teens and adults simple questions quotShould you swim with sharks Should you eat a saladquot 0 Teens took longer to respond to quotgut questionsquot used prefrontal cortex to think rather than limbic system 0 Adults used basal ganglia automatic responses in limbic system Gambling Test 0 Ages 1030 told to play a gambling card game on computer 0 1013 yr olds less likely to risk losing even if the reward was high 0 14 yr olds showed increased orientation towards rewards less focused on punishment trend peaks at adolescence olncreased sensation seeking and risk taking Limbic System rewards and punishments lmportant function emotional reactivity in ght or ight o 4 F s Food Fear Fighting Sex oConnectivity between prefrontal cortex and limbic system increases during adolescence improvements in emotional regulation Emotional Response Teens use Amygdala ght ight rather than Frontal cortex used by adults Ventromedial to read emotions gt Changes in Neurotransmitters o Prefrontal More dopamine feel good neurotransmitter Leads to sensation seeking oNucleusAccumbens Less dopamine Experiences less overall pleasureanticipation o Changes during puberty directly correlate with changes in neurotransmitter activity oThese changes cause a decline in reward sensitivity what used to be fun during childhood is no longer enough Increased sensation seeking to ful ll the de cit in pleasure gtImplications o More prone to risk taking o Sensation seeking is developmentally normative o Social policy may not be adequate for the teens level of cognitive brain development Intelligence gt There is a huge debate on how to measure intelligence gt IQ Intelligence Quotient o Normed so average100 lt100 lower than average gt100 higher than average 0 Normed for age score divided by age 0 Changes in speci c regions in brain are linked to when that part of the brain is being reorganized o Tests verbal and spatial abilities gt Sternberg s Triarchic Theory 0 3 types of intelligence values different forms rather than test taking abilities Componential Intelligence same as IQ measures processing speed and storingmemory quotbook smartquot Experiential Intelligence insightful and creative artsy Contextual Intelligence reasoning and practical quotcommon sensequot gt Gardner s model of Multiple Intelligences o 7 types Verbal like IQ test Mathematical like IQ test Spatial navigationalmaps Kinesthetic sports physical awareness of one s body Selfre ectivemeditativeself regulating Interpersonal socialhigh acuity to social cues Music composingperforming gt IQ test performance 0 Highly Stable Having a high IQ in childhood will likely remain so in adolescence and adulthood same for average and low IQ o IQ changes substantially Cognitive skills increase we naturally improve on these skills and usually humans increase at the same rate but IQ test is age normed Adolescence Across Time and Space 101415 Is adolescence a social constructinvention Between the times gt Prior to the 19th Century 0 Childrenadolescents were seen as miniature adults They had adultlike responsibilities and worked as adults did 0 Marriage was delayed The culture was more family orientated as work and family were in the same dimension People worked where they lived agriculture apprenticing with the father etc o The process of becoming an adult was far more straightforward and smooth since the kids were trained throughout life gt The median age of rst marriage 18902010 0 Despite contrary belief age of rst marriage has usually stayed between 22 and 30 age of rst marriage getting slightly older 0 Male age between 25 and 30 has stayed relatively the same from 1890 to 2010 o The difference in age between males and females has become closer by 2010 0 There was a signi cant drop in the age of rst marriage in the 1950 S after the war family values became more important women wanted to become autonomous from their parent s families and it was sort of a celebration of winning and surviving the war gt Industrial Revolution 1890 1920 0 Farmers and country folk move to urban cities to nd work 0 Children work as ef ciently as adults so many are working to help provide for family O Machines come in to replace some of the labor less need for workers Adults prefer to keep the jobs so they create secondary education to keep kids in line gt After World War 2 1947 O O O 0 Social relationships especially between teens and parents change quotTeenagerquot emerges in the vernacular This age group is used as economic leverage they have expendable money since they aren t using it to live on their own Marketing targets the teen ages making use of over obsession of teen s body image There is a pull out of economic depression Cohort Effects gt Great Depression 1930 s 0 O 0 Those who were preadolescent during this time experienced worse psychological damage because of the time of extreme stress and suffering They were not able to be children for as long as we are now There was a regression back to treating kids with the expectations of an adult gt The 60 s and 70 s Women s movement and Vietnam War 0 O O gt Today 0 O Adolescents during this time were more actively engaged in civic matters while having less overall responsibilities They were one of the most civically engaged cohorts of our history in the US Voting age got lowered Teens are more restricted in what responsibilities they can have as adults Children are not trained for a smooth transition to adulthood The Theory of Emerging Adulthood gt Arnett 2000 gt Late teens to early adulthood would be considered quotemerging adu hoodquot gt A time of selfexploration 0 Who am I Am I an adult yet gt A time of suffering 0 Having to search for an identity 0 Psychologically disturbing time gt Sel shness o Focused on selfachievement and possibilities for one self 0 Less civically engaged not necessarily true gt Slacking 0 Have no ambition to go out on their own and have adult responsibilities Rate of Residential Change bv Age gt Higher residential change between ages 2025 still identifying oneself gt Living at home 0 Today about 50 of 2022 year ods are living with or supported by their parents 0 In 1960 40 of 1824 year ods lived at home 0 Less women live at home compared to men 0 The trend seen from 1985 to now is that more people especially males and within that white males live at home gt Race and Ethnic Differences 0 Study surveyed parents from different ethnic backgrounds should your children live at home during the teen to young adult years 0 African Americans had the highest instance of saying yes European Americans had the highest instance of no s gt Stattin and Magnussen 1996 0 Study on urban youth near Stockholm 0 Median age for leaving home Girls 18 years old Boys 20 years old 0 The earlier girls who left home were associated with Earlier marriage More child bearing Lower education attainment Making a Successful Transition gt Clarity and Continuity The transition must be smooth easy and gradual leading to better psychological development 0 Ruth Benedict There are many issues in discontinuity today gt Ethnic Differences o Acculturation AKA Americanization The more American you are the less well adjusted to adulthood you will be Rites of Passage gtReligious barmitzvahs Mormons becoming elders Christians receiving roles in church gtSocial Social events like Japan s yearly hatachi ceremony for all of the 20 yr ods in town gtSexual first intercourse rst kid gtEconomic nancial stability gtEducational high school graduation Transition to Adulthood gtThe more continuous the transition the better the psychological outcome Neighborhood in uence on Development gtConditions o Over the past 40 yrs greater and greater clustering of poor families has been seen o 90 of residents in the poorest neighborhoods in US are from ethnic minority groups o Sections of a city 1 Most central part Central Business District 2 Transition Zone 3 Blue Collar Residential 4 Middle Income Residential 5 Commuter Residential 0 Poor neighborhoods are being pushed further out from the center gt Methodological o In studying the neighborhood in uence cause and effect are difficult to separate Poor families live in poor neighborhoods Few af uent families live in poor neighborhoods Few poor families live in af uent neighborhoods o Moving to Opportunity Study United States Department of Housing and Urban Development Section 8 low income families were given vouchers to move wherever they wanted in the city Famiies chose new home participating families divided into 3 groups 0 2 groups received regular counseling 0 1 group received in depth counseling Measured the effects of living in a new more af uent neighborhood on lower income families and their adolescents Some studies showed a positive effect some negative and some neutral Why Adolescents may have encountered discrimination oLess access to resources familial and communal than in old neighborhoods oLess extracurricular activity opportunities oFelt disadvantaged compared to the other wealthier families Parents may have watched children more vigilantly in old neighborhood setting However oGrowing up in poor neighborhoods has a sustained effect on development into adulthood o Behavior more instance of delinquent or violent behavior oAchievement less likely to achieve higher education or higher paying careers o Mental Health often in poorer condition Collective Efficacy gtYou will have to look this up in the book for more information she went through the slides too quickly P gtSo collective efficacy usually refers to the ability of members of a community to control the behavior of an individual in this case adolescents creating a safer environment o Trust and common values are important in the community o If collective efficacy is low Problems can become contagious Other adolescent deviants emerge Adults are unemployed or underemployed Teen pregnancy o Effects may be stronger for people with low impulse control Stress gt Stressors associated with poverty undermine the quality of relationship with parents gt Stressors can be 0 Violence in neighborhoods 0 Chronic community violence repeated Causes behavioral emotional and physical health problems Studies have shown a high exposure to violence in NYC Psychosocial development affect Increased level of violence causes slower growth in impulse control 0 Right after experiencing the event there is a decline in impulse control Adolescents are more vulnerable 0 Limited Resources Fewer chances to participate in extracurricular activities Fewer services 0 Healthcare 0 Quality of schools 0 Transportation 0 Employment opportunities 0 Recreational services
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