PSY 202 Lecture: The Brain
PSY 202 Lecture: The Brain 5094
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This 6 page One Day of Notes was uploaded by Julia Gladding on Monday December 15, 2014. The One Day of Notes belongs to 5094 at California State Polytechnic University taught by Ryujin, Laver in Fall2014. Since its upload, it has received 128 views. For similar materials see PSY 202 - General Psychology in Psychlogy at California State Polytechnic University.
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Date Created: 12/15/14
Wednesday October 8 2014 PSY 202 Week 3 Wednesday Lecture The Brain Gary Laver l Quick Tour of the Human Brain The brain along with the spinal chord make up the central nervous system Not the only nervous system Study peripheral nervous system Nearly 100 billion neurons in the brain which make 100 trillion transfers Surrounding the brain scalp amp skull 3 other layers dura mater tough mother arachnoid mater looks like web structure pia mater tender mother A Cerebrum and Cerebral Cortex 1 Cortex gray outer surface bark a Humans known for large cortex So large that it was to be heavily wrinkled 2 Cerebrum white inner material 3 Frontal Lobe a analysis amp emotional control b sense of time passing c high level decisionmaking d motor strip in rear where we plan to move 4 Parietal Lobe a association amp spatial processes 1 using diverse areas of memory to recognize you are where you are creating common experience or association 2 3D sense vision b somatosensory strip in front 5 7 Wednesday October 8 2014 1 making sense of tactile input from the environment 2 targeting locations of sensations on the body 3 Phantom Pain Occipital Lobe a primary visual cortex 1 initial processing in the brain of vision 2 eyes only collect light seeing is done in the back 3 refocusing and correction 4 Brain is plastic can reprogram itself Temporal Lobe a auditory cortex b place on the brain tissue that does the initial processing of sound c Five senses very much integrated 2 hemisphere 4 lobes each B Commissures 1 2 Connections between 2 hemispheres Largest connection by far corpus callosum a nearly 200 million fibers that run across the left and right sides sending signals back and forth C Ventricles and Cerebrospinal Fluid CSF 1 2 3 Vetricles means little bellies in Latin The CSF is in the ventricles The CSF also flows between the arachnoid and pia layers a At any given time there is about 12 cup of fluid b Absorbs shock contusions 1 the brain can recover plastic Wednesday October 8 2014 D Thalamus 1 from the Greek for inner chamber 2 Relays sensory information to the cortex E Limbic System 1 hypothalamus a Regulates hunger thirst sex drive etc b under 2 hippocampus a From the Greek for seahorse b Involved in memory function takes current experience and sending it into storage 3 amygdala a Greek for almond b involved in emotional responses F Brainstem 1 pons a bridge between upper brain system and lower spine b regulating states of awareness 2 medulla a From Latin for marrow b really automatic critical bodily functions breathing heartbeat 1 can be slowed down raised as need be G Cerebellum 1 not cerebrum 2 coordination of complex muscular activity 3 small brain not a spare Wednesday October 8 2014 4 gives instructions to muscles etc 5 very important basic forms of learning 6 also involved in classical conditioning a share with other organisms ll Research Techniques A Noninvasive Techniques tissues are not harmed 1 Electroencephalogram EEG a measures function as opposed to structure 1 How the brain is working b Neurons generate electrical current using sodium potassium ion pump c Able to tracesignal brain activity d Richard Caton 1875 1 Detecting in animals there is electoral activity in the body e Application of EEG sleep research 1 Tracings change via synchronization 2 As you get into deeper sleep patches of neurons become active 2 Magnetic Resonance Imaging MRI a In it s original form MRI not useful for assessing brain function b Measures structure c developed in 1970s 1 Newer open architecture d magnetic properties of body tissues 1 Massive 10ton magnet Leftbrain rightbrain kind of a gimic talk to each other all the time 3 Functional Magnetic Resonance imaging fMRI d Wednesday October 8 2014 measures function Begin to measure what parts of the brain were active more or less could monitor processing in real time developed in 1990s 1 Took advantage of improved computing power magnetic properties of oxygenated vs deoxygenated blood 1 Areas of blood flow are superimposed over MRI 2 Scan blood flow where in the brain that there is so much activity that the neurons are gobbling up the oxygenated blood 3 Brighter colors mean more activity used as research as diagnosis 4 Stroke 4 Positron Emission Tomography PET scan a measures function b uses glucose with a radioactive tag 1 Neurons are fueled by glucose and oxygen c Active areas of brain tissue temporarily absorb the radioactivity 1 As brain cells absorb glucose also absorb radioactivity d A computer scans and assembles image e Used for research and diagnosis comparisons between healthy and brain with injury or disease B Lesions damage through injury or disease 1 Phineas Gage a foreman on a railroad crew b premature detonation blasts a tamping rod through Gage s head c Accident 1848 died 1861 d Behavior changed 1 No longer able to control emotions Wednesday October 8 2014 2 Conclusion the frontal lobes control emotions 2 Paul Broca a French surgeon b first examines Tan in 1861 c Tan spoke in short words he had speech d Autopsy reveals stroke damage in a specific left hemisphere location e Conclusion Broca s area supports speech production 1 Lower frontal lobe just in front of strip 3 Carl Wernicke a German surgeon b 1874 report of lefthemisphere stroke damage 1 Upper temporal lobe just behind auditory area c Patients could neither produce nor understand meaningful speech 1 Word salad fluent but incoherent speech 2 Yet they had no hearing difficulty 3 Both Broca s and Wernicke s areas are in the left hemisphere
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