Chemical Bonding CHEM 101
Popular in Structural Chemistry, with Application to Chemistry of the Elements
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Piper Daniels on Thursday October 15, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM 101 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Mrs. Leung in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see Structural Chemistry, with Application to Chemistry of the Elements in Science at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 10/15/15
Chapter 7 Chemical Bonding Bonding Theory 1 Lewis Bond Theory gives an approximation of the molecule a Does not give correct bond angles and shape b Uses dots to represent electrons particle c Does not give correct magnetic property 2 Valence Bond Theory bridges the gap between quantum mechanics orbitals and experimentally determined structures a Valence electrons are in orbitals and bonds are formed by overlapping two halffilled orbitals 1 electron b The electrons have opposite spins to form a bond Valence Bond Theory 1 Electrons reside in quantum mechanical orbitals hybridized orbitals notjust spd and f orbitals 2 Orbitals are hybridized to generate the correct geometry around each atom Hybridization of Atomic Orbitals 1 Hybrid orbitals combininghybridizing atomic orbitals spdf to form new hybrid orbitals with the correct geometry 2 Each atom hybridizes their atomic orbitals to form hybrid orbitals gt atomic orbitals 3 Hybrid orbitals belong to one atom 4 Shape of hybrid orbitals larger lube erei tall manage with anether atem a arbital Hybridization 1 The number of atomic orbitals spdf hybridized equals the same number of hybrid orbitals generated 2 The atomic orbitals spdf hybridized determines the hybrid orbital formed a with specific energy and shape 3 Depending on the electron geometry VSEPR theory atoms will hybridize to the necessary geometry see Electron Geometry gt Hybridization 4 Orbitals being hybridized must come from the same principal shell a must contain the valence electrons b H 1s1 Hydrogen does not hybridize it just uses it s one sorbital c C 1s22s22p2 n2valence electron gt all 4 orbitals in 2s amp 2p can be hybridized i it doesn t have to use all of them but that s what is available to it Electron Geometry gt Hybridization 1 F erpN Bonds 1 N99 Linear x 2 electron groups gt sp x 2 Trigonal Planar x 3 electron groups gt sp2 x 3 Tetrahedral x 4 electron groups gt sp3 x 4 Trigonal Bipyramidal x 5 electron groups gt sp3d x 5 Octahedral x 6 electron groups gt sp3d2 x 6 Sigma bondsa overlap of orbitals along the axis of the bond a a bonds formed by overlap of hybrid orbitals or H s 1sorbital Pi bonds 3 orbitals overlap side by side a the two orbitals are parallel to one another b only porbitals 0 must be in phase with one another Sigma bonds are stronger than pi bonds because there is more orbital overlap a pibonds are broken first Single bondone sigma bond Double bondone sigma and one pi bond triple bond one sigma and two pi bonds Summary a of electron groups tells you what hybridization atom needs b Types of bondssingledoubletriple tells you how many sigma and pi bonds you need 0 Sigma bonds come from hybrid orbitals H 1s d Pi bonds come from porbitals meaning they are unhybridized e Distribute valence electrons to produce the correct number of sigma and pi bonds f Describing bonds 0 atomorbital atomorbital 717 atomp atomp
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