PSY 202 Lecture: Memory
PSY 202 Lecture: Memory 5094
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This 6 page One Day of Notes was uploaded by Julia Gladding on Monday December 15, 2014. The One Day of Notes belongs to 5094 at California State Polytechnic University taught by Ryujin, Laver in Fall2014. Since its upload, it has received 171 views. For similar materials see PSY 202 - General Psychology in Psychlogy at California State Polytechnic University.
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Date Created: 12/15/14
Monday October 20 2014 PSY 202 Week 5 Monday Lecture Memory Gary Laver l A Simple Experiment A bed rest doze crib snooze nap tired rest cot dream slumber pillow mattress B sleep was not on the list 30 recall 1 concept 2 highly suggested 3 it s fairly easy to plant a false memories a if 1 you know the mechanisms of memory and 2 the thing is fairly plausible C Percent recall 1 We do well on the first and maybe the last items 2 Middle items are more poorly recalled 3 Thus recall seems to depend on an item s place in the list a called serial position II The Serial Position Curve A If we had a results for every word we could plot them in a graph 1 The horizontal axis is the words in order 2 The vertical axis is the percent correct 3 Percent correct for each word is represented by a dot and then we connect the dots forming wide U shape a This is the serial position curve B Recency Effect Monday October 20 2014 1 Good recall for items at the end of the list 2 These are the most recent words 3 Right end of the word C Primacy Effect 1 good recall for the items at the beginning of the list a These are the first or prime 2 Left end of curve Labels aren t explanations D How Can We Explain This Curve 1 A little introspection a The recency effect 1 last itemss still in awareness easy to write down b The primacy effect 1 What did you do with the words 2 maintenance rehearsal visual imagery etc 2 Model of memory a The recency effect shortterm memory 1 STM synonymous with conscious awareness b The primacy effect long term memory 1 LTM storage for things we aren t thinking c Transfer between STM and LTM a fringe benefit of thinking about things in STM Monday October 20 2014 III A Model of Memory A Sensory Memory 1 5 Types ot Memory lntormatton very brief but accurate representation Sam mum is not trensterred Iconic a visual store quotquotquotquot to SIM it is forgotten a lasts half a second some information b Very delicate Very is trenslerred to STM easy to wipe out 50quot be rehearsed some material is quot not transterred 39 39 and thus kept to LTM ut too Echoic an auditory in SW is mgomn store Material may a lasts a few seconds Some material also a mma is transferred to LTM from LTM Supports our sense of a continuous experience and other factors may also lead to I Most information IS lost 39 mquot quot quot39 Uquot B ShortTerm Memory STM 1 39gt 7 Typically requires attention Conscious awareness Holds 7 2 items Keeping material in awareness a There are other techniques Interference from other material a New material can kick out old Decay a Without rehearsal material fades away in seconds C LongTerm Memory LTM 1 2 Processing information helps transfer it to LTM A fringe benefit of working with LTM Decay interference Monday October 20 2014 3 We are not aware of material in LTM a Far too much information to carry in awareness 4 Remembering means transferring material back to STM a Information flows between STM and LTM 5 Forgetting a Crossing out pathway from LTM to STM that is exchange of information b But we call this forgetting too D Transfer from STM to LTM a What would happen if the other path were cut 1 Could you form any new long term memories 2 Clive Wearing he is not faking a Moment tomoment consciousness i Herpes simplex virus manifested itself internally b Damage to hippocampus i Part of the limbic system c Damage to frontal lobe i Wild emotions like Phineas Gage d No transfer from STM to LTM i But he can still draw information e HM another classic example IV Other Ways to Look at Memory A Depth of Processing 1 The type of mental activity one uses influences the strength of a memory a Concept The richer more elaborate the processing to initial information the easier that information will be to recall Monday October 20 2014 b From a study by Craik amp Tulving 1975 c Participants saw a list of words one at a time 1 No hint of a later memory test very critical 2 When you see a word ask yourself this a Is the word in capital letters i Type of processing visual ii 18 recall b Does the word rhyme with date i Type of processing sound ii 78 o recall c is the word a type of fish i Type of processing categorical ii 93 recall d Does the word make sense in the sentence She met a in the street i Type of processing meaning ii 96 recall B Encoding Specificity 1 How easily information is remembered depends in part on how it was stored 2 From a study by Godden amp Baddeley 1975 a They has scuba divers study 35 words b Manipulated learning environment randomly assigned to DRY or WET condition Also manipulated recall environment randomly assigned to DRY or WET condition c Produced four groups learning environmentrecall environment 1 drydry 135 2 wetwet 114 Monday October 20 2014 3 drywet 86 4 wetdry 84 d Comparable learningtesting context in memory C Explicit vs Implicit Memory 1 Explicit memory conscious intentional recollection a eg free recall amp recognition 2 Implicit memory nonconscious unintentional demonstration of learning a eg word stem completion task 1 ABS 2 Common completions ABSENT ABSOLUTE 3 Uncommon completions ABSINTH ABCISSA