PSY 202 Lecture: Aging
PSY 202 Lecture: Aging 5094
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This 6 page One Day of Notes was uploaded by Julia Gladding on Monday December 15, 2014. The One Day of Notes belongs to 5094 at California State Polytechnic University taught by Ryujin, Laver in Fall2014. Since its upload, it has received 132 views. For similar materials see PSY 202 - General Psychology in Psychlogy at California State Polytechnic University.
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Date Created: 12/15/14
Monday November 17 2014 PSY 202 Week 9 Monday Lecture Psychology of Aging Debra ValenciaLaver Aging is muti dimensiona and muti directiona l Studying aging A Who do we study 1 Those over 65 a In 2010 402 million people in the US were 65 13 of the population b By 2050 885 million people in the US will be 65 1 Graph online 2 Young old 6075 year olds a Often white middleclass and healthy b May limit generalizability of research results 3 oldold 85 a Among the fastest growing segments of the population b Currently 58 million 19 of the US population are 85 c By 2050 19 million 43 of the population will be 85 d predominantly female 257 women100 men more physical and mental impairments e g arthritis diabetes Alzheimer39s more poverty B What Do We Study 1 Physical cognitive emotional 39gt 3 social changes with age Monday November 17 2014 Life expectancy differs as a function of one39s country and living conditions In Physical Aging general people living in those countries that are wealthier have longer life expectancies A Patterns in life expectancy have not been constant 1 Life expectancy in the US has increased from 473 years in 1900 to about 78 years today B Gender and ethnicracial differences in life expectancy 1 The gender difference favoring females cuts across ethnicracial groups C Life expectancy vs maximum life span 1 maximum life span is estimated to be about 120 years for humans a Misao Okawa oldest person in the world at 116 years 2 Can we extend the maximum life span a Dr Roy Walford and calorie restriction 1 restricted calories but full nutrition 2 No longterm experimental tests with humans 3 2012 NIH study with rhesus monkeys show no lifespan gains but the diets were better for both the control and experimental group 4 Both a diet and exercise are important for good health as we age D Summary Pathways to healthy physical aging 1 Good diet exercise good habits eg using a good sunscreen access to physical and mental health care supportive social relationships 2 Can help despite gender racialethnic SES differences in life expectancy 3 it39s never too late or too early to begin lll Research Methods How do we study aging 3 methods Monday November 17 2014 Crosssectional research a Comparisons and contrasts are made among participants of various ages at one point in time 1 Compares groups of different ages b Age differences may be generational differences 1 Cohort effect Longitudinal research a Comparisons and contrasts are made among the same participants at various ages 1 Studies the same group of people as they age b Participants my drop out or die changing the sample 1 Mortality effect Crosssequential research a Crosssectional samples are followed longitudinally adding new cross sectional samples as the study progresses 1 Combines both longitudinal and cross sectional components by measuring age differences and age changes b Allows checks for cohort effects and subject mortality c Robustness in design d Seattle Longitudinal Study Summary a Crosssectional research 1 Measures age differences but cohort effects b Longitudinal research 1 Measures age changes but subject mortality c Crosssequential research Monday November 17 2014 1 Measures age differences amp age changes but largest costs in time and money IV Cognitive Aging A Two kinds of intelligence 1 crystallized intelligence knowledge and skills built up over a lifetime eg vocabulary math skills fluid intelligence ability to use new information to solve problems digit span processing speed B Summary of Aging Patterns 1 crosssectionaI decline in fluid abilities beginning in one39s 2039s stability or increase in crystallized abilities longitudinal slower rates of decline than with crosssectional studies crosssequential by age 60 almost everyone declines on at least 1 ability 60 on 2 but only 12 on 3 or more abilities a some restoration of abilities C A brief note on Alzheimer39s Disease 1 most common of all dementias a affects 10 of those 65 about 50 of those 85 b 6th leading cause of death in the US c E an inevitable part of aging Incredibly devastating disease for all a 52 million are living with Alzheimer39s in the US will increase to 16 million by 2050 b Costs are estimated at 200 billion annually V Emotional Aging A Personality Stability Monday November 17 2014 1 5 factor model OCEAN a openness conscientiousness extroversion agreeableness neuroticism b relatively stable little change across a 30 year longitudinal measurement especially after age 30 c research continues including crosscultural which shows stability B Personality Change 1 Evidence from thematic approaches 2 Erik Erikson39s 8 stage psychosocial theory a Need a healthy dose of the negative b Generativity vs StagnationSelfAbsorption middle age 1 One seeks a sense of contributing to the world through for example family and work c Integrity vs Despair late adulthood 1 One reflects on life and experiences and a sense of satisfaction for a life well led or a sense of failure for missed opportunities 3 not wellsupported though other models are more promising C Summary 1 Personality Stability vs Change a trait vs thematic approaches b more evidence for trait approaches and relative stability of personality 2 Research continues a May be bothand Vl Social Aging A Social development Considerations 1 Fewerage related social milestones eg marriage parenthood retirement than in the past social clock Monday November 17 2014 2 multiple roles and also encounter multiple transitions in aging 3 can be sources of stress even when positive B Social development Intimate relationships 1 long term relationships a Components of 3939love3939 passion friendship and commitment b Good marriages are characterized by companionate love deep friendship and commitment less conflict VII Final Thoughts A Aging is multidimensional E multidirectional B quotTo know how to grow old is the master work of wisdom and one of the most difficult chapters in the great art of living Henri Amiel C Live Long and Prosper