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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mr. Lulu Kshlerin on Thursday October 15, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CRIJ101 at Messiah College taught by KellyWaltman-Spreha in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 99 views. For similar materials see /class/223504/crij101-messiah-college in Criminal Justice at Messiah College.
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Date Created: 10/15/15
Uniform Crime Reporting UCR Program statistical reporting program about the incidence and rate of reported crimes around the US National Crime Victimization Survey NCVS annual survey to determine the extent of criminal victimization Bureau of Justice Statistics BJS agency responsible for the collection of data National Incident Based Reporting System NIBRS collects detailed data on every single crime occurrence Violent Crime includes rape murder robbery and aggravated assault Property Crime includes burglary larcenytheft motor vehicle theft and arson Clearance rate measure of investigative effectiveness that compares the number of crimes reported or discovered to the number of crimes solved through arrest or other means Murder unlawful killing of a human being Part I offenses used to report murder rape robbery aggravated assault burglary larcenytheft motor vehicle theft and arson Rape unlawful sexual intercourse achieved through force and without consent Forcible rape knowledge of a female forcibly and against her will Sexual battery intentional and wrongful physical contact with a person without consent Date rape unlawful forced sexual intercourse with a female against her will that occurs within a dating relationship Robbery unlawful taking or attempted taking of property that is in the immediate possession of another by forceviolence Assault unlawful attack by one person against another Aggravated assault unlawful intentional in icting of serious injury upon the person of another Burglary unlawful entry of a structure to commit a felony or a theft Identity theft crime in which an importer obtains key pieces of information to obtain credit merchandise and services Larceny theft unlawful taking from the possession or constructive possession of another Motor vehicle theft theft or attempted theft of a motor vehicle Arson willful burning or attempt to burn to any personal property Part II offenses offense group used to report arrests for less serious offenses Dark gure of crime crime that isn t reported to the police and remains unknown to officials Crime typology classi cation of crimes along a particular dimension Stalking repeated harassing by one indiVidual against another Cyber stalking use of the Internet email and other electronic communication technology to stalk another person Hate crime criminal offense committed against a person by the offender s race religion disability sexual orientation or ethnicity Corporate crime Violation of a criminal statute by a corporate entity or by its executives White collar crime Violations of the criminal law committed by a person of high social status of their occupation Organized crime unlawful actiVities of members of a highly organized association engaged in supplying illegal goods or services Transnational Organized crime unlawful actiVity undertaken and supported by organized criminal groups operating across national boundaries Cybercrime crime perpetrated through the use of a computer Chapter 3 Vocab Deviance violation of social norms de ning appropriate behavior under a particular set of circumstances Theory set of interrelated propositions that attempt to describe and control some class of events It s strengthened by its logical consistency and is tested by how well it describes and predicts reality Hypothesis explanation that accounts for a set of facts that can be tested by further investigation Research use of standardized procedures in the search for knowledge Interdisciplinary Theory approach that integrates a variety of theoretical viewpoints in an attempt to explain something Classical School 18111 century approach to crime causation and criminal responsibility that grew out of the Enlightenment and emphasized the role of free will and reasonable punishments Neoclassical criminology contemporary version of classical criminology that emphasizes deterrence and retribution and that holds that human beings are essentially free to make choices in favor of crime and deviance or conformity to the law Rational choice theory perspective on crime causation that holds that criminality is the result of conscious choice Predicts that individuals will choose to commit crime when the benefits of doing so outweigh the costs of disobeying the law Routine activities theory neoclassical perspective that suggests that lifestyles contribute significantly to both the amount and the type of crime found in any society Biological School perspective on criminological thought that holds that criminal behavior has a physiological basis Phrenology study of the shape of the head to determine anatomical correlates of human behavior Atavism condition characterized by the existence of features thought to be common in earlier stages of human evolution Positivist School approach to criminal justice theory that stresses the application of scientific techniques to the study of crime and criminals Somatotyping classification of human beings into types according to body build and other physical characteristics Supermale human male displaying the XYY chromosome structure Psychological School perspective on criminological ought that views offensive and deviant behavior as e product of dysfunctional personality Behavioral conditioning principle that holds that the frequency of any behavior can be increased or decreased through reward punishment and association with other stimuli Psychoanalysis a theory of human behavior that sees personality as a complex composite of interacting mental entities Psychopathology study of pathological mental conditions that is mental illness Psychopath person with a personality disorder especially one manifested in antisocial behavior Psychosis form of mental illness in which sufferers are said to be out of touch with reality Schizophrenic mentally ill individual who suffers from disjointed thinking Psychological profiling attempt to categorize understand and predict the behavior of certain types of offenders based on clues they provide Dangerousness likelihood that a given individual will later harm society Chicago School sociological approach that emphasizes demographics and geographics Social disorganization condition said to exist when a group faced with social change uneven development of culture Anomie socially pervasive condition of normlessness Defensive space theory belief that an area s physical features be modified and structured so as to reduce crime rates in that area Broken windows thesis perspective on crime causation that holds physical deterioration of an area leads to higher crime rates Reaction formation process where by a person openly rejects that which he or she wants Subculture of violence cultural setting in which violence is a traditional and often accepted method of resolution Social process theory perspective on criminological that highlights the process of interaction between interactions between individuals and society Social learning theory perspective that says that people learn how to behave by modeling themselves after others whom they have the opportunity to observe Containment aspects of the social bond and of the personality that act to prevent individuals from committing crimes and engaging in deviance Labeling theory social process perspective that sees continued crime as a consequence of the limited opportunities for acceptable behavior Moral enterprise process undertaken by an advocacy group to have its values legitimated and embodied in law Social development theory integrated view of human development that points to the process of interaction among and between individuals and society as the root cause of criminal justice Life course perspective approach to explaining crime and deviance developments and turning points in the course of a persons life Con ict perspective approach that holds that crime is the natural consequence of economic and other social inequities Radical criminology con ict perspective that sees crime as engendered by the unequal distribution of wealth power and other resources Peacemaking criminology perspective that holds that crime control agencies and the citizens they serve should work together to alleviate social problems Feminist criminology developing intellectual approach that emphasizes gender issues in criminology Constitutive criminology study of the process which human beings create an ideology of crime that sustains the notion of crime as a reality Postmodern criminology branch of criminology that developed after WW2 and that builds on the tenets of postmodern social thought Deconstructionist theory emerging approaches that challenges existing criminological perspectives to debunk them and that works toward replacing them Chapter 5 Sworn of cer law enforcement officer who is trained and empowered to perform full police duties such as making arrests Municipal police department city or town based law enforcement agency Sheriff elected chief officer of a county law enforcement agency Private protective service independent commercial organization that provides protective services to employers Chapter 6 Crime prevention anticipation of crime risk and initiation of action to eliminate it Quality of life minor Violation of the law that demoralizes community residents Response time measure of the time that it takes for police officers to respond to calls for service Criminal investigation process of discovering collecting preparing identifying evidence to determine what happened Crime scene physical area in which a crime is thought to have occurred and in which evidence of the crime is thought to reside Bill of Rights the popular name given to the first 10 amendments to the US constitution Landmark case precedentsetting court decision that produces substantial changes both in the understanding of the requirements of due process and in daytoday operations of the judicial system Illegally seized evidence evidence seized without regard t o the principles of due process as described by the Bill of Rights Exclusionary Rule understanding based on the US Supreme Court that incriminating information must be seized according to constitutional specifications or it wont be allowed as evidence Writ of certiorari writ issued from an appellate court for the purpose of obtaining a lower court the record of its proceedings on a particular case Fruit of the poisonous tree doctrine legal principle that excludes from introduction at trial any evidence later developed as a result of an illegal search Good faith exception an exception to the exclusionary rule can conduct a search or seize under good faith Probable cause set of facts that would induce someone to believe that someone had committed a crime Plain View legal term describing the visibility of something that might be seized as evidence during a search by police in the absence of a search warrant Emergency search search conducted by police without a warrant justified on the basis of some immediate and overriding need such as public safety Anticipatory warrants search warrant issued on the basis of probable cause Arrest at of taking someone into custody Search incident to an arrest warrantless search of an arrested individual to ensure safety of arresting officer Reasonable suspicion level of suspicion that would justify an officer in making further inquiry or in conducting further investigation Fleeting Targets exception exception to the exclusionary rule that permits law enforcement of cers to search a motor vehicle based on probable cause and without a warrant Compelling interest legal concept that provides a basis for suspicionless searches when public safety is at stake Suspicionless search search conducted by law enforcement without a warrant and without suspicion Interrogation informationgathering activity of police officers that involve the direct questioning of suspects Inherent coercion tactics used by police interviewers that falls short of physical abuse Psychological manipulation manipulative actions by police interviewers that are designed to pressure suspects to divulge information that are based on subtle forms of information Miranda warning advisement of rights due criminal suspects by the police before questioning begins