Radiographic Imaging Equipment
Radiographic Imaging Equipment RADS 1513
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This 43 page Class Notes was uploaded by Henri Cartwright on Thursday October 15, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to RADS 1513 at Midwestern State University taught by Gary Morrison in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 44 views. For similar materials see /class/223505/rads-1513-midwestern-state-university in Radiologic at Midwestern State University.
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Date Created: 10/15/15
Basic Radiation Concepts This unit will provide a basic understanding of atomic theory energy and Xray properties Branches of Science Natural Science Branches of Science There are many other branches of scienti c tudy throughout the World but these are the most important to the radiologic technologisw 7 r7 7 Anatomy 7 study ofthe structure of organisms 7 Physiology 7 study ororganism functions especially organ systems 7 Biology 7 study of all forms oflife stry 7 study ofatomic particles matter amp their interactions 7 physics 7 study ofphysical world amp laws governing all physical objects 7 Radiology 7 study orradioactive particles at their properties Matter 0 Anything that has mass occupies space and has shape or form 0 Measured by its mass 7 The quantity of matter in an obj ect Matter has mass whether it is a gas liquid or a solid Mass vs Weight I Mass is I Weight is 7 Measured in Kilograms 7 Force exerted on a 7 Represents the weight body by a gravitatiOnal ofa standard piece of eld platinumiridium 7 Can Vary according to 7 Equal to 1000ch of environment eti es us d Remains constant interchangeably with regardless of mass but not the same environment Matter 2 Structure of Matter Mixture the combination of two or more substances ce 7 any material with a de nite constant composition Elements Simplest forms ofsubstances that compose matter Cannot be broken down into simpler parts by ordinary means Each element has only one unique type ofatom in it with a set number ofprotons There are 92 naturallyoccurring elements amp over a dozen manmade elements The Periodic Table The Periodic Table Similar Atomic Atoms I I Matter is composed ofbasic building blocks called atoms I Atom is the smallest particle ofan element that still possesses the chemical properties of that elemth I The atom is the smallest form of looks something ike this Atoms I The three particles which make up the atom are 7 Protons I Found in nuclei I All atoms have at least one 7 Neutrons I Found in nuclei Found in all elements except Hydroge 7 Electrons Found orbiting in electron shells max of7 aroundnuclei Structure of Atoms Compounds 0 Made by the chemical combination of two or more elements in de nite proportions 7 Complex substances 7 They are entirely different substances not just amix oftwo ormore elements lonic bond an electron from one atom transfers to another atom Covalent bond two atoms share electrons which revolve around both nuclei Molecules The chemical combination of two or more ATOMS the smallest particle ofa compound that still possesses the characteristics ofthe compound Basic Rules of Particles Shell 7 the orbital distance the electron is from the nucleus Kshell 7 the orbital shell closest to the nucleus The shells are named in order K L M N O P Q aximum number of electrons that can occupy a shell is found by 2n2 Electron Binding Energy 7 each electron is bound to the nucleus by its oWn energy level This is the amount of energy required to free the electron from its orbit Measured in electron Volts eV Basic Rules of Particles I Valence 7 the number of electrons in the outermost shell of an atom 7 Ifan atom gives up an electron in areaction it is said to have a positive valence protons outnumber electrons 7 Ifan atom gains an electron in a reaction it is said to have a negative valence electrons outnumber protons I Octet Rule 7 the number ofelectrons m the outermost she11 can never exceed 8 An atom with 8 electrons in the outer shell is chemically stable I Ionization the process oftuming an atom into an ion Occurs when an electron is added or taken away changing the electrical charge ofthe atom Basic Terms ofAtomic Theory I Isotope 7 a new atom created by the gain or loss ofa neutron I Positive Ion 7 created when an atom loses an electron I Negative Ion 7 created when an atom gains an electron I Atomic Mass Unit 7 amu the combined mass ofthe particles ofan atom I Atomic Number 7 the number ofprotons in the atom to Number 7 used in place of amu when precision is not necessary Indicates the number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus Chemical Shorthand Atomic mass number A 4 Chemical symbol Atomic number Z Energy M 0 The ability to do WORK 0 Measured in electron Volts eV 0 All types of matter have the ability to change their form amp shape but they need energy to accomplish this Energy 0 The law of conservation of energy states that energy is neither created nor destroyed but is only changed from one form to another Work 2 Work FORCE X distance an object is moved The term used for the application of force to an object The joule is the derived unit of measurement of work F orce Force mass X acceleration iBecause ofinertia force is needed to start an object moving and because of momentum force is needed to stop an object that is already moving iForce can be imparted from one object to another Inertia The property of an object with mass to resist a change in its state of motion Momentum 2 The product of mass amp the velocity at which the mass is moving The law of conservation of momentum states that momentum resulting from an object in motion is not lost unless an outside force acts upon it Types of Energy Potential energy 7 the capacity of an object to do work based on its position weight etc Kinetic energy 7 the energy of motion Chemical energy 7 the energy released during a chemical reaction Electrical energy 7 the energy of moving electrons usually through a wire Types ofEnergy 0 Thermal energy 7 the energy of heat amp motion at the molecular level 0 Nuclear energy 7 the energy contained in the nucleus of an atom Electromagnetic energy 7 the energy of charged particles manipulated through an electric current The Electromagnetic Spectrum Radiowaves 7 long wavelength low frequency Microwaves 7 shorter wavelength slightly higher frequency lnfared light 7 radiant heat Visible light 7 smallest segment of spectrum The Electromagnetic Spectrum Ultraviolet 7 causes molecular interactions lnfared visible light amp UV light make up a very small section of the electromagnetic spectrum amp are located directly in the middle ofthe spectrum I Xrays 7 manmade radiation The energy level at Which the Waves travel is very 39 h I Gamma rays 7 shortest Wavelength highest frequency I UV X and Gamma are the only EM radiations With ability to ionize remove an electron from an atom WaveParticle Duality I Electromagnetic Radiation has properties of both a Wave and a particle EM travels through space as a Wave a disturbance in space They are unique in that no medium is required High end EM acts as a particle in that it has the ability to ionize u E More on Waves Wavelength The length of one wave measured from the top of one wave to the top of the next 0 Wavelength 9 velocity cfrequency 1 IM Velocity 0 How far an object travels in a speci ed period of time 0 A property common to all EM radiation 0 Waves in the electromagnetic spectrum all travel at the same velocity the speed of light c or 3 X 108 ms Velocityc frequencyox Wavelengtha Frequency 0 The number of waves that go by in one second 0 Frequencyv velocity cwavelengtht Hertz HZ is the SI unit of measurement for frequency 0 1 Hz l cycles lsec Amplitude The distance from peak to valley 0 Indicates the intensity energy of the wave Properties of Xrays 0 Highly penetrating invisible rays in the form of electromagnetic radia ion Electrically neutral electric amp magnetic fields do not affect em Can be produced over a wide variety of energies amp wavelengths Release heat when passing through matter thermal transfer 0 Travel in straight lines Properties of Xrays 0 Travel at the speed of light 3 X 108 ms 0 Can ionize matter causing biologic amp chemical changes 0 Cause fluorescence of light sensitive crystals 0 Cannot be focused by a lens refracted Affect amp cause images on photographic film 0 Produce secondary amp scatter radiation Radioactivity 0 A general term referring to the processes in which some unstable atoms emit particles amp energy 7 Radiate from the atom 7 Results from atoms with unstable nuclei that contain too much energy Radioactivity Electromagnetic energy is pure energy not particles with mass Has properties ofboth electricity amp magnetic energy travels at the speed of light 7 Alpha particles on two protons bound to two neutrons 39th no electrons 7 Beta particles 3 tiny particles similar to electrons that form inside the nucleus ofan unstable a m has anegative charge amp is instantly ejected from the positivelycharged nucleus 7 Photons particles of energythat have no mass Gamma y rays are streams of photons Radioactivity amp HalfIi e I The length oftime it takes for halfthe atoms in an element to decay Halflives are used to measure the quantity of radioactivity e Becquerel is the SI unit to measure radioactive decay one decay eventsec r Curie is the old unit ofmeasure 37000000000 3 70 x 101 nuclei decaying in one second 7 1 Curie 3 7x 101UBq Xray Circuits Generators and Equipment This unit will be an introduction into the x ray circuitry and various types of x ray equipment Diagnostic Radiographic Equipment 0 All diagnostic Xray equipment have three basic components 7 the Xray tube discussed later 7 the operation console 7 the highvoltage generator Diagnostic Radiographic Equipment 0 Comes in a variety of configurations to meet the speci c needs of the technologist Some different types of diagnostic Xray michines are L 51 7 omography Q r 7 Urology 6Lltj 7 Mammography k l 7Portable Xray Tables 0 Fixed pedestal 39 Floating movable in all directions 39 Tilting 39 Some have attachments to help with exams 7 Shoulder supports 7 Side rails Xray Tube Supports 39 A variety of con gurations 7 Wallm ounted 7 Floorm ounted 7 Floortoceiling 7 Overhead suspension 7 Mobile xray tubes 7 Carm xray tubes The Control Panel 0 Three primary controls 7 7 kVp quality 7 mA 7 Time s 0 Auxiliary controls anatomical programs and ABC controls quantity Main Xray Circuit 0 Two divisions to the main Xray circuit 7 Primary or control console section Incoming current Exposure switch Autotransformer Primary Winding of the stepup transformer 7 Secondary or high voltage section Secondary stepup transformer FullWave recti cation circuits Wiring leading to amp from the xray tube Main Xray Circuit Primary Secondary Filament Xray Circuit mA Selector r is a Rheostat variable resistor r Adjusts resistance and is represented by the mA stations on the control pane Filament stepdown transformer r Responsible for changing Haiti Small u amps into milliamps imam lament m Recti cation Process of converting alternating current AC to direct current DC Required to ensure electron ow in one direction 7 from cathode to anode 7 Halfwave quot 7 Two redt ers increase heat load capacity and protect the xray tube Recti cation iFullWave 7 Four recti ers create a routing system sending electrons through the xray tube the same Way every time in effect creating DC Characteristics of Incoming Line Power Incoming line power may be 110 or 220 volts and 60 Hz in the US and Canada The usual voltage taken by the equipment is 210220v A May need an additional transformer to stabilize incoming voltage Characteristics of Incoming Line Current 39 Phasing 7 Singlephase 7 Threephase six pulse 7 Threephase twelve pulse 39 High Frequency SinglePhase Power Allows the potential of the main current to drop down to zero with every change of the current ow It has a single A wave form ThreePhase Power 39 Has three waves of power owing at evenly spaced intervals from each other 7 One wave is starting before the previous wave is depleted A 7 The overall waveform never VP reaches zero 1H2 How Phases Affect Generator Output 0 Single phase mode 7the voltage always drops down to zero 7 100 ripple How Phases Affect Generator Output 0 Three phase 71ndividual voltages drop to zero but there is always an overlap of wave pulses 7Wher1 wave pulses are rectified the average value never drops to zero I Makes xray A production more V L ef cient 232 I Easier on the equipment Tlme 4 How Phases Affect Generator Output 0 Threephase 6pulse 7 produces a 13 voltage ripple 7 voltage supply to xray tube never falls below 87 of maximum value 0 Threephase12pulse WWW n m n PM 7 4 voltage ripple is produced Full wave Km 7 value of the vol ge 19m km N we never falls below 96 quotX quot53 of maximum value I l s 4 Ha z mum J l lt we How Phases Affect Generator Output There is also a high frequency generator that produces less than 1 voltage ripple Value never falls below 99 of maximum value Uses inverter circuits to convert DC to a series of square pulses and capacitor banks to smooth voltage Hullwave quotm Fullwnve 0 3333 l l W 11 5 5qu l L 5 Highfmqven f L m 1 what we have in our labs Capacitor Discharge Mobile Units A capacitor builds up a charge when the circuit is closed when exposure button is pushed When preselected charge is reached the capacitor completes the circuit amp sends the charge to the x ray tube Disadvantage xray production falls off throughout exposure end kV is approx 1 kV per mAs lower than starting kVp BatteryOperated Mobile Units A nickelcadmium battery supplies the necessary charge to produce quality x rays Production is of higher quality 7 They obtain higher rms voltage 7 No possibility of leakage 7 Combined with High Freq Technology 7 Mobile was first to benefit from High Freq rms root mean square 7 calculation that takes in to account the constant uctuation o the AC sine wave See pg 69 of Carlton FallingLoad Generators 0 Used to provide the highest mA settings at the shortest time possible 7 The operator selects mAs setting 7 The computer automatically calibrates the time of exposure allowing consistently shorter exposures 7 The mA is therefore controlled by the fallingload generator 7 The mA starts at the highest possible setting and falls throughout the exposure This causes the kV to uctuate slightly throughout exposure Can shonen tube life due to constant use ofhigh mA Automatic Exposure Control AECTimers Photomultiplier 01d type 7 Uses a uorescent screen amp converm the light produced by the screen to an electrical charge 7 When a preselected charge is reached the photomultiplier terminates the exposure 7 Must be located behind the film Automatic Exposure Control AEC Timers Ionization chamber 7 Uses radiolucent material located in front ofthe lm 7 As xrays pass through cell they ionize the cell When preset ionization level is reached signal is generated to terminate exposure 7 Cells must be calibrated to a particular lmscreen combination When inst ed 7 The body part in front ofthe cell determines hoW long it takes for the preset ionization level to be reached Problems with Minimum Reaction Time I The time needed for the AEC amp generator to terminate an exposure also called response time 7 Short exposure times must be long enough to get a reading from the AEC amp to the generator I It is easy for the machine to overexpose the radiograph i311 quot quot 1 w I Fast lm amp screen speeds also contribute to this problem I I This Was a problem With older units and is less of a factor today x Backup Timers with AECs I A safety deVice used to terminate the exposure if the AEC fails to do so I As a rule the backup timer cannot exceed the tube limit amp it should be set at 150 of the expected manual exposure mAs w Manual Timers I Synchronous timer 7 uses a synchronous motor that turns a sha at 60 rps times are a subdivision ofthis 160 120 130 Electronic timer 7 most sophisticated and most accurate based on time required to char e a capacitor through a Variable resistor Accurate down to lms I mAs timer 7 used With falling load generators monitors product of mA and time tube current and is the only timer located in the secondary circuit Tomography 05 7 o enhance d1 visualization of s tures in aplane ofinterest by blurring adjacent structures nclple 7 by moving are xray tube and lm in opposite directions a plane is visualized anhe fulcrum pivot point 7 Structures beyund the fulcrum travel dxstance acruss the lm and are blurre 7 Structures atthe fulcrum travel alesser dxstance a russ the lm and remain relatxvely fucused a greater d Tomography wee men A bum Naccmw mm Tomography Considerations 7 e wr er are tomographic are are thinner are cut 30 740 degrees typical 7 Must have an exposure time long enough to long exposure time Example 20 mA 2 see 40 m 7 Tomography has a high patient dose NM 39 e cm divide answer by3 and add 1 for rst cut Tomography Motions 7 Linear is still in use today primarily for IVPs 7 Other motions Were designed and used prior to CT and MRI to improve blurring and get better images see text for examples and descriptions of motions Electricity and 394 fl Electromagnetism 3 a V a 4 This unit will explain the basic 1 concepts and properties 1 electricity and electromagnetism v x Electricity can be converted to a variety of other useful forms of energy suc as emical mechanical 8 thermal is made up of positive 8 negative The electron has one unit of negative charge The proton has one unit of positive charge I Since electrons or t the nucleus 8 are 1 held at different hi ing energies the 39 outer shell electrons are often free to travel from one atom s outer shell to the next K 0 Electrostatics is the study of electric charges in stationary form Unlike charges attract like charges repel a Charges reside on the external surface of conductors and equally throughou nonconductors Electric charges are concentrated along the est curvature of an object s surface Only negative charges are free to move in solid conductors Three Methods of Electrification 4 l 0 Friction 4 Bul up of electrons caused by rub ng two objects together 5 ng feet on carpet in winter The electrons rapidly transfer from one object to the other causing a bu dup 4 Li Three Methods of Electrification 4 w o Contact 4 T Connection between two objects causing electron w a One obj has an abundance of electrons 1 e ciency h rou contact there is an eguallzation otgcharges touching sibling on the ear after sliding on carpet in wi e Using the electroma netic field of a charged object to in uce a charge in a neutral object This is how we rotate the anode of the xray tube discussed later Insults r Memo when m n u gelashlek as a 39an n s e ne arrthe s a slgnlllcint mm 5 Iulh a 4 Electrodynamics I L The study nf electric charges It mntinn Elec rc current moves along a wlre creatlng a llow ol electrons along the wire Electric current 3 electron llow always 39n opposited ct ns 1 Units of Measure for i Electrodynamics 4 Electrical Properties of 311 Materials 115 plastlc ngh reslstance to rubber glass Iecmm llaw on m 515 em 9 mucts or condltlans Ohm s Law Conductors obey Ohm39s Law The total voltage in a circuit or a y rt39o 1 n po I n of that circ equal to the current times the res tance v 1 741 IR voltagecurrent x resistance er39 s circuit elements are wired in any a single conductor circuit elements quotbridgequot or Par hranc across a conductor Rules for Calculating in a Series Circuit or Cal ulating in a Circuit maten s the nrhital eieetmns nf redn inater nne directinn creating magnetic pales each atnm became a tiny magnet Imps nf atnms with similar nrientatinn a th r i magnetic ng nut tnne e inmains J a H in The Nature of Magnetism cont d Magnetic domains are generally disorganized a owing a ma ne lc material to exist in a nonmagnetized state 0 When the magnetic material is 4 T magnetized the domains are 3 organized creating a net north and I 71 south pole quots T ese laws are similar to laws of electrostatics Every magnet has 2 poles Like poles repel u 39 e poles attract The force of attrac on or repulsion between 2 magnetic poles vari s directly with the strength of the poles or inversely with the square of the distance between them 4 in Classifying Magnetic Materials 4 n 1 according to the origin of their 5 s that are magnetized by In over long periods or time substances that are given agnetic cnarge usually by exposing them to an electromagnet must be able to hold a inague liarge on their own lor an extended period or time llterllelllg magnetized 39 wire wrapped aroun 39 ar ed a ma lief d is cre tnc current is directly proportional to tire strength or tile magnetic eld 4 In Types of Magne c Materials 1 r Demure enemy repenee py were 43 reps 1 eeerymnrmeen Ianmagnetic e not allected by megneue 1 1 meme out man vlmlc motlomu nicky runner m em estrangly enremea by k I ram gnetlc ranly sugnuy In uenced by ternal magnetic llelds Gam nlum ere When the en ed WIrE IS charged WI I I an electnm flnw A magnetlclleld larms s nreves through me centeralthe call 39 le nrere turns the call has In n the stronger the magnetic lleld wIll he 1 T 2 Electromagnets 3 r Eleclrnmannet A r e A erramagnetlc material wreppea n e callalwlre m m magmuemm mm vaun n n s lemld call 5 a n In the same Ian 5 pattern newever the ramagnet Is censmereply stranger Fleming s Hanll Rules f l Electromagnetic Relationships refer to text forl Ilstrations m n u n nd M v w ea Mow lhum rule um rule Hers mlnneue eha n l 5e minthand althand thumb rule thumb rule Righthand Len ham generator rule generator rule Inda39mner mmreraa Mhame nner mannered m Lenhand Righthand mater rule mater rule Fleming s Hanll Rules cont ll r Example nf nhthand thumb rule u n efl hand emnnslrale the same car eleetmn flnw 1 Magnetic and Electromagnetic Induc n 1 Magnetic Induction eeeurs when a Iernrrnagneue erra s placed nearastreng rnagneue lleld e gnu ie n m u ur n s um 1 7 What causes Electromagnetic Induction 4 i Magnet may be moved back 8 forth near a coil of wire Coil of Wire may he moved back 8 forth in front of a magnet Electromagnet can be fixed near a coil of wire urren pplied to the electromagnet current wlll be induced into the coil of wire agnetic the coiled wire Self Induction Q Selfinduc is the induction of an opposing EMF in a ngle coil by its own changing eld urrent example Ac fl wing through a the current flows first In one direction field is created Fleming s right n the current changes cycle the old created with the new rec ion of current flow again Flem g s righthand thumb rule Th The effect is a magnetic r hack and forth through the same coil creating a hack EMF Electromotive force EMF potential difference measured in Volts I 3 Mutual Induction a 4 0 The induction of an EMF in a sec electromagnet and va current therefore magnetic field of the electromagnet 0 By varying the current we cause the associated magnetic field to fluctuate and cut back and forth through the secondary coil This s cutting action induces a current in 4 Ti the secondary c A 3 Factors of Induction Strength 0 fi The strength of the magnetlc field 39 The velocity of the magnetlc field as It moves past the conduc or t T The angle of the conductor to the f magne lc field The number of turns in the conductor Example of an AC Generator see text for more examples and lllustratlans e A leep el wlre ls related manually and ems the llnes el magnetquot flux force 7 The wave arm has a new Direct Current Dc Generator see text ler examples and lllustratlans hg h anty by bleath canac just as us apem to change Ira pesmve to negauve 1 Ac to r see text or enm es and illnslraiions All At mnlnr Ill 39 ill a d In III current the is cnnslanl y Id causes the wire Imust in an effnrt the external Used In increase nr decrease electric pnlenlial vnllage stepup translormer ii the voltage is reased stepdown transiormer ii the voltage is decreased e the mutual induction principle 4 n Require A0 to function a 75 Calculatlng Voltage and 4 Amperage in Transforlners V voltage N 5 seconda Transformer Law for Voltage is A U dlrect relationship Transformer Law for current is 1 T nverse relationship I The Transformer Law for Voltage and current an nverse relallonslip Transformer Efficiency and Construction 39 closedcore transformer a square donut of magnetic material two separate windings on opposite sides 1 of the square Autotransforlner a gle rod of magnetic material with a slngle winding of wire used only for selfinduction only small steps in voltage charge thus not suitable for lhe ligh voltage clanges ol the may macll39ne used as kV seleclor in 4 Transformer Efficiency and f Construction f Looks like a cinder block tile brick square shape with a rod in the center all one piece of material windings attach to the center rod the square shell strengthens the magnetic field of the primary winding most useful 8 effi ent type of transformer for us xray equipment 3 Capacitors 0 Q 0 Capacitor 4 1 A device used to temporarily hold a charge of electricity until a certain level is 39 c e a which point the charge is then A TV is an example of the use of a capaci or When you turn yourTV on you heara click This click is the release of the capacitor A charge builds until a certain volta e is obtained amp releases the charge to complete the circlli 4 in Recti cation 4 0 The process of changing Ac into Dc 0 Like a oneway routing system 0 Remember transformers need Ac 4 to work but the xray tube needs 3 Dc l 0 Rec ers are used to route each half of an A0 cycle through the x 39 ray tube correctly formed by onhased se e II Iquot Gryshls Ill 11 WI Hype has open spaces called holes that allawthe electrons to m n them m m u an a ntype has looselyhound electmns Inside n m anquot um a 39s the modern new rectifier a i SolidState Rectifiers Cont39d d I a The pn junction is where these two 1 w types of sem conductors meet current is appl u tn the ptype side grate acrnss tnejunctmn and current ilnws t39ve current is used an the n no current llaw across the unmlan A 1 A a 391 any 44 a AVA s 4413 3 a Eleclrnn flnw s frnm nepa e la pus e x a l Waveforms of Rest cation 3 Half wave self rent Ication 1 l w evenly spaced humps ve wave slmply cancelled nut nk space I n pmecl the xray r q Fu wave rectlficatmn i l A full neverend ng sel nf pnsilive waves pn ve c a e e pap Resemhle a ne nf can lnllnllsly Sorry I thought that I had a set of photos that a previous student had done This is the best I could do 1 Front View 53 Contmi panei lt2 Dryer section 3 Electricai comgonents W WWW 6 3 Res VIaw 2Piping Line Warn MW iram vainK mm me 31am 9m 3mg gm 1 Dryer vent outlet Sly dm r am Wate39 smally m 12 tzumsmal m 6 mmectie m 1 External 3 has mi mmeuw g a39 3 Right Side View From the control panel side CD Developer circulation pump 2 Fixer circuiation pump Dryer oxhausf hose 39 5 3 Processing oxhaust hose 6 Emmi 6 Wash water W solenoid valve 23 Processan Tanks and Racks 0 wash We supply pipe 0 Developer replenishing pipe Omar leplamsmng Pipe O Fixer level aelmm 0 Air inlaka pan 0 Developsr level deleclol 0 Wash walel level daleclor 0 Film enlry sensor 0 DEVDeveIoper lank O Dnve wovm gear 0 FIXlFIxe39 lank O WASleasning lank G 7 y O Squeegee rack I A o lemsu WW
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