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Concepts of Botany

by: Era Schumm

Concepts of Botany BIOL 221

Era Schumm

GPA 3.67


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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Era Schumm on Thursday October 15, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 221 at Millersville University of Pennsylvania taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see /class/223541/biol-221-millersville-university-of-pennsylvania in Biology at Millersville University of Pennsylvania.


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Date Created: 10/15/15
BIOL 221 7 Concepts ofBotany Spring 2009 Water Relations Osmosis and Transpiration A Water Relations Water plays a critical role in plants Water is the universal solvent that allows biochemical reactions to occur in all organisms but that is not the only importance in plants Water moves from the roots to the shoots and to every cell in between Water diffusion across membmnes osmosis results in the development of turgor pressure positive pressure in plant cells The urgor pressure is what keeps the primary plant body upright on land and when they it decreases the plant Wilts cells become accid In addition the turgor pressures in young developing plant cells are required for the expansion of these cells Therefore grth of the plant depends on the movement of water to growing regions like the apical meristems In addition water movements facilitate nutrient tmnsfer minerals from the roots to the photosynthetic tissues Water in the phloem keeps important photosynthate compounds in solution for transport from sources photosynthetic leaves to sinks nonphotosynthetic organs rapidly growing regions So obviously water is extremely important to the health of a plant In today s lab you will have a chance to investigate the importance of water uptake and movement at the cellular and whole plant levels Enjoy B To Tramwire or Not to Transpire Water moves through the plant continuously due to severe differences in water potential between the soil the plant and the atmosphere The xylem vascular tissue takes advantage of the physical properties of water surface tension cohesion adhesion in order to move water from the roots to the shoot No energy is expended in this process but other sacri ces are made Water exceeds the uptake of water from the soil then wilting can occur In the wilted state the plant cells do not have positive pressure in them and thus cannot grow So the need for regulation of transpimtion is present Guard cells regulate the ow of water out of primarily the leaves where most stomata are but due to the nature of photosynthesis guard cells need to be open for COZ to be available Phloem This interaction results in a complex regulation of stomata aperture in order to maximize A Gmd can photosynthesis while minimizing water loss Diffusion mm surrounding an Stpmn Like it or not water is going to be lost and a Ewporauonm ar space large amount of it at that but the mte depend Fig 1 W atquot movement from u on other envuonmental factors in addition to the xylem m the amospmm anatomy of the plant Concepts ofBotany page 1 ofT C Changes in Water Potential Re ect Changes in Plant Cell Turgor Water transport in the xylem from the roots to the shoot transpiration and from cell to cell across a membrane osmosis responds to changes in Water Potential CPW Water Potential consists of several distinct components as seen in the equation below Pw Ps PP Water moves in the direction of high to low water potential I s refers to solute potential also known as osmotic potential and PP refers to hydrostatic pressure which is the pressure potential This means that Water Potential changes when either the concentration of solutes change or the pressure inside or outside the cell changes When solutes like sodium ions Na or chloride ions Cl enter a cell the total solute concentration increases and this changes the water potential Keep in mind that there is a limit to how much solute can enter a cell Changes in mmbm oo 0 0 solute content also affect pressure such that o 0 O o 0 O8th o O 0 1322 st 000 O 0 003 0 o o O 0 0 some 1ncreases 1n solutes result 1n 1ncreases of water 00 0g o 000 0 go 000 o 0 mm o g mtake wh1ch 1n turn g1ves use to h1gh cellular 0 0 00 o 00 o 0 pressures H1gh cellular pressures mean that 0 0 o 00 o 0 0000 0 the cells are turgid the environment is u M hypotonlc The cells of severely w1lted plants ME mm gwmw39m emmmquot ow cuncemvahun mm 00 mm cuncenuatmn aisume have lost water 1n response to changes In the manwwmwgwwnmuamWe environmental water potential such that water mahwampmwa mg owwa ewuma m iv 1th h t OF39 potent1a1 1n the sod 1s lower that 1n the plant quot mmmmm M 9 Dsmuwesw These cells have plasmolyzed the F39g 2 05mm H10 movements environment is hypertonic under these extreme conditions Plant cells that do not gain or lose water are referred to as accid the environment is isotonic with respect to the plant and also display wilting although not as severe as in plasmolysis D The Transniration Stream Work in pairs 1 Add approximately 1 inch of 0 1 toluene blue into a glass test tube 2 Cut one corn plant per pair of students a 12 inch above the soil line 3 Immediately insert the cut shoot into the toluene blue and place the tube in the rack near the high light environment 4 Allow the treatment to continue for 30 40 minutes 5 Observe the plant Look for the presence of stain Answer the following questions a What is thefurthest distance into leaves that the dye is visible measure in cm Concepts of Botany page 2 of 7 b Can you discern a pattern regarding the presence of the dye in the leaves or stem Describe it c Cut a section of the shoot about an inch from the original cut and look at it with a dissecting scope I Do you see the vascular tissues How can you tell them apart from other tissues 2 Describe the dye pattern present in the stern Why does it look like this 3 Is there dye in the center part of the stern Explain why d Cut other sections of the shoot to continue following the transpiration stream I Do you notice any changes in the number of bundles stained Explain why e Cut thin sections of various leaves 7 both stained and apparently unstained and compare them I What staining pattern can you detect 2 Is there any variation between leaves Why 3 Is dye present in all of the leaves Explain why Concepts ol Botany page 3 of 7 E Transpirometer Measurements under Environmental Conditions Work in groups of3 4 1 Remove the plunger and needle if present from a 3ml syringe 2 Seal the plastic needle end with para lm 3 Add 2ml of water to the sealed syringe using a second syringe with needle 4 Place the syringe in a glass test tube 9 this is your transpirometer 5 Cut a bean plant just above the soil level and IMMEDIATELY place the cut stem into the prepared syringe Do this very quickly If you take too long air will enter the xylem problems with water uptake 6 Label the tube so you can recognize it don t cover the number scale on the syringe 7 Prepare a total of four transpirometers as described above 8 Place one planttranspirometer setup in each of the conditions below for 6075 minutes a High Light back bench light apparatus b Medium Light on your lab bench b Darkness place in cabinets under lab benches c Medium Light Wind fan station 9 Record the amount of water lost beginning volume minus nal volume 10 Weigh the leaf blades for each experiment do this last and calculate area as cmz Hint Determine total leaf area by first calculating the weightcm2 of the bean leaf by cutting a square leaf section 3 cm X 3 cm and weighing this leaf section Divide the leaf section weight by 9 cm2 to find the weight of 1cm2 section of leaf By dividing the total mass of the leaves by the mass of 1cm2 you will determine the surface area in cm2 of the leaves on your bean plant ll Calculate the rate of transpiration as mlmincmz Transniration Rate Data Med Light Concepts ofBotany page 4 of 7 16 Now plotthe transpiration rates for each treatment on the graph below Detetmme what theh ehwehmehz mused the mist Wale 111557 Why7 Haw dues ztghz ehwehmehz 11172 tmnsplm an7 Haw days a wthdy ehwehmehz 11172 tmnsplm an7 Why does mm m zee area need m be cansxderedfm 111 zteaehehm Wheh wouldyau Expect Lhe mast zmheptmeeh m occur hamazm What pzahz adapmtums eah you thmk aLhat mtghz decrease Eawater my oeneepts nfEaLany pang m F Turgor Pressure at the Cellular Level 4 6 Work in groups of 3 4 Prepare 11 beakers with 100ml of the following sucrose solutions 0 M 01M 02M 03M 04M 05M 06M 07M 08M 09M 10M Using the vegetable or fruit available on your table prepare ve 1cm3 squares for each solution for a total of 55 squares Use the French fry cutter to make sticks and cut these sticks in 1cm lengths to obtain 1cm3 squares Do not use squares that have skin or dead spots on them Rinse the squares in sets of ve blot them dry and weigh them prior to adding to a solution beaker this is the WtI Be sure to correlate weight to the speci c solution Imbibe the tissues in the solutions for a minimum of 60 minutes After 60 minutes remove the squares blot dry and weigh them again this is the WtF Record this weight in the provided table Calculate the weight change for each solution WtF 7 Wt1Wt1 Concepts ofBotany page 6 of 7 7 Graph your results below Report your ndings to the rest of the class 8 Record and graph the results from the other groups What are the hypotonic anal hypertonic solutions for your speci c tissue What are the isotonic points for each ali erent tissue Which tissue had the highest amount of solutes Explain your rationale Which tissue had the lowest amount of solutes Explain your rationale Concepts of Botany page 7 of 7


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