New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Concepts of Botany

by: Era Schumm

Concepts of Botany BIOL 221

Era Schumm

GPA 3.67


Almost Ready


These notes were just uploaded, and will be ready to view shortly.

Purchase these notes here, or revisit this page.

Either way, we'll remind you when they're ready :)

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Course

Popular in Biology

This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Era Schumm on Thursday October 15, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 221 at Millersville University of Pennsylvania taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see /class/223541/biol-221-millersville-university-of-pennsylvania in Biology at Millersville University of Pennsylvania.


Reviews for Concepts of Botany


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 10/15/15
BIOL 221 7 Concepts of Botany Spring 2009 Microscopy Primer A Intrndln nn TL r a quot plants We shall begin our studies ofp1ants with aurier primer inure proper 39 39 fL L L A A L quot 39 ror 39 39 39 39 quot39 toFigure11 below Eyepiece Handle Grip Noseplece Am momective Fixed Stage enser Diaphragm Lever Cnndenser Cerulean Screw Field Disphugm Lever Condenser Rneostat a Focustng Camel Knob Knot Coarse Focusing arroer Switch Knob Fine Focus Knob RM Mechanical structure that supports the stage powerpod etc serves as ahand1e BASE Provides the support and bears the weight ofthe microscope CONDENSER Focuses the 1ight from the i11uminator on the specimen increases c1arity FOCUS ADJUSTMENTS The frne and coarse focus knobs move the stage up and down The coarse focus knob shou1d on1y be used with the 4x and10x objective 1enses Bring the specimen into focus with the 4x or 10x objective and then change to the 40x or 60X for more detai1 on1y use the frne focus for the 40x or 60X objective 1enses oryou wi11 ram the stage into the objectives Is IL1OFr LIGHT SOURCE An e1ectn39c bu1b 1ight source directed upvmrd tovmrd the stage OBJECTIVE LENSES Magnification 1enses 1ocated just above the stage and attached to arevo1ving nosepiece Four 1eve1s ofmagnifrcation are present 4x 10x 40x 60X OCULARLENSES 39 quot A L r39 TL 394 39 39 uihr 39 p They also magnify the image coming from the objectives by afactor of10 POWER POD The image passes through a series ofpn39sms to the ocu1ar1enses STAGE L 39 an 39 39 39 39 39 of specimen B m r ar ruI ufcummun sense Thelens pnsms and nnlnnls lnslaeynln scupe arevery senslnveln bumps and even Vibranuns Always eany ule stupewlthtvm hand unehznd un ule nnlemsenpe ann and me nllnenllala VE YOUR SCOPE ON THE LAB TABLE DO M SLIDE THE ETHE uLherblg eallse ufmcruscupepmblemsls aln ln mal plaees espeelally un ule Eyeplece and abjemve lenses please put me plasne eeles un yelln nl slab exernse Ifyuu weal eye makeup ean ule eyepleeelens 2amp2 eaell use NY OF THE LENSES WITH ANYTHING EXCEPT LENS PAPER NOT PAPER TOWELS TOILET PAPER KIMWIPES MICROWIPES FACIAL TISSUE ETC If yell ean nut get me lens eleal Wllll lens panel nnnly ynulplelfessnl minquot rnnnha ll cumfunable tn yelln eyes ll gll ls genlng llneugll plaee a nnlelnsenpe sllde ln ule sulleellp and pnslneln It Wllln ule mechanical mga mulls fucus lll r knnh r V V m base quhe Eyeplece zruund unnl Lhelmage lsln fucus furyuurle eye a wnlle Inuk mg Lhruugh llne nnlemsenpe Fluid ms diaphragm Imau393 sluwly slan elnslng the eld diaphragm level unnl llne eld lns alaplllagn Image ls unly a small 39a mn quhetutal Eyeplece eld ufvlew sennlng a snnallel ellele nfllglllln llne eld elf m w Tum the cundensa fnmsingknnh unul ulelnnes edges quhe aldms alaplnagnn Image ls ln sharp fucus the ennnlensel sllnlllnl bevely dusetu llsnlgleslpnsslblepnslnnn EyEDlEce clam nl vlew eld ufvlew eyeplece eld ufvlew 12 When you need to increase magni cation to 400X simply rotate the nosepiece such that the 40X objective is pointing straight down The image should stay close to focus since these microscope should be parfocal 13 You can alter the contrast of the resulting image by adjusting the condenser diaphragm level below the stage When observing unstained specimens eg leaf epidermises from epidermal peels you should decrease the opening of the condenser diaphragm when observing stained specimens you might want to open up the condenser diaphragm C Field of View Depth of Field Plane of Focus and Focus Control Letter e slide Mount this slide and focus on the letter e starting at low magni cation Notice how the e is only infocus when the stage is raised or lowered to theposition ofthefocal plane for the given objective lens Compare the orientation ofthe e when viewed with on the stage with the naked eye vs when viewed through the oculars eyepieces How are they different Colored thread slide Use this slide to become pro cient at adjusting the coarse and ne focus Determine which colored thread is on top and which is on the bottom HINT as you move the stage up or down each colored thread will come into focus as it passes through the focal plane The code on your slide is The thread is on the bottom D Wet Mounts39 Often it useful to observe living unstained plant tissue In this case we prepare wet mounts The only criterion for a wet mount is that the tissue or other subject be thin enough for light to pass through it The basic ingredients are as follows 1 clean glass slide 2 clean glass cover glass 3 water and dropper 4 tissue or other subject eg solution with algae in it In a wet mount the specimen is placed at the center of the slide with one or two drops of water and the cover glass placed over the specimen In some preparations such as looking at pond water for microscopic critters the object being prepared for viewing is contained within water Once the specimen and water are combined on the slide the cover glass is added The cover glass should be placed at an angle to the slide one edge touching the slide and then lowered as if hinged there If done properly the water will force out any air as the cover glass closes over it and no bubbles will be trapped beneath the glass Although an occasional bubble might be tolerated large numbers will make viewing the specimen difficult Adhesive forces between the liquid and the glass will hold the cover glass rmly in place Generally only one drop of water is sufficient Adding too much water will create a problem as the affixing of the cover slip to the slide will depend on much weaker cohesive forces see quotProblems and solutionsquot below There should be no excess water water outside the cover slip and the cover slip should remain in place when the slide is moved to the stage of the microscope where it is held in place by stage clips or some other holding mechanism Problems and solutions 1 Mostly air under cover slip 7 too little water was used increase by 1 drop or cover glass was improperly dropped onto specimen Adding a drop of water to the slide at the very edge of the cover glass will result in water being taken in under the cover glass via capillary action If numerous air spaces are still evident it is best to start over 2 Too much liquid under cover slip 7 cover glass slides around easily on glass slide and may fall off if slide not held perfectly level Using a small piece of absorbent paper paper towel or tissue touch edge of paper to excess water at edge of cover slip repeat until cover glass af xes to the slide 3 Cover slip quotrocksquot on specimen or is clearly not laying at 7 either the specimen or something in the sample a grain of sand for example is preventing the cover slip from coming down far enough to adhere to the slide Focusing on this slide will be difficult Possibly the specimen is not thin enough or evenly sliced If a grain is present remove it and remount the specimen E Proper Use ofa Stereo or Tquot quot Microscone39 Typically maxing out at 40X even with the oculars the dissecting scope is used for looking at larger specimens and the specimens need not be thin enough for light to pass through it Why not How is this different than the compound scope The numbers on the top knob of the dissecting scope represent magni cation with the lowest magni cation at 7X and the highest magni cation at 30X or 40X depending on the scope Make observations of the top and lower surface of a leather leaf Viburnum leaf How these two surfaces different


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Amaris Trozzo George Washington University

"I made $350 in just two days after posting my first study guide."

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.