General Biology I LectureLab
General Biology I LectureLab BIOL 1110
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This 1 page Class Notes was uploaded by Einar Sanford on Thursday October 15, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1110 at Motlow State Community College taught by Robert Reeder in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see /class/223575/biol-1110-motlow-state-community-college in Biology at Motlow State Community College.
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Date Created: 10/15/15
BIOL 1110 REEDER SUMMARY AND REVIEW OF CELLULAR RESPIRATION Cellular respiration is an oxidative process which occurs as a series of small stepbystep reactions each catalyzed by an enzyme The release of packets of energy is coupled with phosphorylation reactions that synthesize ATP and inorganic P GLYCOLYSIS The oxidation of carbohydrate to pyruvic acid is called GLYCOLYSIS The process can occur whether or not oxygen is present because no molecular oxygen is used forthis reason it is frequently termed quotanaerobic respirationquot We can summarize the results of glycolysis as follows 1 The breakdown of a molecule of glucose a 6C compound to two molecules of pyruvic acid a 3C compound 2 The use oftwo molecules of ATP as quotactivation energyquot and the synthesis of four new molecules of ATP for a net gain of two molecules of ATP substrate level phosphorylation 3 The production of four molecules of H goes to NAD and eventually through Hydrogen transfer system to produce 6 ATP39s If no oxygen is present ie ifthe conditions are anaerobic pyruvic acid formed by glycolysis will accept the hydrogen from NADH2 freeing the NAD freeing the NAD for further use as a hydrogen acceptor and enabling glycolysis to continue This addition of hydrogen to pyruvic acid results in the formation of LACTIC ACID A 3C compound and C02 in plant cells and in many unicellular organisms The process whereby the glycolytic pathway leads to production of alcohol or lactic acid from pyruvic acid is called FERMENTATION Lactic acid fermentation by certain fungi and bacteria is used in the dairy industry to make cheese and yogurt Human muscle cells can make ATP by lactic acid fermentation when oxygen is scarce anaerobic as in the early stages of strenuous exercise weightlifting when sugar catabolism for ATP production outpaces the muscle39s oxygen supply from the blood Lactic acid accumulates as a waste leading to muscle fatigue It is gradually carried away by the blood to the liver where pyruvic acid is reformed from the lactate in a process requiring oxygen This results in an quotoxygen debtquot that is paid back when you pant after you stop exercising ELECTRON TRANSPORT SYSTEM hydrogen transfer system or the cytochrome carrier system If oxygen is present after glycolysis the NADH2 molecules are not forced to donate hydrogen to pyruvic acid instead molecular oxygen can act as the ultimate hydrogen acceptor and water is formed The NAD does not however pass its hydrogen directly to the oxygen Rather the H is passed down a quotrespiratory chainquot of carrier compounds most of which are cytochromes As the H is lowered down this energy gradient energy is released and used in synthesis of ATP from ADP and inorganic P This process often called OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION is very similar to the electron transport and ATP synthesis of photophosphorylation of plants It can be shown that for every 2 Hydrogens actually electrons moved through the transfer system from NAD to H20 three new ATP molecules are synthesized BIOL 1110 REVIEW CELLULAR RESPIRATION 122001
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