General Biology I LectureLab
General Biology I LectureLab BIOL 1110
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This 1 page Class Notes was uploaded by Einar Sanford on Thursday October 15, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1110 at Motlow State Community College taught by Robert Reeder in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see /class/223575/biol-1110-motlow-state-community-college in Biology at Motlow State Community College.
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Date Created: 10/15/15
BIOL 1110 I bioll 1 107chemicalibonding REEDER CHEMICAL BONDING STABILITY A An atom with fewer than eight 8 valence electrons may react with another atom with the goal of achieving a B stable con guration Two ways by which a reaction can occur a One atom may lose valence electrons to g gain electrons from another atom process called ionic or electrovalent bonding b One atom may share valence electrons with one or more atoms to complete its outer shell process called covalent bonding 2 Stabilitv is achieved through CHEMICAL BONDING 3 Molecules and compounds are formed as a result of the binding force called a chemical bond 4 Two types of representative formulas a Structural indicates types and numbers of atoms as well as their arrangement in compounds type of bonds NEN covalent NaCl39ionic CaHClz39 b Molecular shows types and numbers of atoms in a compound HZO COZ N2 NaCl 5 Molecules can also become ionic by losing and gaining protons as well as electrons H ion proton Ionic Bonds 1 When two or more elements combine by losing and gaining valence electrons they are held together strongly by an electrostatic force called an ionic bond metal reacts with a nonmetal called a redox reaction 2 Atoms thereafter carrying a charge are called m a Positive charged ions cations derived from metals which bivalence electrons b Negative charged ions anions derived from nonmetals which gainvalence electrons 3 The opposite charges of the ions attract resulting in a bond 4 Ionic bonds are a representative of the weaker class of bonds that include the hydrogen bonds 5 Three types of inorganic compounds containing ionic bonds are acids bases and salts 6 Because of water s polarity charged nature 1HZO39 when inorganic compounds are placed in water the compounds ions dissociate in a process called ionization NAC139 HZO gt C139 1HZO39 Na a Electronegativitv measure of an atom s attraction for electrons in chemical bonds ON b Due to electronegative atom s larger mass when sharing electrons with an atom of lesser mass like H the electrons are pulled closer to the electronegative atom s nucleus 1 when attraction for electrons shared is unequal M as in the water molecule covalent 2 when attraction for electrons shared is equal nonpolar H2 02 N2 covalent 7 Compounds that separate into ions in water called electrolytes represent charged particles that can conduct electrical currents and are important in living systems nerve muscle energy transformations in cells Covalent Bonds 1 When two or more atoms combine by sharing valence electrons they are held very strongly together by a force called a covalent bond nonmetal reacts with a nonmetal 2 The number of electrons shared between two atoms is equal each atom involved contributes one electron to each m that is shared the atom s attraction for shared electrons can vary polar or nonpolar states described above 3 These electrons spend part of their time in the outer shell of each atom therefore they may be counted as belonging to M atoms When atoms of elements share equal numbers of electrons neither atom carries a charge 5 Covalent bonds are the most common bonds as well as the strongest that are found in the molecules of living organisms 6 These bonds may occur as single one pair of electrons shared double two pair andor ple three pair covalent bonds 7 Organic compounds are always characterized by covalent bonding 3 D Hydrogen Bonds 1 A hydrogen bond is a very weak chemical bond formed between an already bonded H atom and a strongly negative atom electronegative atom such as O or N 2 These bonds commonly form between one water molecule and another 6605 Page 1 of2
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