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General Psychology

by: Michaela Crona

General Psychology PSY 180

Michaela Crona
GPA 3.68

Alysia Ritter

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Alysia Ritter
Class Notes
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Michaela Crona on Thursday October 15, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 180 at Murray State University taught by Alysia Ritter in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 91 views. For similar materials see /class/223583/psy-180-murray-state-university in Psychlogy at Murray State University.


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Date Created: 10/15/15
PSY 180 Test 4 Chapters 11 13 amp 15 Chapter 11 Personality Theory Research and Assessment Theories of Personality Hippocrates Greek physician who measured bodily fluids which he called humors 1 Melancholic black bile sad withdrawn and depressed 2 Phlegmatic phlegm listless apathetic cool and unemotional 3 Sanguine too much blood optimistic cheerful active 4 Choleric yellow bile easily angered irritable moody and unpredictable William Sheldon American physician who though correlation exists between body types and personalities Endomorphs plump buxom developed visceral structure relaxed sociable tolerant comfortloving and peaceful 2 Mesomorphs muscular active assertive vigorous combative 3 Ectomorphs lean delicate poor muscles quiet fragile restrained nonassertive and sensitive Freud Consciousness 1 Id totally unconscious based on the pleasure principle you cannot delay gratification Ego psychological prevents us from acting on every urge we have and being so morally driven that we cannot function works according to the reality principle which helps us direct our unacceptable sexual and aggressive urges to more acceptable targets Superego based on the morality principle acts as our moral guide and mediates between the id and the ego Psychosexual Stages N W Oral Stage birth 18 months a preoccupations with oral things such as nursing and sucking Oral Fixation overeat bite nails smoke mouth off demanding Anal Stage 18 months 3 years potty training and the word no Anal Fixation orderly stubborn overly controlling excessively clean Anal Retentive messy stingy and destructive Phallic Stage 3 6 years children derive pleasure from their genitals and develop a desire for the opposite sex parent the Oedipus and Electra Complex Phallic problems selfcentered vain arrogant iealous Defense Mechanisms selfdeception to get rid of anxiety guilt or stress Produces a conflict between reality and selfconcept and a temporary change in personality Easier to distort reality 1 bWIxJ 7 0 Repression motivatedforgetting we unconsciously exclude the memories from our consciousness Regression go backwards to an infantile stage pouting and tantrums Reaction Formation an individual acts in a manner opposite their unconscious beliefs Projection when someone is threatened by or afraid of their own impulses so they attribute them to someone else Rationalization use false but plausible excuses for unacceptable behavior Displacement directing impulses toward an unacceptable target that would cause harm Sublimation directing impulses toward an unacceptable target that would not cause harm Neo Freudians Carl Jung Collective Unconscious a storehouse of latent memory traces inherited from people s ancestral past which consist of archetypes Archetypes emotionally charged though forms that have universal meaning Karen Horney 1 2 3 Moving toward people compulsively seek affection from others neurotic Moving against people aggressive manipulative and power driven Moving away from people strive for independence and privacy selfprotective Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers Humanists u Saw the importance of personal growth 3 Focused on the present and not the past 7 Level Hierarchy Julian Rotter personality depends on our perceptions of personal power and control Internal locus of control we take responsibility for our actions External locus of control we blame others for our actions Measuring Personality Traits Objective Measures without bias or prejudice Minnesota Multiphasic Personality inventory MPPI 567 statements 5 Robust factors 1 Rates of extroversion 2 Agreeableness 3 Consciousness 4 Emotional stabilityneuroticiSm 5 Openness to ne39wideas Projective Measures measure the unconscious Apersonality measure that asks you to respond freely to an ambiguous stimulus such as a picture or an inkblot DSM The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders It is organized by symptoms Chapter 13 Psychological Disorders Organic and Functional Disorders Organic 0 Etiology physiology the apparent causation and developmental history ofan illness 0 During the 18th century people whoexhibited abnormal behavior or personality were thought to be possessed by evil spirits and were treated through exorcism o Affective Disorders a disorder characterized by wide fluctuation of feelings emotions andor moods 1 Clinical Depression Decrease in norepinephrine and serotonin Treated with ECT 2 Bipolar Disorder Affect 1 of population Young person s disorder Mania NDI mal Hyper mania 3 Schizophrenia Young person s disorder Hallucinations and delusions False beliefs about identity a Residual one episode and it has not occurred again in five years b Disorganized talk out loud to their imaginary sources recovery is rare c Catatonic have motor dysfunction that alternate from happygoIucky to nothing d Paranoid suffer from delusion ofpersecutions Functional o Brought about by stress or psychological stressors 0 Anxiety Disorder 4 1 Phobias anxiety and stress that produce unrealistic fears that are focused on one idea or concept 2 Generalized anxiety continuous state of dread worry tension difficult to identify the ideology except stress 0 Panic Disorder chest pains heart palpitations difficulty breathing sudden and overwhelming o ObsessiveCompulsive Disorder thought that keeps coming in your had ritualistic in nature Somatoform Disorders based on diverse complaints about the bodies physical symptoms when it is really psychological 1 Conversion Disorder a person has specific genuine physical symptoms but there is no physiological basis for the symptoms 2 Hypochondriasis a person interprets their normal physical experiences as symptoms for some type of disease 3 Psychogenic Pain persistent pain for which there is no apparent cause Dissociative Disorders a person s conscious awareness becomes separated from previous memories thoughts and feelings 1 Dissociative amnesia a sudden loss ofmemory for personal information that is too extensive to be due to normal forgetting 2 Dissociative identity disorder multiple personality disorder involves the coexistence of two or more largely complete and usually very different personalities 3 Depersonalization disorder persistent feelings of watching oneself act mindbody separation Personality Disorders personalities outside of social norms 1 Antisocial personality the person has impulsivity an inability to live by the rules customs and laws of society in which they live and a lack ofanxiety or guilt about their behavior 2 Narcissistic Personality a person totally centered on their own needs and feelings while ignoring the needs and feelings of others 3 Dependent Personality an overreliance on other people to meet one s emotional and physical needs 4 Borderline personality disorder unpredictable and impulsive behavior as well as sudden changes or shifts in mood Chapter 15 Social Behavior Social Norms Rules for how people should act in a given group or society Conformity Adjusting one s behavior to think ofmatch those of other people ora group standard Research by Solomon Asch showed that people have a surprisingly strong tendency to conform Asch found that conformity becomes more likely as group size increases up to a size of seven However the presence ofanother dissenter in a group greatly reduces the conformity observed Obedience Occurs when you change you opinions iudgments or actions because someone in a position of authority told you to Just because you have changed in some way does not mean you now agree with the change In Stanley Milgram s study adult men drawn from the community showed a remarkable tendency to follow orders to shock an innocent stranger with 65 delivering the maximum shock Compliance The tendency to agree to do what is requested especially if there are certain factors present a feeling that there is give and take believability likability limited supply and positive feedback from others 1 Footinthedoor ask for something small and then ask for something bigger which is what you wanted from the start 2 Doorintheface askfor something outrageous and then askfor something simple 3 Lowballing used in negotiations a Commitment and Catch sign up fora class and get a free A the class meets at 7 AM on Saturdays b Bait and Switch Saturday morning from 710 AM get a MAC for cheap switch to cheap brand 4 That s not all throw in extra free things Pro social Behavior Altruism helping without any ulterior motive Egoism helping with an ulterior motive in mind Attributions The process by which people use information to make inferences about the causes of behavior or events 1 Consensus Do most people engage in this behaviorin this situation High Low 2 Consistency Is the behavior consistent across most people in the given situation 3 Distinctiveness Does the behavior vary across different situations M Low iigh external Low Internal Selfserving bias our tendency to take credit for positive behaviors and outcomes by attributing them to internal events but we blame negative behavior and outcome on external events False consensus effect we assume that people agree with us to a greater extent than is in reality It is reassuring to assume others share our opinions People find it difficult to believe that people have a different opinion People like to associate themselves with others who share their opinion False uniqueness effect the tendency to under estimate the extent to which people are similar to others


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