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Date Created: 10/15/15
OSH 192 Topic History of SampHIntroduction 1 Introduction HISTORY 2 History in Book A Hammurabi 2000 BC Babylon B Egyptians 1500 BC C Romans D 156739s Miners Sickness amp Other Miners Diseases by Philippus Aureolus Georgius Agricola published De Re Metallica 3 United States A American Revolution until mid1800s B Industrial Revolution Summary of changes C Industrial Revolution Problems D Civil War and after 18611900 1869 Pennsylvania passes law requiring two exists from all mines amp 1877 Mass passes law requiring safeguards on hazardous machines amp Employer Liability Law is passes World War 14 191 4 Organized Labor 5 Professional Organizations concerned with Worl ace Safety pg 12 Alliance for American Insurers American Board of Industrial Hygiene AlHA American Council of Government Industrial Hygienists ACGIH American Industrial Hygiene Association AlHA American Insurance Association American National Standards Institute ANSI American Occupational Medical Association American Society of Mechanical Engineers ASME American Society of Safety Engineers ASSE American Society for Testing and Materials Chemical Transportation Emergency Center Human Factors Society National Fire Protection Association National Safety Council National Safety Management Society Society of Automotive Engineers System Safety Society UndenNriters Laboratory UL Occupational Health Problems Accident Prevention Programs Three E s For a company to survive they must consider pro ts mission product service amp the strength amp growth ofthe business Safety is important because it supports all the above SampH Today OSH 192 Topic Effects of Accidents Introduction A Leading causes of death B Natural disasters 2 Costs of Accidents A Costs of Unintentional Injuries by Class w Clalm by Part ofEloderAAS Mangechlm2mssl B Average cost by part of body injured C Costs by component Cost or Unintentional Injuries by Comp onent Billions 7006 350 0 quotii if 5 3 D Accidental causes of death for various age groups 3 Accidental Deaths by Gender 4 Average Deaths per Hour from Accidents Deaths amp Disabling Injuries by Class Dedhs amp xxx x if Average Incidents ner H nur lrnm Accidents znns Malay IIam Hume Vubm mum 5 Accident Rates Comparison of Safety Statistics WorkRelated Deaths for last 5 years by area 7 Impact of Accidents Workrelated Death through Injuries C omp aris on of Wo rkRelated Statistic s 1912 ZEIEIB 25mm ZELEIEIEI Deamsper 15mm mnunn Wurkers ufDeams mum 5mm 59 yo f 9 Jif yf f Work Related Deaths 39r 3 5 z 4 z z E 9 nmmm mm Wabye seqmv Assauns Bltva5uve m mam r usExv asmm nu m Wu Wei nu an 5m Lewd Fata Occupatmna munesr m5 4i i i 2353 77 Luna I 7 2 I am I 155 I 6m 1 at nun mm mm 8 Work related Deaths by gross numbers WorkRelated Deaths 2006 frame Work Related Deaths 2006 Work related deaths compared to rates MOO fif fs f f WorkRelated Disabling Injuries Work Related Injuries2006 Rate per 100 FullTime Workers 7 U 7 6 6 0 6 0 3 6 U 7 4 50 7 7 i i 41 3 40 7 7 7 a n 30 7 i i 20 7 7 7 10 7 7 7 U 0 9 9 a 6 rd xfy g ff 3 9 Causes of work injuries Occupational Injuries Involving Days Away from Work2005 A memenan a Camacmoblecl E 274 Falls 20 7 nanspunauun 5D Expusedlusub ance I 4 z Assault 3 l 7 Olhev l l FivesExplusuns D 2 OSH 192 Topic Accident Causation Theories 1 Introduction unavoidable 2 2 Heinrich s Domino Theory Heinrich39s Conclusions Axioms of Industrial Safety 1 Injuries result from a completed series of factors one ofwhich is the accident itself 2 An accident can occur only as the result of an unsafe act by a person andor a physical or mechanical hazard 3 Most accidents are the result of unsafe behavior of people 4 An unsafe act by a person or an unsafe condition does not always immediately result in an accidentinjury 5 The reasons why people commit unsafe acts can serve as helpful guides in selecting corrective actions 6 The severity of an accident is largely fortuitous and the accident that caused it is largely preventable 7 The best accident prevention techniques are analogous with the best quality and productivity techniques 8 Management should assume responsibility for safety since it is in the best position to get results 9 The supervisor is the key person in the prevention ofindustrial accidents 10 In addition to the direct costs ofan accident ie compensation liability claims medical costs and hospital expenses there are also hidden or indirect costs Accident sequence factors 1 Ancestry amp social environment 2 Fault of person 3 Unsafe actunsafe condition 4 Accident 5 Injury Domino Theory EEEEE Ammry a nodl Fluit of Unuh An Injury Dunlapmm Flinn Domino Theory ESE Amew A mlal Funk 21 Urn1e Ad Inluly DIMlome Pusan Domino Theory mm 3 Human factors theory of accident causation Overload lmbalance between a person s capacity at any given time and the load that person is carrying in a given state Capacity natural ability training state of mind fatigue stress amp physical condition Load responsibilities tasks environmental factors internal factors and situational factors State the product of person s motivational and arousal levels Humn Flam manly lnappmpvlale Overland MM Inappmprllle Resume DMnganm Willem 112ml nq Pvimvmg wan H mm lnrlea slmcllons 4 AccidentIncident theory of accident causation Overland Pressure Pully RESpDnsibilit Training Systems Flilure m Accidentincident Ergonomic Traps lnumpatible Workstation lnumpatible Expectations Decision to Equot Misiuugmem at risk l desire m err Lugial dEEiSiDn based on Situatiun Systems failure Potential for a causal relationship between management decisionsbehavior and safety Q 5 Epidemiological Theory ofAccident Causation Epidemiology is the study of causal relationships between environmental factors and Epidemiological Theory disease Pradlsposltlon S uauzri r Characteristics C 5398 n5 m Susceptibility Risl assessment of people by Indeuals Perceptions Peer pressure Envimnmsnlal Priorities of the radars aupervrsor Attitude Can cause or prevent accident conditions 6 Systems theory of causation A System A group of regularly interacting amp interrelated components that together form a uni ed whole B System components Person Machine agency Environment Feedback Loop Weigh Mm rim decision SYSTEMS THEORY MODEL 7 Combination theory of accident causation OSH 192 Topic Accident Investigation 1 Why investigate accidents Fact nding tool to produce useful information for preventing the same or similar accidents from reoccurring Investigations not conducted to determine fault or blame 2 Accident investigation organization A Management personnel B Safety Professional ata minimum C Group Investigations Two or more individuals D Safety Professional should be directly involved when 3 Should investigate all accidents 4 Written Preaccident plan 5 Accident Investigation Kit Photosvideotape Investigate immediately 6 Accident Investigation Steps A Secure the area B Collection of facts Interviewing C Determination of causes D Recommendations for ways to prevent similar incidents E Verify that recommendations are implemented and work 7 Summarize the Report 8 Why accidents are not reported Key accident investigation elements Behave in a positive manner A Caring for injured Neutralizing any remaining hazards Securing the area as undisturbed as possible Obtaining accident description Recording sequence of events Recording witness interviews Recreating controlled accident situation Reviewing engineering controls Reviewing employee education Reviewing enforcement Reviewing job procedures Reviewing safety rules Reviewing supervisory controls Listing probable causes Determining most likely cause Developing possible controls Determining best control Assigning responsibility for followup Submitting accident investigation report Communicating investigation report Ensuring effective supervisory followup OSH 192 Topic Workers39 Compensation 1 History Legal B Tort liability action against the employerto get compensation Employee must prove the employer was negligent and the negligence caused the injury Employer39s defense a Contributory Negligence b Assumption of risk c Fellow servant rule d Common employment 1 Best judges ofan employee39s competence to perform a job in a safe manner is the employee39s fellow workers they know the job and its39 hazards 2 Fellow workers have the responsibility to notify employer of unsafe acts conditions 3 Their failure to report meant that employer did not know of unsafe actionsconditions So how can he be responsible for them ortheir consequences Other Factors 2 History Early Developments in United States 3 Basic characteristics of workers39 compensation laws Goal is an effective prompt bene t delivery system with no fraud 4 Bene ts A Medical benefits B Income bene ts C Rehabilitation 5 Types of Disability A Temporary Total Disability B Permanent Total Disability C Temporary Partial Disability Employee is partially disabled for a period oftime D Permanent Partial Disability E Fatal injuries 6 Employer39s Liability 7 Costs Sample Missouri Workers39 Compensation Rates Average Cost per Claim by Fan of Bodymos Mange cmsznasa mm 8 Average cost per claim by part of body HandFingers Face AimShaman Amie u mum mun aumu mun supuu Imusml Injuries by Body Part Affected 2005 9 Injuries by part of Body affected 250 Percentage 44m movie 0000 w w Jiin 3 xx x if 10 Nonfatal Injuries in Private Industry Nonfatal Injuries in Private Industry 2005 other 1 2m I 504 sprains strains 300 400 500 Thousands Number of InjuriesIllnesses 1 1 Kentucky Statistics 12 KY Lost Time Injury by Cause of Injury KY LostTime Injury by Cause oflnjury FY 2007 2003 Sun Tissue Upper Emsmms DIS Ears Wrist Shuuldev Knee Lungs Multiple may pans Luwev Back 1217 n mm mm 500 am nun 12m mun 13 Kentucky Workers39 Compensation Number of Claims Filed KY Number of LTI Claims Filed 50000 40000 30000 20000 10000 14 Kentucky Workers39 Compensation First Report of Injury by Gender Kentucky Lost Time Injuries by Type quotnNonfatal Injuryamp Illness by Gender2005 US HuursWurkEd DMale lFemale KYLnsI Ilrmlnlunvslhm Pam lnmrm Bmefns rv n7 nu Kentucky Workers39 Compensation Appealed Claims Influences to le Courses of action open to employees 1 Keep working 2 Find another job 3 File a claim Personal Factors affect whether WC is chosen 1 Psychological 2 Job attitudes 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 Appealed Claims Fiscal Year 99 00 O1 02 03 O4 05 O6 O7 mBoard 39 Court of Appeals Supreme Court 18 Controlling WC costs Top39c 1 OSH 192 Powered Industrial Trucks Types of Powered Industrial Trucks A Forklifts a Sitdown Rider b Rough Terrain Straight Mast Forklifts 0 Rough Terrain ExtendedReach Forklifts B Narrow Aisle standup C Pallet Truck D Tractors E Container Handler Things to Remember A forklift steers using the back wheels Stability Triangle explains how the center of gravity can tip over a forklift Only the operator can ride unless truck is equipped for passengers Load should be carried as low as possible preferably 2 to 4 inches offthe ground Must be trained on each speci c type of truck OSH 192 Tog39c Roles of Safety Personnel 1 Introduction 2 Safety amp Health Manager 3 Engineers Generally not trained in safety A Engineers develop equipment and systems B Common Types 1 v Aerospace Engineer 2 Electrical Engineer 3 Mechanical Engineer 4 Industrial Engineer 5 Chemical Engineer 6 Environmental Engineer 7 Safety Engineer 4 Industrial Hygienist Definition the science and art devoted to the recognition evaluation and control of those environmental factors or stresses arising in and from the workplace which may cause sickness impaired health and wellbeing or significant discomfort and inef ciency among workers or among citizens ofthe community Primarily concerned about the following types of hazards solvents particulates noise dermatoses radiation temperature ergonomics toxic substances biological substances ventilation gas amp vapors 5 Health Physicist 6 Occupational Physician A Quali cations B Responsibilities C Involved with prevention as well as treatment of problems 7 Occupational Health Nurse A De nition The application ofnursing principles in conserving the health of workers lnvolves prevention recognition and treatment of illness and injury and requires special skills and knowledge in the areas of health education and counseling environmental health rehabilitation and human relations B Objectives
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