World Civilizations I
World Civilizations I CIV 201
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Popular in Ancient Hist And Classical Civ
This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Candelario Durgan on Thursday October 15, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CIV 201 at Murray State University taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see /class/223590/civ-201-murray-state-university in Ancient Hist And Classical Civ at Murray State University.
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Date Created: 10/15/15
Hieroglyphics Writing system of the Egyptians 3000 BC Egyptians Kept records which allowed them to know how much stuff they have It allows the Pharaoh to keep things up and running They were derived from accepted convention tquot Atop Pharaoh 1 King of Egypt 2 3000 BC 3 Egyptians 4 They are a connection to the gods They have religious authority They are warriors They maintain ma39at and the Nile ood or there is plenty of food Dynasty The same family passing on rule from father to son 3000 BC Egyptians Dynasties made it easier for people to appoint a new king when the former king passes away They can keep it in the family and the king can train the son to be the right person to rule H Maw Monotheism 1 A religious view 3000 BC Egyptians The belief in one god It made the gods to seem more personal It was the ruler of the universe Akhenaten tried to alter Egypt39s religious culture which then illustrates some of the complexities of cultural change brought by the empire F9 Alphabetic Type of script used for languages 1800 BC Mesopotamian It was a better way for communication A sign represented each consonant of the language The drawing of a house represented the sound B which is the first sound of the word baytu which meant house H LQDIO City State 1 Type of political organization 3000 BC Mesopotamian A single city that is in the center and dominates the surrounding countryside This made developing cities function as regional crossroads It made all the cities around each other connect people with other communities LQOIO Pastoralist 1 Animal herder who moves around with a ock to find grazing land 2 2000 BC 3 Mesopotamian 4 They bred selected animals protected them against natural predators milked and sheared them amp allowed people to feed off of them It also created links among the urban states of Asia Polytheism A religious view 2800 BC Mesopotamians It believes in more than one god They had those gods for things that are unexplainable such as weather patterns and what not H have Oligarchy 1 A political system 2 650500 BC 3 The Greeks 4 A small group of wealthy means who had all power This allowed these men to use their wealth to acquire land amp built up large estates dispossessing farmers in the countryside around Athens This caused people to use their power in a wrong way Tyranny 1 A political system 2 650500 BC 3 The Greeks 4 One person holds absolute power People grew to resent this form of government Phalanx 1 A formation of soldiers who overlap their shield and swords 2 700 BC 3 The Greeks 4 This allowed for protection for each other Overlapping their shields created a huge wall and made it harder for things to hit them above them Polis 1 The Greek citystate 2 750 BC 3 The Greeks 4 Selfgoverning community of citizens ran by citizens with defined responsibilities This allowed for the citizens to share power rather than depend on a king Brahmans 1 Priests in the varna system 2 1600 BC 3 The Aryans 4 They had a central role in sacrifices and also had a unique effect on the spread of literacy in India They were the only ones who knew the Verdic hymns that were essential during sacrifices Caste System 1 It39s the social organization 2 1600 BC 3 The Aryans 4 To provide a social structure in which everyone had an allotted place Upper castes had special rights amp access to property amp the system protected heir privileges It allowed immigrants to establish themselves as a defined jati Raja 1 The king 2 1600 BC 3 The Aryans 4 They were elected by the people and were given the task to defend the nation They were leading forces in warfare Vedas 1 Collections of hymns songs prayers amp dialogues 2 1600 BC 3 The Aryans 4 They were used by Brahmans f0r sacrifices They were also used for describing events and are believed to misrepresent actual events Atman 1 The immortal essence of a living creature 2 500 BC 3 Upanishads 4 The Self of each being It liberates people from the constant cycle of reincarnation A person would attain a deep sleep without dreams unaware of any physical reality Satrapy 1 A province in the Achaemenid Persian Empire administered by a satrap 2 522 BC 3 Persians 4 An imperial structure comprising 20 provinces It is a extending uniform system of government over an area This allowed for the Persia39s enormous power and military Province 1 A region or country directly governed by an imperial official 2 745 BC 3 The Assyrians 4 It was the way a place had to maintain the political military amp administrative portions of a region or country This made it possible for different regions to be ran in the same way Code of Hammurabi Prologue The Code of Hammurabi is a Babylonian law code belonging to the ancient Mesopotamia and is dated back to around 1772 BC Barton 2009 This law was enacted by Hammurabi the 6th Babylonian king and it enumerates crimes and the various punishments that will accompany such crimes along with the defrayals for common disputes and the guidelines for the conduct ofa citizen Barton 2009 The code however does not provide an opportunity for excuses or explanation though it implies the people s rights in regards to the present evidence Barton 2009 This brings out the fact that leadership during civilization was both dictatorial and democratic because on one hand the leader spelt out the laws that left no room for discussion and were binding to any one people s opinion were not sought and the citizen either obeyed the laws or faced the consequences as per the law On the other hand it was democratic because the right of every citizen was taken into consideration A leader is considered either proper or improper according to how he or she makes use ofthe power mandated to him and how such use impacts on his or her subjects A proper leader has the interest of his people at heart and will do all that is in his powers to protect them and by so doing he will be seen to have properly used his power An improper leader will use his subjects to reach for something that only benefits him and cause suffering to those whom he rules and thus an improper use of power Hammurabi could be considered to be a greater leader because he is one of such leaders in the history of Mesopotamia who did right and stood for the well being ofthe less privileged in the society Being part ofthe civilization is quite challenging During civilization everything seems original and there was no other place to benchmark and compare on the impacts of any action on the society The Code of Hammurabi is unique and it is not comparable to any other code elsewhere during the time of its formation Whether the code was unfair to others or not was not to be an issue it was to be accepted as it was The people who constitute a society undergoing civilization will identify themselves as those who are some steps ahead ofthe non civilized society They will believe that they have a better life than others who are not yet civilized Barbarism is made up of such acts which according to a given society are backward and obsolete It is when the act ofa community or an individual is viewed by others as those that had been done away with in the previous centuries and are not expected in the current times The civilization according to the Code of Hammurabi view the universe as a God given land contains people of varied abilities and characters some of which can course harm to others This is seen in the prologue where Hammurabi says quotthe lord of Heaven and earth who decreed the fate of the land then Anu and Bel called by name me Hammurabi to bring about the rule of righteousness in the land to destroy the wicked and the evil doers so that the strong should not harm the weakquot Barton 2009 The civilization in question view God as the ultimate answer to all their problems He is the one who offer explanations to the unexplainable and control all the natural phenomena and occurrences God according to the Code of Hammurabi is a god of righteousness because Hammurabi exclaimed that God exalted him to bring into the land the rule of righteousness People interact with the divine figures of the universe through worship as brought out when Hammurabi stated quotHammurabithe worshiper of the gods Barton 2009 These divine figures expect man to shun evil and do only those that are not harmful to themselves and others Mystery cult 1 A religious practice based around myth of god or demigod who died escaped hades gained resurrection 2 50 AD 3 Greece 4 Share quotsecretquot of resurrection through reenactment of myths among followers Philosophy 1 Intellectual endeavor of explaining basic concepts in human existence such as truth knowledge reality and ethical behavior The art of living philosophy becomes something to live by a philosophers task is to find the quotbest lifequot 2 400 BC 3 Athens 4 Socrates developed a mode of questioning designed to help separate the truth from assumption Plato developed the notion of universal ideals Aristotle analyzed everything from literature to the natural environment Together they laid the foundation of education and scientific investigation as practiced in the Middle East and Europe until the modern period Latifundia 1 Vast rural estates in ancient Rome whose owners employed a large number of tenant farmers and slaves 2 150 BC 3 Italy 4 Senatorial estates gobble up land in Italy small middleclass farmer disappears Ager Publicus was a law that reserved 13 of conquered land in Italy for the Roman state which the senate could rent out for a 35 year period Over time Senators took advantage of this law and simply occupied public lands not paying rent Sophists 1 An ancient Greek teacher of rhetoric 2 500 BC 3 Athens golden 4 Many explored innovative ideas subjecting Greek intellectual and religious traditions to a rigorous examination that pushed Greek thinking in new directions Above all the sophists believed in the power of the gods they saw human rationality as the crucial tool for explaining the workings of the universe Pater Familias 1 The head of a Roman household with full power over other family members and client 2 500 BC 3 Rome 4 Oldest male is highpriest of family cult supposed to uphold MosMaiorum meaning the ways of the ancestors the way things were supposed to be done in Rome Owns all property members of family Has the right to kill any family member for any reason Nirvana 1 In Buddhism the goal of religious practice a state of existence without desire hatred ignorance suffering and ultimately reincarnation 2 500 BC 3 India 4 lndividualistic religion Escape from the cycle of Reincarnation and the removal of the spiritual from the physical Direct challenge to caste system and Vedic social order as well as religious belief Dharma 1 A slightly different meaning in various Indian religions it refers in Jainism to moral virtue in Buddhism to the teachings of the Buddha and in Hinduism to duty 2 500 BC 3 India 4 Ghandi was inspired by Jainism and the nonviolence of the dharma concept Equestrian 1 The class of wealthy businessmen and landowners in ancient Rome second only to the patricians in status and political influence Struggle of the Orders first secession of the plebeians 2 494 BC 3 Rome 4 Men with a certain amount of property who were not in the senate Patrician 1 In ancient Rome a member of the privileged upper class 2 City founded 753 BC 3 Rome 4 Cofounded the city Descendants of the 100 original followers of Romulus Only Patricians can be on the senate Plebeian 1 The Roman class of commoners 2 500 BC 3 Rome 4 Eventually gained right to engage in politics but not culturally expected to do so Makes up the business class May be considered unofficial Patricians by adhering to the same moral and social standards Asceticism 1 A rejection of physical pleasures that in its extreme can lead to deprivations and even starvation 2 500 BC 3 India 4 Pressured the Vedic system to evolve making it less rigorous and allowing for a variety of new and profoundly influential religions to emerge Civil Service Examination 1 First instituted in Han China by emperor Wu a centrally administered test for applicants to government jobs that measures their qualifications the goal was to base appointments on merit rather than political or other connections 2 150 BC 3 China 4 This eventually led to a centralized education system designed to prepare students for these exams The graduates who became the empire39s officials in turn formed a new class of educated men more loyal to the sate than to the aristocratic families Because Confucian ideas formed the basis of their education the central role of these ideas in formal training was confirmed for two millennia and created a Chinese elite connected by their participation in a shared intellectual tradition Silk Road 1 The caravan route with various branches that connected China in the east to the Mediterranean Sea in the west passing through regions such as South and Southwest Asia 2 500 BC 3 India 4 Ideas also moved along the silk road it was the route by which Buddhism and Christianity spread to China Stu a f A Buddhist monument built to hold a part of the Buddha39s remains or an object connected to him 2 450 BC 3 India 4 The emperor Ashoka built eightyfour thousand stupas after he converted to Buddhism in 260 BC giving the Buddha a physical presence throughout India Consul 1 In the Roman Republic the 2 highest magistrates 2 500 BC 3 Rome 4 Can serve as general and demand executions In times of crises the Senate gave absolute power to a single consul the dictator Magistrate 1 A Roman gov official with 1 year terms 2 500 BC 3 Rome 4 Praetors Junior officers assist Consuls Quaestors supervise treasury finances supply armies All previous magistrates are on the senate Martyrdom 1 The suffering of death for one39s religious beliefs 64 AD Burning of Rome Persecution and death become embraced as part of Christian identity salvation only through death by persecution WN Romanization 1 The process by which the Latin language and Roman culture became dominant in the western provinces of the Roman Empire The Roman government did not actively seek to Romanize the subject peoples but indigenous peoples in the provinces often chose to Romanize because of the political and economic advantages that it brought as well as the allure of Roman success 2 50 BC 3 Roman provinces 4 In Palestine the process of Romanization was contested with some Jewish groups choosing to adopt Roman ways and others seeing Roman rule and Roman culture as totally incompatible with the survival of an authentic Jewish identity These competing Jewish interpretations allowed the teachings of Jesus to become popular Tribune 1 The Roman magistrate whose role was to protect the interests of the plebeians 2 494 BC 3 Rome 4 The first acquisition of real power by the plebeians Elected only by Plebeians Cannot be physically touched Absolute veto power Chairmanship over plebeian assemblies