Diseases of Livestock
Diseases of Livestock AGR 501
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This 153 page Class Notes was uploaded by Noe Vandervort on Thursday October 15, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to AGR 501 at Murray State University taught by William Dewees in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see /class/223595/agr-501-murray-state-university in Agricultural & Resource Econ at Murray State University.
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Date Created: 10/15/15
Soft Tissue Diseases of Livestock AGR 501 Diseases of Livestock William DeWees DVM Diseases of limbs and Soft Tissues Know 13 diseases 1 Clostridial Myositis 2 Foot diseases in ruminants 3 Fesoue foot 4 Navel ill joint ill 5 Laminitis 6 Navioular 7 Exertional rhabdornyosis 13 diseases 8 Erysipelas 9 Porcine Stress Syndrome 10 Osteornyelitis 11 Lumpy Jaw 12 Thrush 13 Caprine Arthritis Encephalitis Disease Name st Etiology causative organism a Clinical Signs 9 Diagnosis 9 Treatment 3 Prevention control st Add and compare all information in class With What is found in Merck Clostrid ial Organisms ozo Gram positive rods known as clostridium oz Anaerobic excellentinexpensive vaccines to prevent oz Sporeforming with toxin producers ozo Natural habitat is the soil and the intestinal tract ozo Three types oto Tissue invadingOrganisms actively invade and reproduce in tissues producing a toxin that enhances the spread of infection the gas gangrene group exChauvoei ozo Toxigenic Organisms that produce a toxemia from the absorption of toxins produced by the organisms in the digestive tractthe entertoxemias in devitalized tissuetetanus and in food botulism does not invade body but kills by toxins to Toxigenic amp tissue invading ex perfringens Clostridium st Chauvoei Blackleg st Septicurn Malignant Edema a Novyi necrotic hepatitis 9 Sordellii Big Head 3 Haemolytieum Redwater disease zo P erfringens C amp D enterotoxaemia 99 Also botulinum and tetani Bacillary Hemoglobinuria or Redwater Disease st Acute infectious toxemic disease 9 Caused by Clostridium haemolyticum a Affects primarily cattle amp sheep in the western US and around the world Etiology oz A soil born organism that may be found naturally in the digestive tract oz An animal may harbor the organism for long periods ozo Until it can grow in a anaerobic environment then spores germinate and produce toxins ozo Toxins produce intravascular hemolysis hemolytic anemia and hemoglobinuria damage to liver can predispose What can damage the liver a 39 7 7 Clinical Findings ozo Port Wine color urine excreted by affected animal ozo Sudden death is most common ozo If still alive rapid debilitation of body systems ozo Mortality if untreated is 95 0 Lesions include dehydration and anemia oz Bloody uid in the abdominal and thoracic cavities ozo Intestinal lumens may be blood lled oz Bladder contains purplish red urine that foams feely when poured or voided oz A liver infarct is pathognomonic Control st Penicillin in very high doses is helpful if caught early 9 Blood transfusions to treat the anemia zo Immunization bacterin to prevent 1 9 Antiserum 9 Burn andor destroy carcasses Why Q Blackleg st Acute febrile disease caused by Clostridium chavoei Sudden Death in calves st Characterized by emphysematous swelling in the heavy muscles of calves and sudden death st Generally rapidly growing calves between 6 amp 24 months 99 Found worldwide 99 Caused by ingested spores 39and or contaminated woundpresence of wound often not present Q a Etiology 394 Normal inhabitant of the intestinal tract of man and animals st Spores survive in soil for many years 100 st Spores are ingested and get through the digestive tract into the bloodstream and are deposited in the muscle and other tissues 9 Bruising or other factors may precipitate the disease as well as lack of immunity st Can occur at any age but most common in the animals less than 2 years old Clinical Findings and Lesions 39l 7 oz Acute onset most are found dead or slightly lame oz Initial fever but by the time signs are seen temp is normal or below a Swelling progresses to crepitation crackles skin becomes cold and insensitive a Death occurs in 1248 hours a Lesions include subcutaneous crepitus over a darkened red to black muscle especially in neck amp round area Control a Vaccination with a bacterin 1 a Antibiotics effective but disease progresses too rapidly Penicillin Vaccinated between 26 months 24 weeks apart with yearly boosters in high risk areas a In an outbreak give large doses of Penicillin to all at risk animals along with a dose of vaccine This is an example of What muscle tissue would look like in an effected g 39l 7 Infectious Necrotic Hepatitis oz Clostridial diSease of sheep and cattle caused by C novyi ozo Multiplies in the liver in the lesions caused by liver ukes oz Produces a powerful necrotizing toxin highly fatal 2 Death is sudden with liver lesions and extensive rupture of the capillaries in the SQ which causes the adjacent skin to turn black necrosis of the liver ozo Infrequently called Black Disease because SQ on post mortem is blackened from venous congestion amp hemorrhage oz Vaccination is the only practical control method along with controlling liver ukes how can we do this w Malignant Edema Q st Caused by C septicum occurring in most farm animal species including horses but mostly in cattle of any age st Occurs through contamination of wounds containing deyitalized tissue soil or some other tissue debilitate causes exotoxins gangrene st Wound can be caused by accident castration docking shearing vaccination injection of other materials or parturition a Q n Clinical Signs 9 Occur within hours to days after injury st Locally soft swellings with large amounts of exudate with the muscle underneath turning brownblack painful swollen tissues fever Fat legged Cows 99 Looks much like blackleg st Vaccination is key to control 99 Penicillin may help if initiated early enough Botulism 3 Caused by ingesting the toxin of C botulinum not the infection from C bot ozo Many different types With some species differentiation cattle poultry dogs affected a Shaker foal syndromeC bot grows in tissues of the foal producing the toxin 4 Fatal paralytic disease after consumption of spoiled feeds toxin proliferates in spoiled feed ozo Being anaerobic thrives in grain or tightly packed wet hay dead rodents or birds in hay or grain bins a source of the organism Clinical Findings st Muscle paralysis leading to cardiac and respiratory arrest zo Drooling motor paralysis facial paralysis zo Starts in rear limbs and moves forward zo Death Within 2472 hours after clinical signs a Control is dif cult other than to clean up suspected causative factors Enterotoxemias oz Caused by C perfringens ozo Five different types normal component of intestinal micro ora usually effects young ruminants oz Type A affects poultry and dogs oz Type B and C affect young lambs calves pigs and foals ozo Type D affects sheep ozo Type B does not affect animals ozo Also known as overeating disease in lambs or pulpy kidney disease why Q I w Types B and C ozo Causes Severe enteritis dySentery and toxemia in young animals less than 1 month old usually wellfed Vigorous lambs over consuming CHO produce proper gut conditions liquefactiye necrosis 3 Signs include a fetid blood tinged diarrhea ozo Death is rapid strikes suddenly almost always fatal ozo Portions of the intestinal tract may be lled with frank blood or blood tinged fecal materials With many gram rods on the lining of the tract ozo Control by vaccination of the dam in the last trimester ozo Oral or Parenteral antiserum may be given prior to exposure to the toxin Type D a Affects sheep and Will be covered With another topic V um r39 Tetanus Lockj aw ozo Caused by C tetani which produces a neurotoxin ozo Affects horses sheep goats cattle fatal horses 10X more sensitive than humans oz Introduced into an animal usually with a deep puncture wound which may include a needle puncture 399 Organism cannot grow with oxygen found in soil ozo Toxin is absorbed by motor nerves in the area and passes up the nerve tract to the spinal cord and then to the brain ozo The circulatory system may carry excess t0xi39n directly to the brain and then cause spasms especially when the animal is stimulated a n 39 7 Clinical Findings st Incubation may take 1014 days or longer a Localized stiffness occurs rst especially in the face and head lockj aw st Animal may assume a sawhorse stance in order to balance hyper responsive to sounds 3 Horses have a ashing of the third eyelid ruminants bloat st Stiffness and rigidity continue to progress Control st Vaccination with tetanus toxoid st Cleanliness and disinfection critical st Booster at time of injury st If not vaccinated use tetanus antitoxin which provides a passive immunity for up to 2 weeks st Give toxoid at same time with a booster in 1 month st Mares should be vaccinated during the last month of pregnancy and foals at 23 months of age Treatment st Early stagescontrol spasms often unsuccessful st Tetanus antitoxin in large doses BID st Clean and drain wounds st Penicillin 99 Supportive care uids slings dark quiet stalls st What would happen if you injected the bacteria with the toxin IV into a horse v1v i I f1 1 1 Clostridium Sordellii 6o Sudden death primarily in feedlot cattle sometimes sheep 9 Transmission probably by mouth a Clinical sign is dead animal no treatment a Massive black smelly hemorrhage in brisket and throat area on postmortem st Sometimes called big head 7 Way Vaccine in Cattle a Cl Chauvoei 9 C1 Septicum 9 C1 Novyi 6 C1 Sordellii a C1 Haemolyticum a C1 Perfringens type C amp D 99 8 Way would include type B Foot Rot a Etiology Fusobacterium necrophorum most common amp Bacteriodes nodosus Dichelobacter nodosus in sheep smells bad strict anaerobes weaker pathogens but when invades wicked bad a CS lameness swelling of foot fever discharge pain occurs most commonly on moist pastures 99 DX CS 9 TX systemic antibiotics keep foot clean and dry debride necrotic tissue foot baths 3 PX management dif cult to eradicate Foot Care Strategies 9 9 O airy cows live a different life D Virtually everything revolves around productivity of feet zo Lame oattle do not get up or eat or drink regularly or express heat well 9 9 9 stquot You can make a difference in cows life and success of dairy by giving proper attention to feet a Foot Care Strategies cont g39 7 1 Proper nutrition high energy rations create rumen acidosis balance of minerals and Vitamins supplemental biotin 2 Cow comfort encouraging free stalls mattresses sand rubber mats overcrowding concrete pros and cons 3 Foot Care Plan exams trimming locomotion scoring program footbaths genetics a F eseue Foot st Etiology endophyte fungus Aerenomium ooenophialum releases toxin Ergovaline from fesoue grass st CS fesoue foot summer slump mare amp cow show reproductive dif culties lameness weight loss dry gangrene of extremities tail and ears can slough a DX es amp history st PX fungus free grass olovers Vit Esel 9 You may think the most common cause of lameness in foals is pasture play but When foal goes lame think joint ill rst 9 Bacterial infection of j oints st Attacks any part of joint cartilage joint capsule bone o If gets to bone long term results a I 7 Naval ill J oint ill oz Etiology usually FPT Many bacteria associated a CS calves with umbilical abscesses foals With joint problems or death pigs With infections of heart general signs of infected joints hot and swollen Fever oz DX cs blood culture TPimmunoglobulin concentration ozo TX antibiotics or serum transfer ozo Prevention sanitation Where animals born naval dip insure colostrum ingestion prompt treatment a I 7 Laminitis Founder ozo Etiology excessive CHO ingestion road founder retained placenta lush pasture cold water colic ozo Disruption of blood ow to the laminaein ammation interferes With hoof wallbone bondleads to separation ozo Grain overload leads to rumen acidosis Which leads to laminitis oz Seen frequently in young dairy or beef calves ozo Local manifestation in the foot of a systemic disturbance Painful disease sometimes preventable Risk Factors fOr Laminitis st Heavy breeds st Overweight st High nutritional plane st Ponies st Grain binges st Previous episodes of laminitis Mechanism of Grain Overload ozo Too much CHO intake causes a decrease in the pH of the GI tract from lactic acid production ozo This kills the normal bacteria in the guts ozo This results in endotoxin release oz The acid damages the intestinal mucosa and allows for the absorption of endotoxin and lactic acid oz This results in a systemic acidosis and endotoxemia ozo The nal result is circulatory failure especially of the laminar capillaries ozo Fluids from the bloodstream move into the guts and dehydration follows diarrhea Laminitis st Clinical Signs ozo Lameness ozo Equine front feetbone and hoof wall separate causing cof n bone to sink ozoBovine rear feet and front feet ozo Reluctance to move ozo Shifting weight 2 Increased digital artery pulse a Hoof wall is warm ozo Extreme sensitivity to hoof testers Laminitis continued zo Diagnosis clinical sings and Xray a Treatment involves three principles oz Remove the precipitating factor oz Relieve the pain oz CorrectImprove circulation 69 Prevention and Control Navicular Disease st Etiology rnulti factorial ozo Heritable conformation zo Vascular problems ozo Stressed joint oz Degenerative process seen around 7 years st Clinical signs mostly related to the horse trying to relieve pressure on the heels st Diagnosis response to nerve blockXrays NaVicular Disease continued st Treatment ozoNO cure zo Special shoes ozo NSAIDs nonsteroidal antiin ammatory drugs oz Cut the nerve oz Steroids Exertional Rhabdomyolysis Tying Up Monday Morning Disease 9 Etiology zo Clinical Signs oz Stiff or stilted gait ozo Cramping resulting in a reluctance to move zo Anxious oz Sweating ozo Increased respiratoryheart rate ozo Pain with deep palpation of the muscles of back and hind limbs Exertional Rhabdornyolysis cont 9 Differentials oz Diagnosis oz Creatine kinase CK oz AST 3 Dehydration ozo Low chloride and low calcium 00 Positive hemoglobin in the urine ozo Muscle biopsy Exertional Rhabdomyolysis cont 9 Treatment ozo Minimize further movement oz Nonsteroidal antiin ammatory oz Xylazine oz Corticosteroids 9 Muscle relaxants ozo Fluid and electrolyte balance zo Prevention Erysipelas oz Etiology ErysipelothriX rhusiopathiae gram positive aerobic rod 9 Clinical signs a High fever oz Edema of the limbs and face oz Skin lesions oz Causes thrombi formation in blood vessels which results in rhomboid skin lesions and vegetative endocarditis oz Severe arthritis Erysipelas cont st Diagnosis ozo Clinical signs zo Culture response to therapy st Treatment Penicillin 3 Prevention and control 0 Vaccination 0 Sanitation a Porcine Stress Syndrome Also called malignant hyperthermia PSS or PSE pork Etiology nonpathological a heritable disease autosomal recessive gene for excessive skeletal muscle metabolism establish carrier state via gene probe for CT mutation Incidence higher in lean heavily muscled breeds or individuals CS Nervousness tremors stiff hyperthermia tachypnea tachycardia cyanosis death DX cs CPK serum enzymes high Halothane test yields poor quality meat to establish carrier stategene probe for a C T mutation TX work slow and cull PX genetic selection especially sires a Osteomyelitis st Bone infectionseen a lot in pigs of any age o In young foals most common cause is hematogenous spread of infectious organisms st Integument damaged due to concrete ghting and pilinggt lesions extends to bone and joints st Caseous pus seen at site of lesion 9 Treatment usually not economically feasible a g39 7 Lumpy Jaw oz Actinomycosis bovis the etiologic agent a Gram nonacid fast rods that branch st Chronic progressive granulomatous abcesses involving the mandible oz Introduced to underlining tissues via penetrating wounds Wire sticks ect a Diagnosis PE 9 Treatment earlier the betterremoval of diseased area Thrush o A disease of horses foot o A moist dermatitis of the frog that emits a sour foul odor a Can lead to lameness a Common in adult horses kept in con nement a Fusobacterium necrophorum common isolate but differs with location st Prevent by CE on proper hygiene and foot care xi Q Caprine ArthritisEncephalitis CAE ozo Common in adult dairy goats Viral infection oz Demonstrates a high prevalence of seroconversion in affected herds ozo Transmitted to kids through milk and colostrum oz Clinical Signs enlarged carpal joints big knees weight loss poor hair coat a Lab Tests AGID ELISA ozo Therapeutic Plan no treatment 99 Prevention ID infected animals and cull separate kids at birth and feed pasteurized colostrummilk AGR 501 Dr Bill DeWees Murray State University w 39 rz 51 y 4 Ln h w grim a 7 8 quot1quot r v3 19 I Ii Iquot I I L Em METHODS USED TO MINIMIZE THE INCIDENCE OF DISEASE Function keg Surge control device M 5 w 39 v input output error De 5ng mg z Peripherals hardware 14 9 quot 7quot Supplenta fa quot data 1 W General Principles of Health 1 Nutrition Housing Sanitation disinfection 593 Regular observation I Make sure the ration being fed is balanced and contains the proper levels of Vitamins and minerals I I Well fed animals in good condition are believed to be more resistant to disease than animals in poor condition I Wellfed animals are better able to defend against parasites Poor Nutrition l Weak Animals DecreaLed Immunity Increase in Disease 139 v ff 731 Mucous membranes and the skin provide animals With the rst line of defense against disease Vitamins A B2 and Niacin are necessary to keep these epithelial surfaces healthy Proteins and several of the B complex Vitamins are essential for the production of antibodies and phagocytes The speci c role of nutrition in the treatment of disease Will depend upon the nature of the problem itself 139 v ff 731 Highly digestible carbohydrates are essential in the diet of sick animals to provide a quick source of energy and to release protein for the use in the repair of damaged tissues During an illness an animal s requirements for Vitamins especially B Vitamins is greatly increased requirements that include proteins carbohydrates fats Vitamins minerals and water The amount and quality of the nutrients required for good health and ef cient production vary according to species age sex gestation and lactation Water is essential for life Whenever there is a loss of 7 10 total body water the animal is bigtime distressed a loss of 1215 Will cause death in Functions of water include 1Essential to dissolve all food before it may be utilized by the body 2The blood lymph gastric juice joint uid spinal uid is mainly water 3Waste products of the body are mostly removed in solution 4The normal body temperature of the body Will not be maintained Without an adequate supply of water Good Sanitation l Clean Feed I Throwing food on the ground grain for the animal to consume is an extremely unhealthy practice because there are increased number of parasites One should use self feeders that are easily kept clean wood is one of the most dif cult things to disinfect Water troughs feed bins hay rings should be cleaned regularly I Storage of feed should be in areas Where feed will be dry and clean I Bins for the storage of grain should be rodent proof The process of heating and holding a liquid substance milk to destroy pathogenic microorganisms Any liquid given to young animals should be pasteurized to reduce incidence of stomach unrest Will not reduce nutritional value of milk or cause it to curdle Old Method 145F for 15 minutestaste Common Method 161F for 15 seconds Flash Method Ultra pasteurized 280F for 2 seconds this sterilizes milk and increases shelf life Liquid then rapidly cooled sealed and stored I Clean Water 39 I Water should always be freely accessible to all animals I Water should not contain any fecal matter because the Viability of eggs in water can exist for a very long time I Flowing water does have the disadvantage of potentially transmitting disease however this is usually minimal I Most of the eliminations from the body contain high levels of the infectious organism in a disease state Example would be Where large numbers of people are placed in a small area without toilet facilities I Pasture Rotation this helps in the prevention of several communicable diseases as well as internal parasitism Disposal of Carcasses 59 Even after death of an animal the carcass can still serve as a reservoir for the disease causing organism What is approved Burned Buried Cornposted Rendered I If the carcasses of dead animals are not buried correctly they Will be very accessible to healthy animals I Don ts about Carcass Disposal I Do not dispose in or near a stream I Do not use carcass for animal feed I Do not permit the carcass to come in contact With biting insects I Do s about Carcass Disposal l Burn carcass in an incinerator l Bury animal I Chemicals used to help disinfect a contaminated area I Disinfectants substances used to destroy bacteria or other organisms on inanimate objects I For example oral equipment amp instruments drenching guns balling guns should be cleaned amp disinfected I Dehomers needles palpation sleeves can spread diseases like anaplasmosis amp BLV I Antiseptic substance used to remove bacteria on living animals Most antisepties retard the growth and reproduction of the organism I Sanitizer reduces the initial population of a microorganism to an acceptable level y 2 2 If Types of Disinfectants Lye 2 solution Lime Good for soil Changes pH Chlorine Dilute Clorox 130 with water Creosol 2 solution F ormaldehyde 37 solution excellent Will kill anything carcinogenic Nolvasan Effective easy to work With expensive can be used as an antiseptic Virasan Expensive Roccal D Green Solution I Sunlight Natural disinfectant takes 1530 days to have the same effect as chemicals 39Disinfectants should be rotated periodically no h V H 7 I v t L Consistently achieves complete sterility Inexpensive and easy to operate Requires understanding of technique Heat is the killing agent steam is the vector Pressure is means to create adequately heated steam Temperture 121 C or 212 F Pressure 15 psi the higher the pressure less the time Exposure time 15 minutes 39a accination There are two types of immunity I 1 Natural or innate immuni at w 2 tylmmunity that an animal is born with inherited Species resistance Breed resistance Individual Resistance Physical and chemical barriers to antigen like intact skin stomach acids commensal organisms Humoral and cell mediated immune systems If the innate system successful AB production Wn occur I Animals are born with 5 0f the total immunity they need I Humans are born with 95 0f the immunity they need I 2 Acquired Immunity Immunity that an animal acquires after birth boosts natural immunity eta 1 Active Immunity Immune system is stimulated by some natural mechanism such as natural exposure to disease or vaccination arti cial stimulation I 2 Passive Immunity Transferring antibodies from one animal to another passively such as through the colostrum in mother s rst milk injecting antibodies through the serum from another animal that created those antibodies Provides temporary protection I This type of immunity does not last as long as active immunitytemporary protection I Antibodies transferred through the colostrum must be done in the rst 24 hours peak absorption occurs in the rst 8 hours 5 f I Antibodies from the colostrum last for approximately 3 months and then start to drop off Maternal antibodies drop from 3 6 months of age at which time the animal should be vaccinated I Vaccinate too soon and interference with maternal antibodies and cause more harm than good I At approximately one year of age antibodies begin to decline again I So when vaccinating for the rst time vaccinate once then repeat the dose in 3 to 39 4 weeks AND administer yearly boosters Biological Agents l Noncellular components that bind to antigens and neutralizing 5 classes 1 IgM B lymphocytes con ned to vascular system 39 plasma cells or AB forming cells secrete 2 IgG plasma cells produce during secondary responses cross placenta to give short term immunity to newborn x 3 IgA plasma cells produce in lymph nodes of GI urogenital or eyes 4 IgE found in plasma of healthy animals boosts local in ammatory reactions protects vs helminths Z 5 IgD antigen receptor for B cells I Understand primary vs secondary immune quot response I Know types of acquired immunity natural arti cial active passive I Understand the types of hypersensitivity reactions l Biologicals or immunizing agents include quot antigens or antibodies Whose causative organisms have been identi ed I A biological agent made from a Virus is a vaccine I Vacc1ns Importaint in preventive health care program Reduces chances of disease occurring Ideal would be safe effective no side effects and cost effective Know difference between killed attenuatedlive MLV recombinant and monoclonalpolyvalent Takes 710 days for the immune system to produce antibodies Effective for about one year Biologic agent made from a virus vaccine Best stored at 4050F With cattle and swine use clean needle every 10 15 head horses get clean needle every timeWhy I Live Virus Vaccine I Stimulates antibodies against a speci c 13 disease I Virus has not been altered I Advantage best response l Disadvantage capable of causing disease 345 quoti I Modi ed Live Vaccine I Growth and subsequent change of a Virus I Has been altered so that it Will stimulate 1 antibody formation against the disease I Host recognizes it as the disease I Advantage good response safer I Disadvantage not as good a response capable of causing disease but not as much Why do these new excellent MLV vaccines sometimes fail I Killed vaccine Killed Vaccines I Also called inactivated I A physical or chemical agent is used to destroy the pathogenic organism I Suspension of inert Viral material is used in the injection to stimulate an antibody response I A nite antigen mass at injection I Requires an adjuvant Advantage safer best to use with a stressed animal stable and safe Disadvantage does not result in as good an immunity response is not as good provides no cellular or mueosal immunity I Bacterins I Effective for about one year I Suspension of a killed bacteria used to stimulate immunity to a bacterial disease u 3 932 an I Effective for about one year I Physically or chemically inactivated toxin Which is used in suspension to inject to stimulate an immune response against the toxin I The animal develops antibodies against the toxin l Example would be a tetanus toxoid I Antitoxin I Effective for about 3 months I Toxin is injected into lab animals to produce antibodies antibodies are removed from the lab animal and injected into another animal I Advantage faster response good for emergencies l Disadvantage doesn t last as long Reasons for Vaccination Failure quoti I Host Factors I Heredity and acquired immunode ciencies I Maternal immunity I Age if I Pregnancy I Concurrent immunosuppressiye therapy I Body temperature We I Anesthesia and surgery dim I Vaccine Factors I Manufacturer I Storage and handling I Strain differences I Adjuvant failure I Human Factors 3 V3 I I I 5 I 93 I I Administration of antimicrobials Improper use of disinfectants Vaccine interference Mixing of products improper route Route of administration Rough handling storage Parasites Controlling externals and internals is a high priority for horse and livestock owners Anthelmintics are drugs used to control or kill at that one point in time the internal parasites Can you de ne symbiosis and parasitiasis Parasites living outside the animal body are called ectoparasites Parasites living Within the body are called endoparasites An animal with ectoparasites is infested An animal with endoparasites is infected Each parasite has its own life cycle with de nitive and intermediate hosts Some parasites have zoonotic potential Can we ever eradicate parasites Please read in the Clinical Textbook for Veterinary Technicians by McCurnin the introduction in the chapter on parasitology and the sections on horses and ruminants and read pages 13621363 in Merck Quarantine Regular Observations I Do not introduce any new animals into a given herd before the new animals have been isolated for a period of 3090 days I Critical to wellbeing of herd I Earlier problem noticed more successful the treatment I Isolation is the key word It requires that animals are kept at a minimum distance of 6 feet from any animals in the established herd I Within a period of 3090 days most diseases will have surfaced Remember that this is Where the incubation times for various diseases are so important Some diseases can have longer incubation periods than 90 days I Quarantine may also require that animals be blood tested for antibody titers to various diseases A minimum time frame of 2 weeks between two successive tests should be given I Once a microbe invades the body the host will overcome the organism will kill the host or a carrier state will develop All animals should have some means of protection against the elements whether it be winter or summer Cattle require protection from sun heat cold wind amp rain amp good fencing Make sure all housing has adequate ventilation as well The individual who is ultimately responsible for any drug residues in the meat of an animal is the owner What is proper housing Minimize Stress I Stress is de ned as any mentally or emotionally disruptive 0r disquieting in uence to subject to pressure strain or force
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