Geology 1300 Week 3 Notes
Geology 1300 Week 3 Notes GEOS 1300
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Erin Malone on Tuesday March 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GEOS 1300 at Western Michigan University taught by Kaczmarek in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 50 views. For similar materials see Physical Geology in Geology at Western Michigan University.
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Date Created: 03/22/16
Week 3 Notes (Jan 25 -Jan 29 )th January 25,2016 iClicker Questions The macroscopic properties of minerals are controlled by the atomic scale arrangement of the atoms and molecules (True) Cleavage, hardness, color, luster, streak, shape, and density (all the properties) are dictated by atomic scale properties o Chemical composition o Crystalline Structure Bonds Chemical bonds form mineral compound o Determined by arrangement of electrons around nuclei of atoms involved (types) Bond types o Ionic: transferred o Covalent: shared o Metallic: roam between atoms Ionic Bonds (NaCl) o Imbalance of protons and neutrons creates charged ions (anion, cation) Covalent Bonds o Uncharged atoms bonds sharing electrons in outermost orbit o Stronger than ionic bonds Metallic Bonds o Valence electrons roam between atoms o Conductivity Van der Waals Forces o Unequal electrons distribution Water molecules Diamond = Covalent Bond Graphite = Van deer Waals forces Which type of atomic bonds are strongest? o Covalent Determines Physical Properties o Minerals can have more than 1 type of bond (True) Multiple Bonds o Minerals can contain more than 1 bond type CaCO and3SiO (cov2lent and ionic) How to break bonds o Dissolve in water Halite (NaCl) Van der Waals Bonds Types of bonds are broken when calcite (CaCO 3 dissolves in water (ionic) hydrochloric acid (HCl) January 27, 2016 Rock and Rock Forming iClicker Questions Which is not an igneous process? o Cementation Not a sedimentary rock o Granite Rock Types Aggregates of mineral Form from o Processes at or near Earth’s surface (Observable) o Active within the Earth subsurface Form from lithified bits of rock and mineral fragments moved and reshaped by abrasive process and/or organically derived mineral like matter Precipitation of mineral from water Molten from magma Two groups o Descriptive (similar appearance) o Genetic (similar process of origin) External Processes: observations show active surface produce mineral and hence rocks Internal Processes: observations of rocks unassociated with the surface Sedimentary Rocks o Physical weathering causes rocks to break down into rock fragments or mineral grains (mechanical) o Chemical weathering: reaction among minerals the atmosphere, water produce dissolved ions and new minerals Igneous rocks: crystallization of molten (magma) o Volcanic or extrusive igneous rocks (cool fast, small crystals) o Plutonic or intrusive igneous rocks (cools slow, large crystals) Metamorphic rock o Change pre-existing rock o Metamorphism Alters shape and/or orientation of crystals Changes mineral to different mineral Rock classification system based on o Genetic characteristic Plate Tectonic Theory Plate: rigid lithosphere; moves a single unit, grow at ocean ridge system (ORS) o Constructive boundaries (divergent) destroyed at trenches o Destructive plate boundaries (convergent: less dense plate remains, more dense slides under less dense) o Move past one another at transform boundaries Boundaries: concentrated geologic activity January 29, 2016 Layered Earth Model Interior of Earth is layered o Lithosphere Continental crust Oceanic crust o Crust: lowest density material o Mantle: middle density material o Core: highest density material o Upper Mantle Lower lithosphere, upper asthenosphere Divergent/Constructive Plate Boundaries Correspond to ORS o Topographic highs o Magma upwelling o Constructive Create new ocean lithosphere o Elevated seismic activity Shallow earthquakes Volcanism 2 lithosphere plates converge Ocean-ocean; ocean-continent; continent-continent o Subdivisions Subduction characterized by: o Trenches: bathymetric lows o Asymmetrical Geometry o Destructive Destroys old ocean lithosphere plates (10) Elevated Seismic activity o Shallow and deep earthquakes o Volcanism How many lithosphere plates (10) Evidence of plate tectonics o Distribution of earthquakes iClicker Question Not a major earth layer o Magma Order of Earth’s layers (shallow to deep) o Crust, mantle, outer core, inner core
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