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by: Barbara Lowe

Ichthyology BIO 570

Barbara Lowe
GPA 3.77

Thomas Timmons

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Thomas Timmons
Class Notes
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Barbara Lowe on Thursday October 15, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 570 at Murray State University taught by Thomas Timmons in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see /class/223612/bio-570-murray-state-university in Biology at Murray State University.


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Date Created: 10/15/15
A Notes for First Exam What is a sh 1 2 o3 o4 5 O6 o7 Estimated gt 1500000 species of animals EO Wilson 1992 0 751000 insects 50000 molluscs 73000 arachnids 30000 protozoans 25000 crustaceans o Vertebrates 79000 Aves 710500 ReptilesAmphibians 75000 Mammals 725000 Fishes 0 Nelson 1994 Eschmeyer 1998 Phylum Chordata Subphylum Vertebrata 0 Class MyXini hag shes 0 Class Cephalaspidomorpha lampreys 0 Once superclass Agnatha jawless shes with hag shes 0 About 80 species 0 Class Chondrichthyes 7 sharks skates rays chimaeras 0 About 800 species plus 30 species of chimaeras 0 Class Actinopterygii 7 bony rayfmed shes often listed as Osteichthyes o gt 24000 species Actinopterygii Ecological Distribution of Species 1 Primary Freshwater 33 7Little salt tolerance 2 Secondary Freshwater 8 7May inhabitat brackish waters 7Poeciliidae Cichlidae Fundulidae Cyprinodontidae ABOVE MOSTLY FRESHWATER MAKE UP 41 3 Diadromous 1 7Marine and Freshwater life history 7A anadromous spawn in freshwater move to ocean Salmonidae Acipenseridae Moronidae 7B catadromous spawn in ocean move to freshwater o Anguillidae 4 Marine shore amp continental shelf 46 5 Continental slope amp benthic lt 200 m 6 6 Epipelagic high seas 0200 m 1 7 Deep pelagic gt 200 m 5 Total Marine 58 0 Volume of water on Earth s surface Oceans 7 Freshwaters 7 Glaciers Ice 7 Groundwater 7 So only 001 freshwater BUT 41 of species offish 7 15 km3 of water per freshwater species 7 113000 km3 ofwater per marine species Why is there so much speciation in freshwater o Habitats diverse and isolated Freshwater diversity 0 Africa 2780 0 South America 24004000 0 Tropical Asia 2500 0 North America 1033 0 Europe 3 19 0 Central America 242 equal to Kentucky 0 Australia 188 Why does North America have fewer species than S Amer Or Africa Approximately 775 species of freshwater fishes in North America excluding Mexico according to a 1980 estimate 0 Tennessee 320 0 Alabama 265 0 Kentucky 242 0 Missouri 198 Water characteristics 0 Great density 7800 times that of atmosphere 7Allows buoyancy 0 Low compressibility 7Allows fish movement 7Allows use of lateral line system 7Allows sound 0 Universal solvent 7Allows dissolved oxygen amp waste gases to dissolve 0 Low penetrability to light 7 Most sh live in photic zone 0 Slow temperature change 7 Temperature lags behind seasonal air temperatures 7 Ice oats and insulates water from winter temperatures in northern climates Basic anatomy for identi cation Body shape A Fusiform body I Best for continuous swimming I Produces the least drag Maximum speed of a sh depends on I 1 power of propulsive effort and ef ciency of locomotion 7 musculature I 2 ef ciency of overcoming drag of water 7Friction drag 7Pressure drag 7Total drag friction pressure Friction drag I Water immediately surrounding moving body moves with the object Increase the surface area and the friction drag increases 7Least surface areavolume ratio is a sphere and thus cross section of fusiform body is a sphere Increase speed and the boundary layer thins and roughness of surface important 7Fastest swimmers have no scales or embedded scales Pressure drag I Fast speeds create pressure drag and turbulent ow I Pressure drag least with fusiform body Fusiform includes many fast swimming ocean species tuna marlin mackerel sword sh and some freshwater young Micropterus many cyprinids striped bass B Compressed body 0 Compromise between ideal swimming and ideal camou age 7 Adaptation for maneuvering in vegetation or coral reef 7 Many pelagic sh less conspicuous to predators above and below Compressed includes Clupeidae many Centrarchidae Hiodontidae C Depressed body 0 Adaptation for bottom feeding and avoiding high velocity streams Depressed includes Ictaluridae Cottidae and can be extreme like the ounder D Surfaceoriented fish 0 Terminal mouth 0 Large eyes 0 Dorsoventrally attened head 7Fundulidae 7P0eciliidae 7Atherinidae now includes new world Atherinopsidae Eellike fish Elongate Tapering or rounded tail Paired ns small or absent Anguillidae O O O m Basic anatomy for identi cation Fins 0 Location size and shape associated with body shape and function 7 Propel 7 Stabilize 7 Manuever 7 Protect spines Types Dorsal fin soft rays and may have spines Anal fin 7 soft rays and may have spines Caudal 7 soft rays Adipose 7 eshy PelVic 7 Paired soft rays and may have spines Pectoral 7 Paired soft rays and may have spines Meristic characteristics Spines 7 count all Principal rays Dorsal amp Anal n 7 count branched rays plus one unbranched ray Caudal amp paired ns 7 count all principal rays but usually not rudimentary soft rays Except Salmonidae Esocidae Ictaluridae Position of Pelvic ns Thoracic often spinyrayed sh like Percidae Centrarchidae Abdominal often softrayed sh like Cyprinidae Catostomidae Ictaluridae Jugular Gadidae Scale Counts Lateral line scales 7 complete versus incomplete Scales above LL Scales below LL Scales of caudal peduncle Pharyngeal teeth Allow for masticating food amp frees the jaws for grasping Molariform 7 at amp thick like molars Comblike 7 ne teeth Hooked 7 cutting teeth Gill Rakers Like teeth descriptive of feeding Morphological characteristics Phylum Chordata o Notochord present at some stage 7FleXible rod provides skeletal support for muscles in members without rigid vertebrae o Dorsal tubular nerve cord 7Enlarged anteriorly to form a brain 0 Pharyngeal gill slits 7Present at some stage 0 Postanal tail 7Present at some stage 0 Subphylum Vertebrata 7 Class MyXini 7 Class Cephalaspidomorpha 7 Class Chondrichthyes Cl 0 7 Class Actinopterygii previously Osteichthyes ass MyXini Jawless No bony or cartilaginous vertebrae Strictly marine slime sh hag sh Class Cephalaspidomorpha Family Petromyzontidae Jawless Cartilaginous skeleton No paired ns No scales Diphycercal caudal Notochord persistent No swim bladder Spiral valve 7 gill openings Iills in spherical pouches Class Chondrichthyes OOOOOOOOO Jaws Cartilaginous skeleton Paired ns Placoid scales No swim bladder Spiral valve Usually 57 gill openings Heterocercal caudal n Internal fertilization Class Actinopterygii previously Osteichthyes Jaws Skeleton mostly bone iFew cartilaginous Operculum single opening to gills Paired ns Scales not placoid Usually swim bladder 0 Usually no spiral valve 0 Usually homocercal caudal 0 External fertilization with few exceptions The American Fisheries Society and T Berra Freshwater Fish Distribution 2001 have elevated the following subclasses to class and removed Osteichthyes The infraclasses of the previous subclass Actinopterygii have been elevated from infraclass to subclass You may just ignore this paragraph as you study for the first exam I only include this because as you encounter classification in your readings you may wonder why there are differences Class Sarcopterygii l coelacanth lobefins 7 paired fins with eshy bases Two dorsal fins Diphycercal caudal Cartilaginous Notochord persistent Swim bladder Spiral valve 99909 Class Sarcopterygii 2 Lungfish Lungs Paired fins with eshy base No dorsal fins Diphycercal caudal cartilaginous Notochord persisting in adults Swim bladder Spiral valve Cloaca iUrinary amp genital ducts lead into the terminal segment of the gut ltgtltgtltgtltgtltgtltgtltgtltgtltgt Class Actinopterygii Subclass Chondrostei 7 ancestral characteristics Sturgeons amp Paddlefish Scales if present ganoid Heterocercal caudal Skeleton largely cartilaginous Spiral valve Notochord persistent Swim bladder physostomous onnects to esophagus Class Actinopterygii Infraclass Neopterygii Families Lepisosteidae and Amiidae were once in infracle Holostei and all the rest of the Actinopterygii were in the Teleostei that is now considered a Division Class Actinopterygii Infraclass Neopterygii Lepisosteidae amp Amiidae 0 Modi ed heterocercal caudal 0 Skeleton moderately ossi ed ltgt Scales ganoid or cycloid ltgt Swim bladder physostomous Infraclass Neopterygii remaining families DiVision Teleosti Scales cycloid or ctenoid Caudal homocercal Skeleton well ossi ed Swim bladder physotomous or physoclistius iPhysoclistius not directly connected to esophagus O Lack many ancestral characteristics 99


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