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Watershed Ecology

by: Barbara Lowe

Watershed Ecology BIO 542

Barbara Lowe
GPA 3.77

David White

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David White
Class Notes
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Barbara Lowe on Thursday October 15, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 542 at Murray State University taught by David White in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see /class/223613/bio-542-murray-state-university in Biology at Murray State University.


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Date Created: 10/15/15
IITERCEPTIOI CAIOPY IITERCEPTIOI LITTER IITERCEPTIOI SOME iNTERCEPTION OCCURS ON PA VEMENTAND OTHER HARD SURFACES BUTiS iNSiGNIHCANTiN MOST ECOSYSTEMS IITERCEPTIOI BECOMES EVAPO RATIOI Three waysof Pn Pg 39l thinkingaboutthe P P resultsof n g C I interception P n 39 Th 81quot I Pn net rainfall entering the soil infiltration P9 gross rainfall l total interception from canopy and litter lC canopy interception x l litterinterception Th throughfall ammW NOILdEOHELN I 1 Gross Rainfall Interception Evaporation Interception 39 Evaporation Interception Evaporation Throughfall 39 n Litter 1 ringl Lint BLACK quot CHERRY L w Wafer plus rnifrients and nlher ia ns and hormones HAWTHORN I Less interception A andstemflowm W39mer WHITE PINE Know Know Your Oaks Sung to the tune of quotRow Row Row Your Boat hand motions for the song are in blue Know know know your oaks tap your temple with your nger This is how they grow palms up arms out to side Red Oaks hands straight up in the air a W White Oaks hands still up high but at your sides Pin Oaks hands straight out to your sides Bur Oaks hands twisted around in strange uncomfortable position And acorns down below hey Percent of gross rainfall available for infiltration over a 12 month growing season Trees partition rainfall into throughfall and stemflow a Pribi imi n resulting in a spatial distribution of nutrient and water UTthahla fluxes reaching the soil centered on the trunks of El Sum ThioughthStemllow trees 5 Eniichm EM iquot NWP I stemflow fluxes of water and nutrients are then funneled preferentially belowground along tree roots ORGANquot and other preferential flow paths bypassing much of NITROGEN v the bulk soil This double funneling leads to increased soil chemical biological and hydrologica n l m E heterogeneity which has been shown to persist for decades even after the tree is gone The amount of precipitation partitioned by trees to stemflow ranges over more than three orders of magnitude accounting for 00722 of incident rainfall in a range of precipitation regimes 6007100 y stemflow fluxes of NO3 and K are larger for species with greater stemflow partitioning regardless of climate type While stemflow volumes may increase in relation to increasing precipitation stemflow nutr39ent concentrations tend to become more dilute Plant canopy morphology is strongly related to stemflow fluxes for plantmobile nutrients such as K and N03 Root induced preferential flow provides a feedback mechanism in nutrient cycling by which stemflow derived nutrient fluxes are delivered to the rhizosphere Plant hormones dissolved in stemflow may prevent seed germination from the parent tree Allelopathy Allelopathy Trees and other larger plants e biochemicals that 99 ltoo lto o heir own seeds to grow quotAmbient e Throughfall and interceptor sIEMFwa METERS Interception by selected crops 7 from USDA Soil Conservation Service DURING Low Foliose DURING illOWlNG SEASON VMGLTATION lichens DEVELOPMENT 1 RAINI ALL lNTERCEPTlllN lNlLkCLPTIOlv MM MM ill lN l thfljl TlON 111 Alfalfa 275 98 36 22 Corn 181 28 16 3 Soybean 158 23 15 9 Oats 171 12 7 3 99 quot 39 Evaporation and Soil Water stemflow habltats Storage ET P Q AS Al ETET 3 ET evapotranspiration 39 t P precipitation Q streamflow AS change in storage S2 Si AI deep storage or seepage in and out 10 Ii Note except for minor exceptions water and nutrients cannot be taken up by leaves Transpiration evaporation at the leaf surface stomata causes water to be pulled upward via hydrogen bonding vapor pressure gradient 560 mwhen Max transpiration on warm sunny windy day Sun drives photosynthesis and wind alters vapor pressure gradient no transpiration at night C3 plants are more efficient under cool and C3 plant moist conditions than C4 and CAM lants C4 plant p No specialized anatomy CAM plant Most plants are Cs 4 photosynthesize faster than C3 plants under high light intensity and high temperatures Have better water use efficiency so do not need to keep stomata open as long less water lost by transpiration for the same amount of CO2 gain Do well in drier warmer climates C4 plants include several thousand species in at least 19 plant families Example cor m punI CAM plants have stomata open at night when transpiration rates are lower no sunlight lower temperatures lower wind speeds etc Under extremely dry conditions CAM plants leave their stomata closed night and day Oxygen given off in photosynthesis is used for respiration O2 given offin respiration is used for photosynthesis CAMidling allows the plant to survive dry spells and it allows the plant t recover very quickly when water is available again CAM plants include many succulents eg cactus jade some orchids MEASURING EVAPOtranspoRATION Energy flow drives El39 1 Albedo 3mquot sultan Albedoisthe term used A u to describe the portion of light radiation incident on h ace which is g reflected not transmitted or r absorbed by materials on the earth39s surface Wu i u wun mm Iuhrnni n nighl n in t rm our new i w Fu h Inuw A I w my 4 W zlanu n Albedo drives evaporation from surfaces and can be used to determine evaporation rates from lakes 52K L Kx nllrvnlesn l a Wm 1s71 r E evepomuo 11 rate Kg coe icxm tthat describes the a iuency of vemtei transport bthz wind VA w39nndspeed at latent heat of vaponzatxon mass densnty of water ACTUAL AET VS K net shortwave radtahon mput POTEN TIAL PET EVAPOTRANSPIRATION L net long rwave mdmuon mpnt gtpsyibrometm constant dnrbon of pressure 7 asrtemper atuxe ems sennanpn walk nap or pressure Wu relative many s01 slope of the ralakon between semnon Vapor pressure and temperature E s 39ajxnetradtanon 3xquotmass transfer 5Tn 7 sumof L Potential ET PET POTENTIAL EVAPOTRANSPIRATION VS AET ACTUAL EVAPOTRANSPIRATION PET methods Temperature Thornthwaite PET 16 10TaIa Hammond Jensen Blaney Criddle PET 50ps Temperature radiation Penman Pierce PET ARnyEaAyL ET PEI39MAWAWC Where AW available soil water mm soil moisture content permanent wilting point 16 bars X rooting depth AWC available water capacity mm field capacity permanent wilting point X rooting depth of mature vegetation Piiibnliul Eviipuil miiipiriitiiin Drum if dflllii39 war may i doom FIELD CAPACITV can be has been defined in several ways the magtltimum waterholding capacity ofthe soil above which all excess water drains or overflows an upper limit of wateravailable fortranspiration a waterpotential of33 kPa ll3 bari a waterpotential generally betweenl0 and 33 kPa kilopascals l hPa E 000 Pa depending on soil texture and otherpro EleES when drainage becomes negligible afterthorough e ingi 2or3 days aftera thorough wetting at specified depth at a specified time With drainage from saturation a specific value ofdrainage rate such as 2 mmd or a specific value of hydraulic conductivity MEASURING PET CLASS A PAN EVAPORATORS EVAPO TRANSPIRATION GAGE ET Gage A ceramic evaporator at thetop ofthe instrument responds to sun and weat eras plants do Water is drawn from a reservoir The waterlevel falls in the sight tube one inch foreach inch used by plants Replaceable green canvas covers modify the evaporauon rate to simulate E39lfrom field crops or grass Rain cannot getinto the instrument The rain gauge provided With the meter measures rain separately AUTOMATED CLASS A PAN EVAPORATOR Class A Evaporation MONTHLY PAN EVAPORATION AT PUEBLO DAM WATER YEAR 1999 yHWATER Yum Acmox ET g mm Perco o on W g gg39b I MEASURING AET LYSIMETERS WATER BALANCE ENERGY BALANCE MASS TRANSFER LYSIMETERS WEIGHING PERCOLATION CONSTANT WATER TABLE 4v 5 Drainage type Weighing type Manuma Tali mud with ml Campnor quotA Manlicn Supply Tank Scale cannon m Irrigation tipping bucket Change in soil moisture weight soil block Transpi ration weig ht Minimum daily unsalu on mm In aimed Iv quotmm rmmpm 1mm mumgquot I II mat W Elm LII uln Wnor UII Mum m3 9m HIV I39dvquot r Mun Warm W W I 1539 W Ll gmlAnv quot4 2D 2 6 5 ob N 25 l 141 15 I M I7 5 6 Amt Mn H39SI V I In Any mm Lquot 30gt M m m u m 49 I ququ quotWIlquot LP 28 I M m m s W fawn wuth DP 6 II J W in N 3 7 III Faramus wgmm W 5 399 m 2 Raman 39d39mfAl LV 1 2 9 IW AMImu n N Is is 5 4 0m Dllrm 39V I 9 D Sada warm L9 3 We momma TM v u m wu a WW u mu um a 1D 2 Q E E FORESVI SO 0 SB fa G g 2 L m g E z 3 4 5 s v 39 z 539 z 1 E 1 giant SOIL u a 0 l 2 3 A LIAIF SOIL GRAshLAND fontsT TIMI days Effects of changing vegetative cuver an transpiration and total euapotra nspiration A soil water deplalian tcrass hmehad arenas of bare soil grass cover and a mature fares canartisan acala quot B the J lulled levaporatlontevapalra nspiranion For the barn soill and forest cundilicms fram Lee TIQBO a 1980 Columbia University Press by pen ssion PPT is 60in giving us a surplus n 0 I Mean annual evaporation estimated from pans inches Global V IC 2L Simul ati on A 13 Dany Empo ramp ira ion 1 98788 gt I S m mmday TO c E DAR Cedar swamp typical of those now located near the Estivant Pines LOWER ET Monthly Actual Evapotranspiration mm in Unit 1111nd 1 L 1Il l LJ


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