Critical Reading, Writing, and Inquiry
Critical Reading, Writing, and Inquiry ENG 105
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This 14 page Class Notes was uploaded by Erik Hansen on Thursday October 15, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ENG 105 at Murray State University taught by Larry Carter in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 59 views. For similar materials see /class/223621/eng-105-murray-state-university in ENGLISH (ENG) at Murray State University.
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Date Created: 10/15/15
Description What is description Description is a word picture It is the expression in vivid language of what the ve senses experience Description can be divided into two basic types objective and subjective Objective description is the straightforward and literal way something appears without revealing any emotion or attitude Ex Reporters scientific writers Subjective description is conveying a highly personal view of your subject while seeking to elicit a strong emotional response from your readers This is the type with which we will be concerned Tone is everything when using subjective description For example ifyou wish to bestow admiration upon someone your tone will be serious and appreciative If you want to criticize someone your tone will be disapproving and severe When to use description When you desire to vividy describe someone someplace or something How to write a description 1 l A Focus on a dominant impression By de nition this means a feature of a scene person etc that is characteristic of it If for example you want to convey how beautiful a certain setting is you will convey to your reader how this setting appears at different times of the day or in different times of the year What s important is that you establish the dominant impression early in the essay In other words you would not want to bring up the land ll that is located only three miles from this beautiful setting Use images in your descriptions With most images a metaphor or simile is used to convey the writer s intent The main thing to remember when using images is that oftentimes less is more Excessive detailing dilutes the focus of the essay you end up with an endless list of speci cs rather than a carefully crafted picture in words Watch out for overuse of adjectives Use vivid sensory language and varied sentence structure You must use language that involves the reader s senses Ex Vague The food was unappetizing Vivid The stew congealed into an oval pool of milkybrown fat Keep in mind that verbs make a greater impression on the reader than adverbs As for sentence structure try not to use the same subjectverb pattern in all your sentences Course Syllabus Fall Semester 2010 English 105 Critical Reading Writing and Inquiry Instructor Tim Carter Office 7A4 Office Hours Mondays and Wednesdays 200 7 330 and 515 7 600 You may schedule an appointment for a dszerent time Phone 2708092406 Call during office hours only otherwise use email Email lairycartermurraystateedu Course Title English 105 Critical Reading Writing and Inquiry Course Purpose This course is designed to facilitate students development of critical reading thinking and writing abilities through close reading analysis and synthesis of texts The course curriculum emphasizes the process of academic writing identifying audience and purpose gathering ideas and support organizing and integrating ideas revising of material and editing for clarity and accuracy Course Objectives Students will be required to demonstrate 0 Knowledge of rhetorical elements methods and aims of expository and persuasive writing 0 Competence in examining complex ideas and situations and in developing cohesive wellresearched arguments for relevant audiences o Capability to integrate the work of multiple authors into their own analytic and persuasive writing with appropriate documentation and style MLA 0 Various methods for research including where and how to obtain the most effective relevant and credible sources 0 Understanding of thoughtful revision with regard to their own work and improvement of their command of style clarity organization voice as well as English language usage and mechanics Content Outline In this course students will read and often reread assigned text carefully and respond to assigned texts in class discussions and in various formal and informal writing assignments Students will put into practice a process of planning writing and revising written work All students will be required to submit a rough draft of each essay Instructional Activities The course will consist of Five short essays 3 7 5 pages in length One long essay 8 pages in length Work related to the Freshman Reading Experience Various writing assignments quizzes inclass work homework Annotated Bibliography Participation in class discussions and one oral presentation Final Exam Academic Dishonesty Policy See Academic Regulations in the MSU Undergraduate Bulletin Attendance Policy Regular class attendance is vital Except in dire or extraordinary circumstances such as personal illness or injury or a scheduled school activity or function missing more than two 2 class sessions will result in a lowering of the course grade No absences 5 points added to overall grade One absence 3 points added Two absences no points added or deducted Three absences Each absence after the second absence five 5 points deducted for each absence Sixth absence automatic failure of course Note Neither absenteeism nor tardiness exempts any student from any assigned work See Blackboard for notes and assignments e mail me for assistance Texts and Supplies Penf1eld Elizabeth Short Takes Model Essays for Composition 10111 ed New York Longman 2010 Print English 105 Critical Reading Writing and Inquiry Student Guide 2010 2011 Murray State University 2010 Print Mullen Thomas The Last Town on Earth New York Random House 2007 Print One jump drive Miscellaneous Requirements All assignments and papers must be typed doublespaced in number 1 2 font and submitted according to MLA style Save everything to a jump drive Use Microsoft Word only All assignments course documents announcements etc will be posted on Blackboard Grading Procedure Students will be evaluated on completeness content effectiveness style and mechanics Turn your work in on time Late papers and assignments will result in a grade reduction Students who do not have a passing average on the formal written work the combined average of the short papers and the long paper will not pass the class regardless of their nal average Grading Percentages Analysis Essay 1 Expository 7 10 Analysis Essay 2 Expository 7 10 Synthesis Essay 1 Explanatory 7 10 Synthesis Essay 2 Argumentative 7 10 Essay V in conjunction w FRE 7 10 Final Research Essay Argumentative 7 20 Annotated Bibliography and Oral Presentation 7 10 Miscellaneous Assignments inclass quizzes homework etc 7 10 Final Exam 7 10 Grading Scale A 7 90 to 100 points B 7 80 to 89 points C 7 70 to 79 points D 7 60 to 69 points E 7 below 60 points Argumentation What is an argument Argument and persuasion are very closely related The main difference is that persuasion often appeals by both logic and emotion while argument often appeals strictly by logic and reason Argument unlike the other modes of writing is a term ofrhetorical intent not of form Since logic and reasoning are vital to a well developed argument essay writers often resort to many techniques and devices to achieve their goal In other words an argument essay tends to use a mixture or combination ofthe rhetorical modes When to use argument You use argument when it is totally necessary to bring someone that is your audience around to your opinion or point of view Therefore you must strongly advocate one side of the issue Three essential elements in an argument synthesis 1 Claim 2 Support 3 Assumption Claim This is a proposition or conclusion that you are trying to prove Support This is the use of fact or expert opinion to sustain the claim you re trying to prove Assumption also called a warrant This is the linking ofthe supporting evidence to the claim you are making Example Claim Collegelevel composition students who neglect to do their reading assignments make lower marks than those who do their reading assignments Support A recent national survey indicates that collegelevel composition students who read all the required material are 75 more likely to make an above average grade than those who do not read all the required material Assumption Reading all the required material in a collegelevel composition class is vital to making an above average grade The Three Appeals of an Argument 1 Logos This isthe rational appeal orthe appeal to reason There are two types of logical argument deductive and inductive Deductive Argument This type ofargument begins with a generalization then cites a specific a case related to that generalization which is then followed by a conclusion Example Women should have equal employment opportunities as men Forty percent of women in today s workforce are being discriminated against Current legislature must be passed to insure that this trend of gender discrimination is abolished Inductive Argument This type of argument does not begin with a generalization but with several pieces of specific evidence The writer then draws a conclusion from this evidence Example Heavy dogs such as rottweilers are prone to hipdysplasia specific Hipdysplasia is a degenerative bone disease that is currently untreatable and eventually claims the lives of 60 of heavy dogs speci c More money must be put into research in orderto find a way to treat this debilitating disease conclusion 2 Ethos This is the ethical appeal However it is not based on ethical rationale for the particular subject matter being discussed but rather on the ethical nature ofthe person making the appeal When a person s character can distinguish them ethically this person is often used as source material Examples could include priest doctors judges and statesmen 3 Pathos This is the appeal to the emotions This type of appeal becomes problematic if it is the sole or primary basis ofyour argument Pathos is very effective in the form ofan anecdote The Argument Synthesis What is an argument synthesis Whereas the explanatory synthesis is designed to explain the argument synthesis is designed to persuade Why is the argument synthesis important The strategy of the argument synthesis is to find and use convincing support for a claim being made How to write an argument synthesis Writing an argument synthesis is very similar to writing an explanatory synthesis You still use the broad categories 1 Consider you purpose What are you trying to achieve with this issue 2 Select and carefully read your source material Choose the most appropriate underline the main ideas 3 Claim Make a claim by formulating a thesis This is the main idea you are attempting to present to you reader Support Decide how you will use the source material How will the information or support from your sources help to ful ll your purpose 5 Write onesentence summaries of each source and then condense these into topic sentences 6 Develop an organizational plan forthe overall effectiveness ofthe material being used A Synthesis What is a synthesis A synthesis is a written discussion that draws on two or more sources Before you can understand the relationship between two or more sources you must be able to Understand what each source has to say Summarize each source most important Go beyond the summary to make judgments Why is a synthesis important One reliable source adds validity to a claim Two or more reliable sources used in conjunction further substantiate the claim being presented In order to make two or more sources corroborate to support a claim you must not only determine which sources you will use and which parts of each source is most effectual for you purposes but you must also determine how you will relate each source to one another Two Broad Categories of Synthesis Explanatory Synthesis Argument Synthesis Explanatory Synthesis In an explanatory synthesis You will divide a subject into its component parts and present thenlto the reader in a clear and orderly fashion Your job is not to argue a particular point but rather to present the facts in a reasonably objective manner Your purpose is to focus more on facts related to your issue and less on individual opinion How to Write an Explanatory Synthesis Consider your purpose What do you want to say What are you trying to accomplish You must present a focused overview of a particular problem or issue but you do no want to advocate your own opinion on the subject Select and carefully read your sources Read and reread your sources Choose the most appropriate sources for your purpose Underline the main ideas and details Formulate a thesis This is the main idea you are attempting to present It of course is a one sentence statement and it is often the last sentence of the first paragraph Purpose and thesis are different in terns of focus Purpose provides direction thesis sharpens this focus Decide how you will use your source material How will the information and or ideas from your sources help you to fulfill your purpose The best way to handle this is to write one sentence summaries of each section of each source s article or essay Write topic sentences by combining the one sentence summaries They must give an idea of the logical progression of the essay as a whole Develop an organization plan Arrange your material so there will be some type of order in which you present your case In other words ask yourself which information need to be presented first and how do I build on each section of information Sketch a series or rough outlines then arrange and rearrange them to fit your paper Explanatory Synthesis Process briefly explained Read the sources and look for distinguishing facts Identify the patterns that are set forth by the sources Draft a thesis statement that will adequately cover the main focus of all the sources Write one sentence summary sentences of each section of each source in your OWN WORDS Write the topic sentences by combining the one sentence summaries Place one topic sentence at the beginning of each paragraph Use source material from ALL THE SOURCES to develop your synthesis Introductions What is an introduction It is the first paragraph or several paragraphs of an essay Why is an introduction important The introduction serves three purposes It informs the reader of the general subject of the essay Done correctly it catches the reader s attention It presents the controlling idea or thesis Simply the purpose of an introduction is to prepare the reader to enter into your essay How to write an introduction There are two ways to approach an introduction Write the paper first and then go back and write the introduction Write the introduction first and then write the paper 7 Types of Introductions Quotation 7 This is simply beginning a paper with a quotation Just make sure the quote is impressive and alluring Historical Review 7 This is an introduction that begins with some type of historical background about the issue being presented in the essay Review of the Controversy 7 This type of introduction presents a two sided debate of the issue at hand It is a review of the controversy itself where both sides of the controversy are represented in the introduction From General to Specific 7 Begin with general details and move to more specific details about the issue at hand From Specific to General 7 Begin with specific details dates studies tests etc and end with general information about the issue at hand Question 7 Opening an essay with a question will often draw the reader into your essay It is a very provocative means of placing the reader in an active role Statement of Thesis 7 Begin with a challenging assertion 7 something that catches the reader s eye Narration What is narration To narrate meansto tell a story It can be real or madeup We often use narration without thinking about it Much of our daily communication with others is done through narration especially through anecdotes An anecdote is simply a brief narrative When to use narration Use narration whenever you need to relate an experience or present information in dramatic or purposeful sequence How to write a narration 1 l A A Have a point to make The point is what gives it movement In other words it must have a beginning a middle and an end A strong beginning is vital lt catchesthe reader s attention and will urge him or her to keep reading Pace the story The quickest way to lose a reader s attention is forthe narrative to become dull and humdrum To avoid this stay focused on pacing what you have to say Don t in other words get caught up in one particular facet of your narrative and forget the larger narrative You might wrapup an entire day or even a week or month in one tightly well written paragraph Tell the story from a consistent point of view This is the angle from which a story is told It can be told from a personal perspective using the pronoun l or it can be told from a detached point ofview where you the author enter someone else s mind This is known as an omniscient point if view You become an all seeing video camera Insert the appropriate details Details can make the difference between boredom and delight forthe reader lfyou cannot write about what you know the next best thing is to know about what you write The bottom line is to make your narrative authentic Do your research Discuss adding actual facts to the narrative in order to make the narrative more supportive Suggestions for using narration ICDU39IAOONA Identify the conflict Identify the point of the narrative Develop only those details that advance the narrative Organize the narrative sequence Make the narrative easy to follow Make the narrative vigorous and immediate Keep your point of view and verb tense consistent Conclusions What is a conclusion Basically a conclusion is an introduction in reverse Why is a conclusion important A conclusion s main purpose is to leave the reader thinking or contemplating the issue at hand However a conclusion cannot salvage a poorly written paper How to write a well rounded conclusion Restate using different wording your thesis and expand upon it Summarize what has been stated in your essay Use a constructive conclusion such as any if the following types of conclusions Types of Conclusions The Call for Further Research This type of conclusiorlmaintains that the issue at hand needs further exploration You are extending an invitation to the reader that much research is needed in order for this issue to be completely resolved This does not mean however that you simply leave the issue open to total irresolution You must summarize your findings state what has not been shown or proven and then insist that further research is necessary Always use phraseology a sort of signal phrase in this type of conclusion such as Further research is needed or This issue cannot be resolved until Solution Recommendation This is where you offer a solution based on the knowledge you ve gained from your research You must summarize your findings and then offer a sound solution or recommendation to the issue The solution recommendation must be derived froHLthe argument you have presented in the body of the essay Anecdote This is a brief story or possibly a joke The reader should have all the informatiorlhe or she needs to understand the story It should provoke the reader s interest It shoulcinot be so obscure as to be unintelligible You must summarize your findings either before or after you begin your anecdote Quotation This is where you use the supporting words of a reputable author or authority in the field or area you are discussing This links your work to theirs thereby gaining more credibility You must summarize your findings and then incorporate a quote or quotes as needed Beware that if you end with someone else s words you may leave the impression that he or she can state the case more eloquently than you can Question The idea of this type of conclusiorlis to leave the issues unresolved This is dissimilar to opening with a question In an introduction based upon a question you are promising to answer the question In a conclusion based upon a question you are leaving the issue unresolved therefore yoL1are calling uporlthe reader to take an active role by offering his or her own answers You can however raise a question and answer the question based upon the material you ve provided This will ultimately challenge the reader to agree or disagree with your response You must of course summarize your findings and incorporate the question into the essay where the desired effect will be most beneficial Speculation This is where you speculate or state what might happen This type of conclusion also leaves a question in the mind of the reader it relies upon future endeavors or research to conclude what is currently unavailable
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