Nutrition Throughout the Life Cycle
Nutrition Throughout the Life Cycle NTN 333
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Willie Crist on Thursday October 15, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to NTN 333 at Murray State University taught by Kathryn Timmons in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 68 views. For similar materials see /class/223622/ntn-333-murray-state-university in Nutrition and Food Sciences at Murray State University.
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Date Created: 10/15/15
NTN 333 Test 1 Study Guide From PP Slides 1 What is nutrition 3 Nutrition is the study of foods their nutrients and other chemical constituents and the Iquot P 9quot 9quot N effects of food constituents on health Nutrition is an interdisciplinary science Nutrition recommendations for the public change as new knowledge about nutrition and health relationships are gained 2 What are the nutrition principles 3 b rhme In 7 i j Food is a basic need of humans Food provides energy calories nutrients and other substances needed for growthhealth Health problems related to nutrition originate within cells Poor nutrition can result from both inadequate and excessive levels of nutrient intake Humans have adaptive mechanisms for managing fluctuations in food intake Malnutrition can result from poor diets and from disease states genetic factors or combination of any three Some groups of people are at higher risk of becoming inadequately nourished than others Poor nutrition can influence the development of certain chronic diseases Adequacy and balance are key characteristics of a healthy diet There are no quotgoodquot or quotbadquot foods What are the 6 nutrient categories a 09957 f Carbohydrates energy 4kcalsg Proteins energy 4kcalsg FatsLipids energy 7kcalsg Vitamins Minerals Water What are the dietam intake standards sup0575 What is required for a Dietary Reference Intakes DRI Recommended Dietary Allowances RDA Adequate Intake AI Estimated Average Requirements EARs Tolerable Upper Levels of Intakes ULs level Statistics data surveys and observations What is reguired for individual level assessments a b c d Anthropometricmeasurement of body size amp shape Biochemical nutrient intake enzyme levels DNAurine tests Clinical inspection for features that may be related to malnutrition Dietary diet historyrecall What is Fecundiy 9 5 H O H H H N H W H 4 What are risks pertaining to What are SOME What are the RDls for a The biological capacity to bear children Describe the term Fertiliy What are nutrition related disruptions a The actual production of children or the ability to bear children 3050 b Acute under nutritionBody weight BMlHigh levels of physical activitylow fat high fiber vegetarian dietslow iron statushigh intake of caroteneshigh intake of caffeine alcohol What does Infertiliy mean a Inability to bear children Lack on conception after ONE YEAR of unprotected sex What is PCOS a Polycystic Ovary Syndrome b Leading cause of infertility cysts in ovaries c Clinical signs insulin resistance high levels of intra abdominal fat excess testosterone irregular periods d Treatment weight loss and exercise birth control pills What are some facts about miscarriages a Spontaneous abortionsloss of fetus in the first 20 weeks of pregnancy b Can be caused by defect in fetus maternal infection structural abnormalities in uterus endocrine or immunological disturbances a Oral Increased cholesterol amp triglycerides increased blood clot risk decreased 312 b lniections Proversal weight gain decreased bone density headaches c Implants Norplantl weight gain headaches care 39J quot a Risk assessment weight gain dietary intake folateiron status b Address psychological needs 39women a 400mg of folic acid b NO MORE than 500 IU vitamin A from supplements c Get adequate iron d Limitomit alcohol e Healthy weight What is Premenstral Syndrome a Physiological b Affects 40 of women c Considered PMS if 5 symptoms occur that are severe enough to disrupt life for 3 consecutive periods PMS Remedies a Reduce caffeine b Regular physical activity c Magnesium and calcium supplements d Vitamin BG Explain Celiac Disease a Sensitive to protein gliadin found in gluten wheat and rye b Malabsorption and flattening of the intestintal lining c Treatment is to avoid gluten 18 Anthropometric Assessment a Measures of body size b Weight amp Height c Waist circumference d Head circumference e Body fat 19 How do we use quot 39 39 quot 39v a BMI weight in kg height in inches squared OR weight in lb 705 height in inches squared i lt18 underweight 1925 desirable weight iii 25299 overweight iv 30 and gt obese v 40 and gt morbidly obese 20 Ideal Bodyweight a Men 5 106 lbs add 6lbs every inch over b Women 5 100 lbs add 5 lbs every inch over 21 Biochemical Assessment a Markers in blood and urine i Enzymes ii Nutrients iii DNA b Common tests 39 Hemoglobin and hematocrit Serum albumin Blood glucose iv Glycostylated hemoglobin v Creatinine 22 ClinicallPhysical Assessment a Visual inspection i Looks at body fat ii Pale skin iii Bruising iv Brittle hair 23 Dieta Assessment a Determine food intake of individual b Compare to appropriate recommendations c Estimate overall quality of diet identifies strengthsweaknesses 1 Know the meaning of infant mortality rate and neonatal mortality rate as well as the factors that influence it a Refers to deaths in the first year of life IMR is deaths per 1000 live births Neonatal mortality is deaths that occur from birth to 28 days In the US most of the infant deaths are preterm infants Preventing preterm births and low birth weight will decrease infant mortality Congenital malformations and SIDS are next 2 The nutrient content of infant formula is based on what standard a AAP amp ADA recommend exclusive breast feeding for 1st 6 months amp continuation to 1 yr 3 The energy requirement for infants is based on what factors a 108 kcalkgday from birth to 6 months range from 80 to 120 98 kcalkgday from 6 to 12 months Weight Growth rate Sleepwake cycle Temperature and climate Physical activity anrhsvpPsr Metabolic response to food i Health status 4 What is they typical rate of growth of an infant in the first year of life a Weight doubles by 46 months b Weight triples by 1 year c Length increases by 50 by 1 year d Reflects nutritional adequacy health status and other environmental influences 5 Know the newborn reflexes especially focusing on the ones that affect food ingestion a Rooting b Sucking c Swallowing d Gag e Moro or startle 6 Understand how developmental stages that affect the type of nourishment an infant can handle as well as the infant s readiness for solid foods a Infants born with reflexes amp food intake regulatory mechanism b Inherent preference for sweet taste c At 46 wks reflexes fade infant begins to purposely signal wants amp needs At 46 months infants move tongue from side to side indicating readiness for solid foods 46 months Moves tongue side to sideNewborn reflexes disappearInterest in new tastes 79 months Pincer grasp developsSitting aloneHand to mouthBiting Indicates hunger and fullness 7 Know recommendations for starting solid foods introducing cow milk and types of feeding 8 methods What is the order of adding solid foods that is typically presented rhgnnpzrgn 1012 months Spoon feeding begins Uses lips to get food off spoon Can chew and eat lumpy and chopped foods Whole reducedfat or skim cow s milk should not be used in infancy Food offered from spoon stimulates muscle development At 46 months offer small portions of semisoft food on a spoon once or twice each day Infant formula can be purchased in different forms related to preparation Know the differences and situations in which each might be recommended and why a b c Ready to feed busy mom s Liquid concentrate Powdered Know the differences in types of infant formula in terms of the type of protein on which it is based Casein or whey based a b c d 9959 Vegetable oils added Lactose Vitamins amp minerals added May be iron fortified Soy protein isolate Safe ampnutritionally equivalent to cow s milk formula For vegetarians galactosemia lactase deficiency Casein Hydrolysate Proteins hydrolyzed to amino acids Lactose free Medium chain triglyerides Expensive Know cues that the infant might give for hunger and satiation Watching the food in anticipation Reaching for spoon Irritation if feeding is too slow or stops Playing with food e Slowing the pace f Turning away from the spoon g Stopping eating or spitting out food 11 Understand the following conditions and the special needs of infants with PKU galactosemia down syndrome maple syrup urine disease and Prader Willi Syndrome PKU a Absence of phenylalanine hydroxylase enzyme which converts phenylalanine to tyrosine b Buildup of phenylalanine is toxic and causes mental retardation and other neurological problems c Special formula and low protein diet d 1 in 10000 babies Galactosemia a 1 in 50000 babies b Absence of an enzyme to convert galactose into glucose c Accumulation of toxic amounts of galactosegalactose1phosphate Down Syndrom a Trisomy 21 3 copies of chromosome 21 b Lower muscle strength lower intelligence greater risk for overweight heart defects c Need fewer Calories 53 Need different growth chart Maple Syrup Urine Disease a b c d 1 in 225000 babies in US Absence of the enzymes to metabolize the branched chain amino acids Leucine isoleucine valine EAA Neurotoxicity from the accumulation of the BCAA and their keto acids in the blood Causes mental retardation and physical disabilities Use special formula that includes adequate BCAA for growth wo too much Low protein food products Prader Willi Syndrome The most common genetic form ofobesity Chromosome 15 Hypothalamic dysfunction Hunger Lownormal intelligence to mental retardation Decreased muscle tone anhrvsnprrm Other emotional and developmental problems 12 Know foods that are hazardous to infants and should not be given before at least 1 year Choking Hot dogs grapes raisins hard candy nuts chips popcorn peanuts gum hot dog pieces jelly beans apples Infant Botulism Honey Microwaving May heat unevenly cause burns 13 When to wean to a cup type of milk to feed to a one year old a b c d Offer water or juice from cup after 6 months Wean to a cup at 12 to 24 months First portion from cup is 12 02 Early weaning may result in plateau in weight due to reduced calories andor constipation from low fluid intake 14 How many calories in an ounce of breast milk or formula a Provides 20 Caloz Chapters 10 amp 11 Nutrition in Toddlers and quot 39 39 1 Know the formula and be able to calculate BMI a
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