New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Unconventional Oil & Gas

by: Reta Cruickshank MD

Unconventional Oil & Gas PETR 571

Reta Cruickshank MD

GPA 3.64


Almost Ready


These notes were just uploaded, and will be ready to view shortly.

Purchase these notes here, or revisit this page.

Either way, we'll remind you when they're ready :)

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Course

Popular in Petroleum Engineering

This 64 page Class Notes was uploaded by Reta Cruickshank MD on Thursday October 15, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PETR 571 at New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see /class/223636/petr-571-new-mexico-institute-of-mining-and-technology in Petroleum Engineering at New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology.


Reviews for Unconventional Oil & Gas


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 10/15/15
PETR 571 Week 3 notes Reservoir Rock 8 Source Rock Types Classi cation Prop erties amp Symb nls Rexervaxr rack Source rack A sedtmentary rock m whmh petroleum forms I h In M Hy w u much smaller scale Source rocks are Widely agreedto be sedtmentary r m Lt quotAquot andcarbonates u L r r r A mumquot H developmg aprospect Four Fundamental Components of Sedimentary Rocks Intergranular Porosit D 0 05quot Space wrtn no mrnerat marten Intragranular carnrnmtyfmed wrtn water POI39OS39W P imary porosil Secondary porosity Cement D matenat Matrix l Ftnegratned crayrsrzed Lana33112 sedrrnent PETRSH Weak 7 mm Dx exentFarms afsedlmentgg Rack Claxlic ox dztrilul sedimentary rucks made up of articles ofpreexistingmcks or mincmls swam cangmmm Hummck 5m Gypsum Anydme Lxmesmnz chalk Caqulm cw mel Ivnqmmn r r mmvm gumm j g FETR s71 Week 7 nutes Sedimenls and Corresponding Sedimenlary Rocks Saim a7 Sedmsn ay ock Wham quot75 seaquot797 Emma31 AHUVH fans Grave Conglam erete nver Channels wavesw ept wasumes Desert dunes Sand Sandstone Hver channas Shorehnes deitas shal uw seas Lakes Mud Shale Hver oadp ams 63 H deIEJ de tas deep sea Shel s and leesmne Warm shaHow sees Ilme mud 05003 produced ny Chalk Deep sea manne plankton 53902 Produced by Chen Deep sea manne plankton Woody p ant matter CDE Swamps Peel 5 or Salt Rock salt margwna see In huse amudes LEIR 2172 FETRS71 Week 7 nutes 5H Q ALfx zigayaysnnm N 51m swam n n new n a m We W L AK 14 mm uhmcnmry ms WWW r AleVOIE hakcs inndslbnis and waved 39 05K 9mm mask Hues ones W mdaw h wdhw Vquot and gadauuns nfeaen sna1es r Suurce Rneks and Seals Desmpunn stunmvely naskbmwn m black kn Eulur neeasmnany a deep dark green neeasmnany dark nasanel m depusmunal anemnn Prnpmaes Cumpused uf clay and sxltrszed particles n v week 2 miles cunmbutestu shale39s charactensnc penneavnmy Behave as excellem seals urgamcs A weak mek hxghly suseepnme m weaunenng and emsmn Hxstury Depusxted un nver uudplmns deep neeanslakesnn1agnnns Occurrence The must abundant sedxmmtary ruck shunt 42 PETR 571 Week 3 notes Geologic Symbol I Horizontal evenlyspaced dashed lines Standard basic geologic symbol for shale May be modified to illustrate further detail For a complete version of the Standard Geologic Map Symbolization refer to URL http39 numdh 11 9 xmvfgdc php Sandstones and Sandstone Reservoirs Description I Composed of sandsized particles qv week 2 notes I Recall that sandstones may contain textural features indicative of the environment in which they were deposited ripple marks alluvialfluvial crossbedding alluvialfluvial or eolian graded bedding turbidity current I Typically light beige to tan in color can also be dark brown to rusty red Classification I Sandstones can be further classified according to the abundance of grains of a particular chemical composition ie common source rock for example an arkosic sanstone usually abbreviated ark ss is a sandstone largely composed of feldspar feldspathic grains Can you recall which continental rock contains feldspar as one of its mineral constituents I Sandstones composed of nearly all quartz grains are labeled quartz sandstones usually abbreviated qtz ss Properties I Sandstone porosity is on the range of 1030 I lntergranular porosity is largely determined by sorting primary porosity I Poorly indurated sandstones are referred to as ssile easily disaggregated when scratched whereas highly indurated sandstones can be very resistant to weathering and erosion PETR 571 Week 3 notes History I Sandstones are deposited in a number of different environments These can include deserts eg Windblown sands ie eolian stream valleys eg alluvial uvial and coastaltransitional environments eg beach sands barrier islands deltas turbidites I Because of the Wide variety of depositional environments in which sandstones can be found care should be taken to observe textural features ie grading crossbedding etc Within the reservoir that may provide evidence of its original diagenetic environment I Knowing the depositional environment of the ss reservoir is especially important in determining reservoir geometry and in anticipating potentially underpressured commonly found in channel sandstones and overpressured reservoir conditions Occurrence I Are the second most abundant about 37 sedimentary rock type of the three sanstones shales carbonates the most comm on reservoir rock and are the second highest producer about 37 Geologic Symbol I Dots or small circles randomly distributed to include textural features dots or circles may be drawn to reflect the observation for example crossbedding Standard geologic map symbol for sandstone May be modified to illustrate further detail Case example I The Bartlesville Shoestring Sands are home to the Sallyards and Lamont Oil Field which is a classic Pennsylvanian shoreline sand reservoir very similar and in fact difficult to distinguish from a stream valley reservoir These ovular lens shaped sands are situated in southern Kansas PETR 571 Week 37mm Banlesmlle Shaesmng Sands Cms than and Regmnal Mag Flinn 54 A crass serum a me mum39s NM Skwwmg y marshmg mm encavn m 1 my um Imer mu GiEEquun QME39 mm PENNSYLVANIAN PERIOD 250 M LUON vans AGO A A m PETR 571 Week 37 notes Carbonate and c arbonate Reservolrs Descnpuon that etha n awn m am column nenuc for quotwriter be x used m regxonal smugmphm correlations Dolommes are a product of solution recystalhzauon oflxmestones M ught or r Classx cauon carb maps 7 CaMgC032 M Mudswnes a lz on Pa 1n n Gramswnes and Tumew Daynsmunal mm m cmomes oposmsw rgxrung prccwzm DwgwquotCumpc exskal aunchqemmtung Depns ho Cvgma c p Mme me how Angeme39 w 1630mm as PDSMDNA rgxmg NOT asmsmum mum mun 039 cw m W m 512 Gama 1 s wquot WP 4mm we mm aquot conlvavy 3 gr and gvem SUDDDch es m 10pm v wen cvsemm quotH nmcn Dawes 2 s navacaccommg m a39c39m me39r cyzmcnr c PserHrN 16mm qwsuora yavcanch sram labna39um mm m nxlu39en39c agivesx 216 m rge o be 1er PETR 571 Week 3 notes Properties I Porosity is largely a result of dissolution and fracturing secondary porosity I Carbonates such as coquina are nearly 100 fossil fragments largely primary porosity I Are characteristically hard rocks especially dolomite I Susceptible to dissolution weathering History I Limestone reservoirs owe their origin exclusively to shallow marine depositional environments lagoons atolls etc I Limestone formations slowly accumulate when the remains of calcareous shelly marine organisms brachiopods bivalves foramaniferans and coral and algae living in a shallow tropical environment settle to the ocean bottom I Over large geologic time scales these accumulations can grow to hundreds of feet thick El Capitan a Permian reef complex in West Texas is over 600 ft thick Occurrence I Are the least geologically abundant about 21 of the three shales sandstones carbonates but the highest producer about 615 Geologic Symbol I Limestone 7 layers of uniform rectangles each layer offset from that above it I Dolomite 7 layers of uniform rhomboids each layer offset from that above it Standard geologic map symbols for limestone left and dolomite right May be modified to illustrate further detail Case example I The Golden Lane oil field is a prime example of a very large carbonate reservoir that has enjoyed a very productive life It is an ancient Cretaceous atoll karst limestone encircling the Mexican city Tuxpan both on and off shore PETR 571 Week 3 notes Golden Lane Oil Field Regional Map and Seguential Crosssections I 7 If f r 393 Jquot I 1 1 IV 1 i M Ji 1 I E I 3 k f 39 1 GQID EN NINEa 3939 39 010403060 m LIHI YMII CIUN AT39JI II LIILII M39I IJF hu ml on III M Iwnm n I n uh llw u m Ilu Iran lnm M nn FETR 571 Week 7 hates Transgessmns and Regressmnsmthe Sedxmentg Culumn Tramyexnzm The advancement ufseas emu helm Regrexmm The 53239s retreat fmm the land The transgressmnregressmn cycle Ts preserved m the ruck recurd hy arepeatmg h Eulumn awesome quotEGRESSKON m M cross when shawan a hang upward vex mwa um when eeyehme my mg a Innsglnsmn Ind MAMGRESSKDN zomscning quot1mm vuucal sequence damned dung g nssmn Inheahve quuastal transmunal Manna depesmeha ehmmhmem deep uneanbuttum aha Inward the deep eeeeh Ts called afzcizs change FETR 571 Waak 3a dacas sad mm naadnmda Auk mam mama A sahamaua uffames changes m daaashma uffashure depusmunal envxmnments uma ufdepusmun lateral gradatmnm a faunas ahanga sandsmda madam with shale madam with limestune hmasmda madam with shale madam mm sandsmda u a hydruczrbuns and equendy an PETR 571 Week 37 notes Manne TransgessxonRegessxon Segumce 1 5mm E 5m E Lmeslcne Pg 69 Sea denomch arm Warm nsg39sss an am egrsssun PETR 571 Week Ernotes Case Example of Texas Many llke lt are observed aroundthe world Downrdlp Regressnn nansgtesston 47 my u we 5 m l39ar39 grtss swam v am 5n 5 Gln sszry Anhydrlte An evaporate mmeral ofcalclum sulfate arkose sandstone ete Arenlte Consolrdated elastae roek ofsand srzedpartreles Argillzcemls Shaly or eontarnrng elayey eonstatuents Arkn e Coarsergramed feldspathlc vanany sorted sandstone eontarnrng angular grams representrng rapld deposrtaon and lrrnrted gram transpo Bunndslnne Sedrrnentary L l L deposrtaon rnost algal bank and reef deposrts earenlte A ealeareous sandstone Calcarenlls Rock or othermatenal eontarnrng up to so pereent ealerurn earbonate 14 PETR 571 Week 3 notes Carbonate Rockforming minerals containing the carbonate ion which include calcite and dolomite Carbonate mud Usually precipitated lime mud calcium carbonate mud without reservoir or source potential Carbonate platform A substantial limestone or dolomite substrate upon which a reef might be built Chalk Finetextured marine limestone formed by shallow water accumulation of calcareous remains of oating microorganisms and algae Clast A grain or fragment Coral Warm water sessile commonly calcareous bottomdwelling marine invertebrate animal Colonial corals build coral reefs and banks Coralline limestone Limestone composed of coral constituents Dolomite Calcium magnesium carbonate CaMgCOg2 Dolomitization A volum ereducing recrystallization process which adds the magnesium ion to calcium carbonate to form dolomite can occur contemporaneously with deposition or diagenetically Evaporite A rock or mineral deposited by precipitation during evaporation Facies Rock type lithology Facies change Change of one rock type to another timecorrelative rock type Formation A discrete rock unit with characteristics suitable for distinctive study and mapping Grainstone A grainsupported carbonate rock with less than one percent intergranular mud Group A rock unit ronking above formation and comprising several formations Gypsum Hydrous calcium sulfate Halite Rock salt which consists of sodium chloride Index fossil A fossil that is diagnostic of a specific geologic age or range Induration Transformation of sediment to rock lithification diagenesis Intergranular Between the grains of a rock Laminae Thin layers of finegrained sediment Layer A thickness of rock A stratum Limestone Lithified calcium carbonate CaC03 Matrix sedimentary Finegrained silt or clay material infilling intergranular sedimentary pore space between coarse grains Member A timerock stratigraphic unit of which several can comprise a formation PETR 571 Week 3 notes Mud sediment A mixture of silt and or clay particles and water Diagenetically transformed into siltstone andor shale Oolite A sedimentary rock comprising concentrically precipitated calcium carbonate ooliths approximately one mm in diameter Oolitic limestone A limestone comprising calcareous ooliths often having good reservoir potential Packstone Granular carbonate rock the grains of which occur in a selfsupportine framework surrounded by some calcareous m atrix Petroleum source rock A sedimentary rock suitable for the generation of petroleum Quartz Silicon dioxide Reef A bank ridge or mound constructed by calcareous animals and plants Reservoir rock A permeable subsurface rock unit which contains petroleum Rock sequence A progression of layered rocks often illustrative of specific stratigraphic characteristics Salt dome A circular or elliptical positive saltcored structure which vertically penetrates or deforms the surrounding sediments Sandstone A clastic sedimentary rock of sandsize particles Shale A finegrained usually laminated clastic rock of compacted clay or mud particles Silica Silicon dioxide quartz Siltstone A rock made of silt Source rock A sedimentary rock in which petroleum forms Turbidite A turbidity currentdeposited graded clastic sequence Vug A small void in a rock typically carbonates that is a result of the dissolution of fossil components or grains Wackestone Mudsupported carbonate rock with more than 10 grains larger than 20 microns in diameter calcarenite FETR s71 WeekArr mes Hydrocarbon Trap Su39uctural scrau39grapnic Diapin39c Diagcncu39c Hydrodynamic Aslrobleme and or course Combinau39on Tmp A geelegc fmmre m wnrchpeueleurn En accumulate Sm r w my Mu hulu Nummdalure r r 7F and V nauxm Cm n cumvmmughixmuhnznnzhmhny ngqeslpmnl ermeuap 15 mecm urculminau39nn Luwest pmnlalwhthC an be unmanned mLhe nap rsme spiupoim Vaual dmance mm creme mu pmnv plane 15 Lheclnsum Zane 1mmedla39el bmalh meHc rsmehooornwausr Zuneadjacent to me nap rs me adge zone The preducuve resa39vmr wnhm me trap 15 Lhepzy Vaual draancedpmmp erreservmrmowmsgrosxpay Cumulauve vauml unckness that an be preduced 15 tamed nzlpzy Flmd stmbuuun mm the Trap Trap rray cun39am m1 gas Dr bu39h owc 15 me ml Water CEIan deepestlsvel ufpmdu ble ed 000 Dr GWC 15 me gas ml Dr gas Water cen39ac1 rewemvely luwest urno ufpmdu ble gas Gas always everlays ml gzsxs less dense Gmdauunal md Bantams rndrm39e a lqua mablhly wnh rugn Eplllary pressure Sals and Cap Ranks rnusnse madam byan edecuve Sal Lhalprsvenls me vaucal rmgauen crude HC Shales are me cumm nesl seal Empuntes are me must errecuve PETR 571 We ek Annotes TY PE Structural Stratlgl aghlc Classl catlon of leferent Trays DESCRIPTION Fault and Foldrelated Due to phange ln lrthology Draprne Vrseous ow from depth Hydrodynamlc Due to owlng water Astroblerne Meteonte lrnpabt traps Trap Su39ucmral W t rFauhw vb M L rm part L H n n u urh a F Mm overlylng the deformed reservolrmckquot Levorsen 1957 Levorsen AI SodomPetroleum 2 ed Freeman San Franerseo 1957 Formedby teetonre probesses alter the deposruon ofthe beds lnvolved Foldlng and Fan trng Foldlng Ann l l l l han t r 0 r r m th a Fth beds Wlll get younger unth drstanee from the axlal plane Usually found adjacent to a synelrne 39 39 Themost abundant Ifthe axls ofthe fold dps rt ls refenedto as aplunging nnuelrna hydroearbon trap Usually foundto be asyrnrnetnewrth the brestrnrgraungwrth depth HC may move down ln a straugraphre sense Synchne Conjugatefoldtoananucllne Coneaveup unthllanks dpprngtowardeaeh other Whenseen n outerop the age ofthe beds getyoungerwrth drstanee to the axlal p ane eruss seem or an asymmnmca mndl ne nngnurnp n uh aspen mm u 572 A snnmnp YhL rest PETR 571 Week 4notes Flynn 15 A smrnural mrmur quotup on an m sane an mck m an Sal Creek on A mug m w 5 7295u1mmtmuvu mm Cumly WW m l Wmquot ml 0 mm mm my 15 mm mm mm mm has hm n4 0 he nun 39 pu ucu up alu sire 39 extension stress 39 39 hm hum c an A n the anticlinal folds normal or reverse recall anticlines are structurally de ned as verticalrelief folds so these do not uuur 39 39 beds will sink into and will drag 39 39 44u plane known as a decollemem Salt an dine see section on diapiric traps PETR 571 We ek 4notes Dames obvious reason of um character sth geometry W 151 A ms 5mquot m gt4 mm mm mm mulnpk pmduun 11mm m vnmuzuwn mm mum New u zrceum 7405 9 PETR 571 Week 4notes E nammx ENE 03 822 8525 u cum 55 r 53 r Fe PETR 571 Week 4notes m 30 nusmn m pu I39m 1 quotWI Aquot raqu Him Em mes Ovulmml aw u ragaeum Traps 23V 7 PETR 571 Week Arrnotes PETR 571 Week 4notes FETR s71 Week Arrnules Faulung chamdenzed by mm manymmsmm stress and numemusanmhen mmur mus noncommumcawtz uw mmugh cumm n uansmmng strata HCs mm numemus mmmdual Laps Resa39vmr pressure diffa39mcesatmss a hullplane muma1 whether umunhe mus cummumcauve urnul mm 1510 mm nun m mm m mme mm m m a quotWe lam FETR 571 Week Arrnutes 9 u umu ymw f u 5 km my a M mwmm AM u quotw u Mommy Wm 1M d wvuqmvmmum m llnmwvuum xm mum K mquotxmmrwmmw n qu mHMm Lwmeu mu m m Wmm u m mmummmmuwmmmmmrmmmcmm rh V duburmOhsc Maui qu snc5mupsMnnmLIHHHHSHNEYW39 unnmcdbypwmu wmmm Mmmmmww y PETR 571 Week 4notes Trap Stratigraphic one in which the chief trapm aking element is some variation in the stratigraphy or lithology or both of the reservoir rock such as a facies change variable local porosity and permeability or an upstructure termination of the reservoir rock irrespective of the cause Levorsen 196D I Formed by changes in lithology I Lithological variation may be depositional eg channel valley or postdepositional eg truncations diagenetic changes Channel traps I Sedimentary environment eolian fluvial or delta ContinentalCoastal I Genetically related to crevassesplay and mouth bar traps I Can also be submarine Shoestring traps I Sedimentary environment is a barrier bar Coastal Pinchouts traps I Sedimentary environment typically eolian also deep marine as in a submarine fan pinchout Reef traps I Reefs are carbonate buildups Are arguably the most important stratigraphic trap I Geometry is usually a domal pinnacle with an elongated antiformal platform Diagenetic traps Oil or gas migrating up a permeable reservoir rock may be retarted upon reaching a cemented zone Oil of gas may trap in solution porosity within a cemented rock Oil may degrade and oxidize by bacterial action as it migrates upward and comes into contact with shallow zone meteoric waters Unconformity traps Three types Angular unconformity traps HC accumulation in strata beneath erosional surface topped with impermeable layer in an angular unconformity sequence Disconformity traps HC accumulation in strata within a nonchronostratigraphic sequence which is immediately overlain with an impermeable layer parallel to it and marking the unconformity Nonconformity traps HC accumulation in fractured basement rocks in unconformity with overlying sediments HC may accumulate above the unconformity or below the unconformity supraunconformity trap and subunconformity trap respectively depending on the stratigraphy FETR 571 Week Arrnutes Trap Diapiric May glyensetu many types ufh aps l e fault at fuld teetume fumes Clays and salts are less dense at depth than layers uverlylngthem ehavevlscuusly nses and maylntxudeupperlayers Resultlnlarge plumes mews canbe bulbuus urmushmum shaped whlch Wlll affectthe type uf traps alung the assunated ymll lt Samepnnmple as alavalamp was we lzmul an mm the l 39 g ova 0011327 FlANK 2quot EL n 1539 ssh dome um FETR s71 Week Arrnules FIGURE 723 mem max Seamquot imltlum htu cn Lypmomnw mwyheaxxaauedwwh 11 WW A1dwrw vap w A c M m D pmzhcu m s lurdkbxv w MMer mamas m Wm W Mm FIGURE 711 Cmmmmmnwwmmw mm My 1975 mm W m mmmsmm mm cwww PETR 571 Week 4 notes quot ow A X y A 1 o n V 7 k7 m X i 7 V A R 39 can now i POOL CREEK FIELD a D39 3 E N Haw mg m ch LIE EA New Myquot Am 5114er maum u Guamng Rwyhes g PEl39R 571 Week 4notes NW g 39 mumu wg g 39 41 ran 39 E FIGURE 72 Denmyrdcpmluvvc aruuu lay mduu mwmnm mummmmx x urED a uyul depth rm 2m rmum PETR 571 Week 4notes Trap Hydrodynamic Hydrodynamic movement of waters down permeable beds will trap oils owing upward provided the hydrodynamic force of the water is greater than the force due to the buoyancy of the oil These traps are rare but have been recorded qv Delaware Basin West Texas and Paris Basin France Only achieved with hydrodynamic flow if no flow pressures would be hydrostatic and oil would rise above the water because it is less dense Hydrodynamic flow is important in considering HC migration down structures Usually observed in gentle flexures in monoclinally dipping beds which have closure but no vertical relie Trap Astrobleme Meteorite impact traps Oil found in highly deformed central uplift in large craters or in fractured and brecciated rim facies Unfortunately Chixculub has not produced39 however the Williston Basin on CanadianUS border and the Ames Field Oklahoma are producing fields widely agreed to be associated with meteorite impacts The Lyles Ranch Field in South Texas is also believed to be associated with a large meteorite impact Further reading for the curiously inclined LeVie DS 1986 South Texas Lyles ranch eld Production from an astrobleme Oil and Gas Journal pp1 35138 Curtiss David K and Wavrek David A 1998 Hydrocarbons in meteorite impact structures oil reserves in the Amesfeature Mazur Michael J and Stewart Robert R 1997 The seismic expression and hydrocarbon potential of Conclusion meteorite impact craters current research Combination Traps As with many classification schemes in the field of geology the practitioner should keep in mind there will often exist combinations of clearly defined types Of the above traps anticlines are by far the most abundant hydrocarbon producer to date Examples of Combination Traps l A channel rollover anticline trap 2 Truncated tilted fault block unconfor39mity trap 3 Salt dome growth fault trap PETR 571 Week 4nntes D E u par us muse 75a armm sum rs a n m reur r s We Wm Nevin W75 p K h Glnssary Flat nPrw M angular unannfnrmlty trap Anticlim An upwardly nnvex fuld wth llmbsthat mp away 39nm me axlal pusluuu Antithetic fault Cnnjugate Apparent dip Any mp measured at ntherthan perpendlculartn me smke nfanmclmed surface Asymmetric mm A fuldwlth anmclmed axlal surface uruurudeuueal llmbs Axial plane The planar axlal surface nfafnld Axis fnld Alme whlch ganerates me furrr nfa fuld whEn mnvedparallel m ltselfm spaee Black fault 9 Tu l C eumuur Cnneeucrie l39nld A parallel fuld wlth Ennstant nnhngnnal thckness ums fnlded layers Defunnz nnstrzin Changmgshapebystxessappllcannn fnldmgsheanng Diapir eure nthe feature Dip PETR 571 Week 4notes Dip slip Fault movement parallel to the dip direction of the fault plane Disconformity An unconformity with sediments parallel to each other above and below the erosion surface which is not necessarily planar Disconformity trap A petroleum trap associated with a disconformity Disharmonic fold A nonparallel fold in which beds of varying competence demonstrate variable deformation intensity Displacement Relative movement of two sides of a fault Dome an anticlinal structure with all dips away from the apex Downthrown block The fault block which is displaced downward relative to the upthrown block Downtothecoast fault A fault type common in areas of rapid deposition where fault blocks are displaces downward in the direction of depositional transport Drape fold A fold in layered rocks produced by movement of underlying brittle rocks at high angles to the layers a forced fold Fault A break in the Earth s crust along which there has been movement Faulted anticline An anticline disrupted or altered by faulting Fault trap A faultcontrolled petroleum accumulation Fold A bent or curved stratum cleavage plane or foliation Foot wall The underside wall rock of a fault inclined vein or ore body Fracture stress Stressinduced breaks in rock material occurring in conjugate sets Geosyncline A large regional linear or basin like depressed area in which thick volcanic and sedimentary rocks accumulate Related to plate margins and regional tectonism Hanging wall The side or block above an inclined fault Heave fault The horizontal displacement of a fault High relief salt anticline A saltinduced saltcored large relief anticline with strongly draped often faulted strata over its apex Nonconformity An unconformity featuring sediment resting upon an eroded crystalline surface N onconformity trap A petroleum trap resulting from a nonconformity Overthrust trap A fault or fold trap lying above a thrust fault Overturned fold A fold with an axial plane depressed below horizontal Permeability barrier A barrier to transmission of fluid through a medium Plunging fold A fold with a nonhorizontal hinge line PETR 571 Week 4notes Recumbent fold A fold with a horizontal axial plane Reef trap A petroleum accumulation retained by reef permeability surrounded by adjacent rock impermeability Salt dome A circular or elliptical positive saltcored structure which vertically penetrates of deforms the surrounding sediments Seal An impermeable rock medium that isolates a reservoir and retains petroleum ie shale evaporite Shear A stressinduced displacement along a zone or plane of failure Similar fold A fold in which bed thickness is greater in the hinge than in the limbs Slip Displacement along a fault surface Strain Deformation resulting from stress Stratigraphic trap A depositional nondeform ed petroleum trap Stress Applied force or pressure resulting in strain Strike The horizontal line of intersection between a dipping surface and horizontal plane Structural trap A petroleum trap formed by deformation Subsidence Downward movement of the Earth s surface Subthrust trap A petroleum trap beneath a thrust fault Syncline A downwardly convex fold with limbs that dip toward the axis Synthetic fault lLinor faults of the same orientation and direction of displacement as associated major faults Tar mat Layer of heavy oil immediately above the bottom water that impedes the ow of water into the reservoir39 are believed to have been produced the thermal degradation of oils and increased gas solution with associated precipitation of asphaltenes Throw The vertical displacement of a fault Trap A geologic feature in which petroleum can accumulate Unconformity An interruption of the geologic record manifest as an erosion surface bounded by rocks which are not immediately chronologically successive PETR 571 Week 2notes Weathering Erosion Deposition and Lithiflcation Or How to Make a Sedimentary RockReservoir Rock Weathering Mechanical and0r chemical breakdown of rock material that creates sediments at or near the surface of the eart Sediment Fragmental 0r precipitated material transported and deposited by gravity water wind ice or precipitation Mechanical vs Chemical weathering Mechanical 1 Frost wedging Unloading Biological activity roots burrows Thermal expansion N V be VV Chemical 1 Oxidation Carbonation carbon dioxide reacts with water to form carbonic acid Hydrolysis WM VV Mechanical weathering at work Unloading or pressure release 7 above and Root wedging right ETR571 Week Zrnules classrfyrng Sedxmmts Three 8 shape Srze andSomng Shape Angularvs Rounded Angular sedxmmtdxsplays sharp corners and edges transde overa short dstance Rounded sedlmmt has rounded smooLh edges Lmnspo ed over a long dstance Annuliv Subanguial Subvounded Rnunded 5221 Q Q Q O O O O Srze Almost all reserrorr rocks are composed ofsandsLonegranulesrze garns mnghmmw emu omen pm 57 Week Zrnutes Somng Ameasure of the uhrforrhrty ofgram srze dutnbunon wrthrh a sedJmEnt sample Poorly sorted parheles of dAfferent srzes together Well sorted pamcles ofsame me together Ernsinn Transportatroh of weathered m aterral Meehamsms oferosxon 1 Ruhhrhg water nvers AlluvxalFluvxal 2 Wmdthan 3 Wa rrehts 4 Gravny 5 Groundwater o Glaerers WI39N39D Q r xzmwmmwwmm w 139 SALTATION thmmn will for gtEOquotu ofsuud movcmcux39 grains LVDICIIUV V unliin 6001 1 ad ofll gmlmdt pm 57 Week Zrnutes 5m ccumwzms Wmnwam men m Ema rm 5 Saltanng sand grams Sand dunes Crossrbeddmg Also seen m delta deposits x ealluvxa1 uvialicommon reservon39 depositional environment PETR 571 Week Zenotes Different rocks are susceptible to Weathering and erosion to dilTerent degrees Saltspnng Island l Sandstone and Conglomerate Shale Fault 0 Sandstones are typically more resistant to Weathering and erosion than shales 0 Croppingoutquot of beds can indicate the orientation of bedding and hence the subsurface geology PETR 571 Week Zrnoles mm 34 Euhmnnlu mud nuws mnslng A39allun on M assay River drllw offshore ng 5 mg 39lne or or events mm uhiesl n a f 014 youngr is deposi n L a sndimeman mats u W and 3 nunwad by faulting mmquot wnmnlomxiky and rhu dnpoamon of sedxmsnlnn mrk5 m and 5 P ETR 57 1 Week Zrnotes mm 39 A mgan unmninn39ml pemlmm mp shuwing m mmm rack karmmawd undu m9 unmn amuly suriaze and mm wheel PETR 571 Week 2notes Deposition Laying down of sediments at nal erosional destination The type of location at which sediments are deposited is referred to as the depositional environment Depositional environments can be Continental Coastal or Marine 1 Continental deserts lakes stream beds swamps caves 2 Coastal deltas sand bars lagoons estuaries 3 Marine slope ocean bottom abyssal Depositional environment strongly in uences the likelihood of oil origination and accumulation Sediments of a common source or depositional event are grouped into strata Graded bed strata whose sediments ne upward ie grains gets smaller as approach top of bed The stratigraphic column is a sequence of strata revealing depositional trends through time correlating strata is widely used by petroleum geologists in the exploration of hydrocarbons Graided bedding right with characteristic ning upward of grains PETR 571 Week zrnotes mm tuuw m0 Magnum Namva Lame Funny Sunzd Samuel 2353330 g ggmc vah M W HunnPlamSvuShmo Sune F Campzmmn mama Fm Hood PyaVn shma ENV RONMENTS srREAM Munm FLOWS FANS amass MW m SVREAMS nuwm wmmwc ivkuws LAuwaA vmm noonusws mm mm mm mm own DUNES w W oJDVs m H C39Jmg CHANNE S nEaRKS news MUDF OWS CHANNELS 7mm ms rnmsvsm DEPOSITlONAL MODELS mm FAN comm mus w Mm Week Zrnotes PETR 571 wNomstaL nun ENVWONMENIS LOWER Duch MEANDER sens magnum mswlauuw mmms INvEn msvnauwv AXKAS DEVUSIIIONAL MODELS was amnioml Pawv EARS DEW SIREAMS mm a SWAMF S campast mum nun amass Esnnwws m In pm av AAP J Week Zrnutes pm 571 ENV RONMENFS DEFOSVHONAL MODELS cmsm mvEn ntuAm WNomstL mm mm suammw mmn mmus ancx m mmn aEACH mm m5 sms a HAvs wmom um mmzx mm aEAcn a mats mm nus y k 4 mum s mwm Mom rum mus suamuzuus lAGooNs mm cuwum 5mm EsruAmEs swans a KEEPS Hum mus mu mm smmw Mums mm Mmme um wens mm smuow MAKYNE amavw ozzp MAR NE mums vRthnEs a muons mu mus nzzp MAk NE nom mum r973 AM G Week Zrnole s PETR 571 PETR 571 Week 2notes Lithi cation The process of transforming loose unconsolidated sediments into a rock Can be accomplished through compaction cementation and crystallization Compaction Weight of overlying sediments packs deeper grains together Cementation Sediment grains are cemented together from the precipitation of mineral solute in pore space Crystallization Cement precipitates crystallize into minerals forming a matrix Matrix Fine grained material occupying intergranular sedimentary pore space between coarser grains Sedimentary rock Rocks formed from existing sediments through lithi cation PETR 571 Week 2notes Glossary Abrasion Mechanical wearing grinding or scraping by impact and friction of rock surfaces or grains by gravity water ice or wind Alluvium C p 39 39 recen quot poorly sorted detrital gravel sand silt and clay deposited by often ephemeral rapidly movingtwater under ood or ash ood conditions stream floodplain delta and alluvial fan deposits Angular grain A grain form with sharp edges irregular shape and no rounding Anhydrite An evaporate mineral of calcium sulfate Arenite Consolidated clastic rock of sand sized particles arkose sandstone etc Argillaceous Shaly or containing clayey constituents Arkose Coarsegrained feldspathic variably sorted sanstone containing angular grains representing rapid deposition and limited grain transport Basin A low area with no exterior drainage Often an area of sedimentary deposition lake basin marine basin Bed A stratum or layer of rock Bedding Layers of stratified rock Bedding plane A surface separating stratified rocks Bed rock Solid rock beneath soil or unconsolidated surficial material Boundstone Sedimentary carbonate rock the original components of which were bound together in place during deposition most algal bank and reed deposits Braided stream A multiple channel stream divided because the alluvial material to be carried exceeds the capacity of the water to carry it Calcareous Rock or other material containing up to 50 percent calcium carbonate Carbonate Rockforming minerals containing the carbonate ion which include calcite and dolomite Carbonate platform A substantial limestone or dolomite substrate upon which a reef might be built Cem entation Precipitation of mineral material into intergranular or intercrystalline pore space Chalk Finetextured marine limestone formed by shallow water accumulation of calcareous remains of floating microorganisms and algae Channel A place through which a current can flow such as between two sand bars Chemical weathering Weathering by chemical change of mineral constituents in rocks Clast A grain or fragment Clastic rock A rock composed of clasts PETR 571 Week 2notes Compaction Sediment volume decrease by increase in overburden pressure Continental shelf The area between the shore and the top of the continental slope Continental slope The inclined area between the continental shelf and the deep ocean it averages about six degrees from the horizontal Delta Flat commonly triangular alluvial deposit occurring at the mouth of a river at its entry to a quiet body of water ie lake or ocean Deposition The laying down or emplacement of material especially sedimentary as stratified or unstratified accumulations Detritus An accumulation of mechanically derived rock and mineral fragments including gravel sand and silt Diagenesis The process of converting sediment to rock Drift All glacially originated transported and deposited material Eolian Windblown or windrelated Erosion Removal of rock material to another place by one or several transportation agencies Evaporite A rock or mineral deposited by precipitation during evaporation Fluvial Pertaining to rivers and streams Friable Easily pulverized or crumbly rock or mineral material Frost wedging Dislocation prying and mechanical breakdown of fractured rock by expansion of ice in the fractures Glacial erosion Glacial removal and transportation of rock material Lacustrine Pertaining to lakes and lake environments Lithification Solidification of sediment to rock induration diagenesis Mechanical weathering Physical break down of rock material Oolite A sedimentary rock comprising concentrically precipitated calcium carbonate ooliths approximately 1 mm in diameter Sediment Fragm ental or precipitated material transported and deposited by gravity water wind ice or precipitation Silica Silicon dioxide quartz Siliceous A rock containing abundant free silica Sorting The degree of constancy of grain size in a clastic rock Wellsorted rocks comprise grains of the same size The dynamic process of achieving sorting of grains Turbidite A turbidity currentdeposited graded clastic sequence 15 PETR 571 Week 2notes Turbidity current A gravitym otivated current containing velocity suspended sediment which deposits graded sediments as its velocity decreases Weathering Mechanical andor chemical breakdown of rock material PETR s71 Wm 17mm Composition 0139th earth Geologic Time and Plate Tectonics Lzyusufdlzeznh Charmed vs Mechanical Charmed Mechanical Fe Mantle MamyPendame 2 om Many amumkms afxacksfm the ma pm cannmn39s campusede gum and acembaans campasedafbasalt ljcme Nxand 7 1 Inneme39e Sand 2 Oumcm quuldm vecuveisaurce afunh39smagneuc eld mph hm Dunne mdweakbehwes plamcally39 5 thagphm Emu an layer gum dstxmg uppemmst cununenlnl clusl zom km lhlck PETR 571 Week 1Notes Rocks of the crust l Igneous solidified rock from liquid magma or lava 2 Metamorphic rock that has been recrystallized under extreme TS and PS source rock can be igneous metamorphic or sedimentary 3 Sedimentary rock formed from consolidated sediments The breakdown consolidation and perhaps recrystallization of old rocks to form new rocks is known as the rock cycle Properties of the crust Geothermal Gradient GT A product of the heat flux from the mantle and the local surface temperature ls dependent on thermal conductivity of subsurface formations I Average GT for the earth is 182 Ckm l FlOOft I Can be used to calculate temperature of a formation in the subsurface Tf TS GTD T Temperature of formation T5 Local mean annual surface temperature GT Geothermal Gradient D Depth from surface to formation I Bottomhole temperature T if measured accurately Lithostatic Pressure Gradient I l lbpsi 227kPam I Lithostatic pressure is the difference between the overburden pressure and the uid pressure P017 H P f p01 Overburden pressure p1 Lithostatic pressure p Fluidpressure Hydrostatic Pressure Gradient I 0465 lbpsi 1053kPam I Greater than fresh water gradient due to brines which contain dissolved solids I Is affected by temperature and dissolved gas 7 decreases hydro gradient PETR 571 Week erotes Plate Tectonics The crust 15 dmded mto plates mantle moves Lhese plates relatwe to one anotha ha m Convecuon m the me nm a Furs pm qu39mu m PETR 571 Week erotes divergeng on extha sxde otheboundary DweggmL boundanes Rxsmg hquxd mmue emerges at the rustic form spreadmg centers and new crusL Crust moves AW y from dwergmt margms derocean ndges oeeamc e g Auanue Ocean RmZones contmental e g East A xca Extmsxonal Stress 6 Assocxamd wah basms e g oceamc basms Normal and Transform faulting mull1h I I namequot I l mum PETR 571 Week mates Cunvergent buundanes 02am crust is much drama that cunhnemzl crust otuerarru Cutuer ueme crustts umserthatyuurtgeranuvvarmer ueme crust crust Dr utuer artu eutuerhenee denser ueme crust travel back uuvvnmtu the nude and the mantle currveeuur system Western Nurth artu scuth Amenm East stue unapart Cumpressmnal Stress 6 Assucrateu vvtth Muurttam Ranges 3 g Andes Reverse mung and heavy fuldmg artu uerurmauurt CnnvexgEmBnnm laerThlm Cm meant ceamcmnvergence PETR 571 Week erotes Tmsfonn boundaries Plates move lalerally and in opposite directions to one another Shear Stress Midocean ridges and San Andreas Fault Zone Califomia Transform or Strikeslip faultin PETR 571 Week eroles Evidence for Plate Movement mp Nasa Satelhte GPS mekmg movemmt ofplmes Plates move at avemge speed of3cmyr Normal magne c polarityI u Reversed magnate polarityI b PETR 571 week Mom The Three Basic Faull Types Narmal and Reverse Fauhs Normal faulx Revevie Mum We Hangmgweu Tnnsfunn nr Mesh Faull 517mm ef atera Dextva rithateraU stv39wkers p fauh smkershp fawn PETR 571 Week erotes Geologic Time Geologic time scale Millions of rs 1191 a m l PETR 571 Week 1N0tes Relative dating Geologists long noted a pattern in the superposition of seolimentary layers and the mineralogy as well as ora and fauna that occurreolin those layers Absolute dating chemists and Physicists noted that elements olecay some faster than others but follows exponential decay function 39 39 39 39 39 r 39 39 decay mr nn L L l 39 39 l 39 A This is known as radiometric dating andis usedto calculate the age of rocks lsoto Halflife pe of parent Useful range Parent Daughter years years Carbon 14 Nitrogen 14 5130 101 30000 The earth has been calculated to be 46 billion years old All this w le r race and apart again drastically changing the climate and biota So no 39 Petroleum 39 MA A 225 million years ago PETR 571 Week 1Notes Glossaryquot Absolute time Specific geologic time in years Asthenosphere Upper mantle earth layer below the lithosphere Basalt Dark basic aphanitic extrusive igneous rock of pyroxene calcium feldspar and olivine Basement rock Crustal rocks usually crystalline igneous metamorphic below the sedimentary section of any area Basin A low area with no exterior drainage Often an area of sedimentary deposition lake basin marine basin Compressive stress Pressure that pushes material together operates in opposition toward a common point of plane Continental crust Crust of silicon and aluminum minerals which underlies continental masses SIAL Convection mantle Heat exchange by heating and cooling circulation patterns in the earth s mantle Core The solid and liquid center of the earth It is about 7000km in diameter composed mostly of iron and nickel and has an average specific gravity of approximately105 Crust earth The outer shell of the earth comprising oceanic and continental components with a specific gravity of 26265 Convergent boundary The leading edge of an advancing continental margin Usually associated with subduction deformation and volcanism Daughter product A nuclide formed by radioactive decay of a parent mineral May be an isotope of the parent or a different product Deformation Changing shape by stress application folding shearing Displacement Relative movement of two sides of a fault Divergent plate boundary The margin of a crustal plate that moves away from a spreading center the trailing edge of a plate Eon The longest geologic time unit Phanerozoic Eon includes Paleozoic Mesozoic and Cenozoic eras Epoch A geologic time unit longer than an age and shorter than a period Era A geologic time unit smaller than an eon Extrusive Pertaining to igneous rock which flows or is ejected onto the Earth s surface to cool Fault A break in the Earth s crust along which there has been movement Fauna Animal population of an area or geologic time increment Faunal succession The evolutionary sequence of fauna through geologic time Flora The plant population of an area or geologic time increment PETR 571 Week 1Notes Fold A bent or curved stratum cleavage plane or foliation Fossil Preserved plant or animal material Geologic time scale The chronologic sequence of geologic events which correspond to divisions of geologic time Geology The study of the history of the earth its processes and properties Geothermal gradient The increase in temperature with a depth below the Earth s surface on average l Fl 00ft Granite An acidic plutonic igneous rock containing quartz potassium feldspar amphibole and mica Halflife The time required to radioactively break down a radioactive material to half its original radioactivity Igneous rock Rock that has crystallized from magma molten material Lava Mobile extrusive igneous rock Lithosphere The outermost layer of the Earth which includes continental and oceanic crust in its upper layers and the uppermost part of the mantle It is up to lOOkm thick Magma Molten rock Mantle The second layer of the earth below the lithosphere 2900km thick and with a specific gravity of 4550 Metamorphism The process of mineralogically physically chemically and structurally changing rock by temperature pressure shearing and chemical means Obliqueslip fault Fault that is a combination of dipslip and normalreverse Period An increment of geologic time smaller than an era and larger than an epoch eg the Cambrian period Platetectonics A theory of crustal deformation involving the motions of lithospheric plates Radiometric age A geologic age in years determined by measurement of elemental halflives radioactive emission rates and daughter product formation Transform boundary A lithospheric plate boundary characterized by strikeslip motiondisplacement Link Peter K Basic Petroleum Geology Oil amp Gas Consultants international Inc Tulsa Oklahoma 1987


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Janice Dongeun University of Washington

"I used the money I made selling my notes & study guides to pay for spring break in Olympia, Washington...which was Sweet!"

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.