Water in the RiseFall of Civ
Water in the RiseFall of Civ ERTH 140
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This 109 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mattie Hartmann on Thursday October 15, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ERTH 140 at New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 37 views. For similar materials see /class/223643/erth-140-new-mexico-institute-of-mining-and-technology in Earth Science at New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology.
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Date Created: 10/15/15
L a Good Hydrologlc Condi ons b Poor Hydrologlc Conditions Emma Ram Wae39l able wequot WW Drywall 1 l l Lgssenedlnmuahon V6 0 m s nn E unable s ve ank p g Squeam Wag Siream Flow Flow new Groundwamr Flaw m SDnngs and Sheams Lam39s wa e39 Tame H a Infiltra on b Overland Flow rvuuu Unul rluuuluun m 100 amp 100 Cullwaled Culhvaled Puma m 0 V nme gt Tm gt 1 a 0 mmquot Ungrazed Pasmve WW Pavement 8 E E E 2 1 a 0 P emem 5 2 me 32 W A W mm ay 239 2 7 Sandy sou Clay W V Tune 4 I A 5 Stream Response 32 4 gig 3 H t n c 0 ye ogvap 3 E 2 u 3 1 10 H 7 Urhan ashy I 1can be ex norma s I I Hydvngvaph n g 5 50 A l a Agxculura1Area I as I med 25W aneval Foreslad Avaa 3 a I V meuad and Sew Response g V m 2 Ease Flaws vary by seam FIGURE 51 Good VS poor hydrologic cundiliuns and helr effects on runoff A Shallow Soil or Low Infiltration Capacity Channel Precipitalion Overland Flow B Deep Very Porous Soil such as glacial oulwash Channel Preclpilalion C Frozen Soil concrete frost Channel Precipna on Overland Flow 6 a quoto 6 010 Flain Begins R In Time yamS Rainfall Duration FIGURE 52 SchemaLic of the disposal of storm rainfall in three scenarios Redrawn from Ward RC Principles of Hydrology McGrawHill Maidanhead UK 1967 With permission luv Wit3380 000 Plan Small Second Order 2 O I a I E I lt2 I quot 3 3 AB Prome Surface See AB Below Source Area of Detention Saturated A Overland Flow 9 L Unsaturated 9910 Yr 5 is SUbsurface Source Area of Q 1 Q0 5 J Stormflow Saturated 5 a Overland Flow 0 x eg1 yr st uickflow Ex ltration 60 ka Q Rec73 Thro g Saturated Zone Groundwater FIGURE 53 The variable source area concept Hewlett model Contour Lines 1 0 y 1 4 100 30 604 A A39 on Q Elevation n Wa ershed Divide I 1 2 3 Ridge CrossSection Location Elevation Contour nes 4 Valle Plan Section Valley CrossSection Location 39 Q Q 0460 o Q S 59 Saddle FIGURE 56 Common features on a topographic map FIGURE 57 Measuring overland and channel slopes Runoff Gage at Outlet FIGURE 58 Catchment shapes A fan and B elongated Center Mass of Rainstorm g E Basin Lag ES Peak Flow Rate C E lt Time of Rise 3 Failin Limb Rising Limb g 0 gquot STORMFLOW Hydrograph Separation Line a Antecedent E Flow Rate m quot Groundwater Q quot g I f r e r 39 Recession O Time hr FIGURE 511 Storm hydrograph relationships Base Flow g Recession A as A Curve 2 E B1 B B Type 0 Type 1 i y w Overland 2 Flow E 3 A O E 3 m z B B Type 2 Type 3 Time hours or days gt Time hours or days gt FIGURE 512 Four basic hydrog39raph types From Ward RC Principles of Hydrology McGraw Hill Maidenhead UK 1967 With permission 4O Urban Forested Rainfal 35 30 25 Discharge cfs or mas N O Rainfall Discharge for an Urban Watershed 4 6 8 Time days FIGURE 513 Stream ow from forested and urban watershed Luw 10 u MEMBH Discharge Headwater Runoff Hydrograph Downstream Hydrograph Base flow 1 l O 1 2 3 4 Time days FIGURE 514 Hydrograph attenuation in a stream TABLE 51 Curve Numbers for Antecedent Soil Moisture Condition II Land Use Description Commercial row houses and townhouses Fallow poor condition Cultivated with conventional tillage Cultivated with conservation tillage Lawns poor condition Lawns good condition Pasture or range poor condition Pasture or range good condition Meadow Pavement and roofs Woods or forest thin stand poor cover Woods or forest good cover Farmsteads Residential quarteracre lot poor condition Residential quarter acre lot good condition Residential half acre lot poor condition Residential half acre lot good condition Residential 2acre lot poor condition Residential 2 acre lot good condition Roads Source From NRCS 1984 A 80 77 72 62 B 85 86 81 71 74 61 79 61 58 100 66 55 74 83 75 80 70 77 66 84 C 90 91 88 78 82 74 86 74 71 100 77 70 82 88 83 86 80 84 77 90 Hydrologic Soil Group D 95 94 91 81 86 80 89 80 78 100 83 77 86 91 87 89 85 87 81 92 Single Triangle NRCS Curvilinear Forested Double Triangle o Agricultural Double Triangle Urban Double Triangle 1 Urban Double 08 39 06 ET A E 04 I 02 l o 0 2 4 ttp FIGURE 520 Curvilinear single and double triangle unit hydrographs Water Table before Drainage Water Table after Drainage Water Table before Drainage Water Table after Drainage FIGURE 525 Types of agricultural drainage improvements Water Table lmpervious Layer FIGURE 528 Subsurface drainage geometry for Equation 511and Equation 5 C l 1397 l 100 SD 0 Mesls lr gmlan water irom San Juan Ditch source Las Nutrias Groundwater Project Socorro County New Mexico Inigs on Concrete Lined Irngatlon D ch San Jua walk from n Canal source 27 19 11 4 LEG dew ems paion Ja1eMpUnOJ9 SEiJlnN 521 9 eJnBH C 2439 END Edge of Cuirivated Area Monitoring Weiamp Piezomelers with West Bench Line Ditch Fiow Direction D Tile Dre Monitoring Wellwith Identiiying Numb e i hquotquot 157 acres er Identifying Number quotII lt Figure 4 1984 arial photograph of the Las Nutnas Groundwater Project Heavy lines indicate berms between benches 0 50 100 Meters Control Gates Irrigation Drtchx quotwar elrx 39 1399 39 39 39 I I I 9 F CField Pipes 22 1O 5 21 28 11 S 7 22 423 13 West 13 E24 Manhole EaSt Manhole 14 29 72 quotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquot 426 39 wg Figure 5 Center bench detail numbers refer to wells see legend in Figure 3 14 NitrateNitrogen Concentration g 12 East Bench Irrigation E A Center Bench Irrigation v g Q West Bench Irrigation 1310 b g 8 o 839 O c 8 9 539 3 2 Q 4 E Z 2 O O O 9 A A A A oo o 0 AL 0 IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII LnOlO0 000QWQWOWOmOWOMDmQWOUDQWOWOW VLONQJOF VJ CREDO OLOLD DCDV NV U NQJQFO J to DD V C 0 h hm N FQDNQ NQ N Q ease swank c3 2 Days Since Project Began Figure 12 Nitratenitrogen concentration with time at the downgradient west manhole for the 1994 irriqation season NitrateNitrogen Concentration mgI co m i lt0 8 0 Days Since Project Began F a m a quota 6 a 3 IQ N IQ l I f I I D O N V O F F F F 0 B 2 ch lt3 Figure 13 Nitratenitrogen co downgradient man ncentration with time at the hole for the 6894 irrigation event Evapotranspiration Evaporation j 39 Transpiration Vegetation Su n aces FIGURE 41 Evapotranspiration divided into subprocesses Epidermis Palisade Mesophyll Cells Lower Epidermis r e D p U Guard Cell Stomatal Pore FIGURE 43 Schematic transverse section through a leaf 20Here Ii I Uniform MudCearse Mediumover Mediumover ModCoarse Mediumover Proma overMedium ModCoarse Mod Coarse overMedium Coarse Root Zone Morsture Extraction Depth D Root Zone Depth D 14D14DI14Dt14D FIGURE 45 A Average moisture extraction pattern of plants growing in a soil without restrictive layers and with an adequate supply of plantrnvailuble water PAW throughout the root zone B Moisture extraction patterns as determined by PAW in various parts of s i 39l Width of each pro le represents PAW gross area of each ro le represents total PAW in pro le shaded area shows moisture extraction pattern for each pro le From USDAisCS National Engineering Handbook Irrigation Absolutely Wilting Critical Value Field Moisture Content Dry Point 04 06 PAW Capacity Saturated 39 T i i P l r v I erco a lon 0139 Description HYdVOSCOP C HzoJl cap39uary H2O L gravity H20 J rr 1 l 1 lo l o 0 Plant Available Water PAW 130 quot Veimeyer Model 39 quot l a 7 7 100 I I 1 o x 066 5000 pAW 06g o Transplratlon i 9 I Rate I I WW AET ll l W l PET X 100 h 1 I Mesophytic Plant l r Productivity Rate l l l 0 All models I i I 00 O Capillary 1 l I t Eggnog 15 bars i01 bar 0 bar 10 50 bars FIGURE 47 Relationship of soil moisture to transpiration rate plant productivity and capillary potential Actual ET Simpler Less Expensive MM A More Complex and Expensive m A Water Energy Balance Balance Weighing Nonweighing Constant WaterTable I FIGURE 48 Options available for measuring potential or actual evapotranspiration Soil Water Depletion L I cm 135 m 39wm f rm hadbm wmg mam mjmwutmm gm m ETRnGH LandBased ET Estimation Flgx Twrs v 39 1 w 3 h J V A w 3 I 2 399 Salt Cedar Cottonwood Photos courtesy of James Cleverly UNM 3D system above cotton Photo courtesy of Zohrab Samani NMSU Photos courtesy of Zohrab Samani NMSU What Landsat Sees Visible lt Near Infrared f quot Lan urf 0 04 06 08 12 16 20 24 Wavelengthlicrons Band123 4 5 7 Various amounts of reflection Landsat Band 6 is the longwave thermal band and is used for surface temperature Slide by Richard Allen and colleagues Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land SEBAL Temperat re Slide courtesy of Julie Coonrod UNM 9 a I aspec gt 39 osasp us SatelliteBased ET Estimation SEBAL Algorithm Slide courtesy of Jan Hendrickx New Mexico Tech it g lliv i39xr d FE 2v 39 3 Sunrise an e unset Z 51 3 Remotesensing based ET measurement quotii 219 3 Slide courtesy of Jan Hendrickx New Mexico Tech L 60 7 50 6 quot 4o 5 U u I n x E a 4 E 30 1 3 3 CD 20 2 1O 1 0 0 Temperature C 0 10 2O 30 35 23 233 233 363 Absolute Temperature K 2 O Vapor Pressure at Saturation N 6H u 59 100 O 30 4O 50 60 70 80 90 100 Temperature F FIGURE 411 Saturated vapor pressure as a function of temperature From Schwab et 211 1993 With permission Potential or Reference ET t PenmanMonteith I 808 BlaneyCriddle PenmanMonteith W Penman E W Monthly and Seasonal lf Calibrated Locally M 803 BlaneyCriddle Penman These methods require more weather data than is included in the NOAA summaries FIGURE 413 Methods available for estimating ET using climatic data PenmanMonteith JensenHaise PenmanMonteith Penman JensenHaise Thornthwaite 100 80 FIGURE 414 Mean annual Class A pan evaporation in inches 194671955 From Kohler MA T Nordenson and D Baker Evaporation Maps for the United States US Weather Bureau Technical Pauer 37A 1950 1 m m 0 N m b 98 NM NM 392 No V v quot Anchorage Minneapulis snawmeu snowmen Precwpitalion andm snuwmeu Potential Evapmmnspiva an so wsmma Sou Moismre Recharge E m urplus Potenha Gravity Water Dehcil Sml Moisture Unl zahon HIHHHHIWI 39 39 JFMAMJJASONDJ FIG RE 419 Soil water budge from across 1 U S e sharp spike in gtpring at nonherly loca ons are SnowmelL Note the large soil Water Th a causing vegetation stress in xht Snmhwsil Data Dram Mather LR The ChinaKc Walt Budget in Envimnnl39nlal Alzulysix Lexington Books Lexinglunv MA I978 With perm In Depth cm 400 120 Iquot 8 v tholdiivb i 140 nu awnMum Hanukkah vegan My wt 0 g g R aw i va quot gymna I I 6 100 200 300 400 5 IO Hydrauiic Conductivity cmhr FIGURE 101 Hydraulic conductivity changes with dcpth in a forest soil Data from Harr RD J Hydrol 3337 58 1977 FIGURE 102 Historical exLeut of forest in the Us shaded area Forest area 17602000 Primarily Bars include area in all 50 current States Source National Report on Forest quot historic data Return to FIA Home TRE ND DATA Return Since 1900 forest area in the US has remained statistically in 745 n acres l5 With the lowest point in 1920 of 735 million acres US forest area in 2000 was about 749 m 3 ion acres Basis for chart data FIA Field Inventory Reports Forest Service report estimates prior to FIA eld inventories Based on Bureau ofth Census land clearing statistics Based on estirmtes of forest 39 o clearing proportional t population growth Mb TRE N D DATA Regional forest trends in the 48 States 17602000 1 Retu rn Oriinal forests in what is now the US totaled about 105 billion acres includin what is now the State of AK and HI 400 Clearin of forest land in the East between 1850 and 1900 averaed 13 square miles every day for 50 years the most prolific 350 period of forest clearing in US history This coincides with one of the most 300 prolific periods of US immigration Currently forests cover about 749 Tth million acres of the US or about 33 250 percent of all land ID I 3 k Basis for chart data g 200 1940 pres FIA Field Inventory North Reports E Interior West 1 5O 1 900 1 930 Forest Service report estimates 100 A A prior to FIA field inventories Pacific Coast 50 1850 1890 Based on Bureau of the Census land clearin statistics 1 760 1 840 Based on estimates 6 Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q of forest clearin b 3939 9 393 393 3933 3939 399 393 3996 9 Q96 proportional to population rowth Source National Report on Forest Resources and other historic data Return to FIA Home Numbers of live trees by diameter 1977 and 2002 Number of trees in the United States uquot 395 lt9 5 WKquot Billion trees o xnwhmmu Number of trees in the United States qf b 9 N N RN 0 a 3 9 fig I 1977 Dbh class inches Dbh class inches I 2002 Source quot 39 Report on Forestquot Return to HA Home TREND DATA 1 Retu rn As forests mature the average number of small trees tends to decline due to natural competition and the number of large trees increases This pattern is evident in the US overthe past 25 years although it may vary by region and historic conditions such as harvesting and catastrophic events such as re There are currently nearly 300 billion trees at least 1inch in diameter in the US up Snlnwhne MI PHRN SHOW COW AM gun z w arming Rango A 2007 Personal communication FIGURE 103 Interception processes in forests P is total pre cipitation T is throughfall S is stem ow and 1 is interception FIGURE 104 Energy balance in a forest Q is shortwave solar radiation QM is longWave terrestrial radiation Q is the latent heat of evaporation and Q is sensible heat Depth 1 I I I I I I I I I l I I I I l 05 04 03 02 01 0 05 04 03 02 01 0 05 04 03 02 01 0 WaIer Content VN FIGURE 105 Evapotranspirmion from aspen grass and bare plots After Johnston RS Water Resom Rex 623247327 1970 With permission Early in Storm Later in Storm FIGURE 107 Changes in depth of subsurface ow leading to saturation overland ow p refers to precipitation and i 10 in ltr k ley V N Q cccccc en FIGURE 109 Percentage 0139 area reforested 10 1arge stream basins of the Southern Piedmont 1919 to 19671 From Trimble SW F Weirich and BL Hoag Water Remun Rm 23425 437 1987 With permission AETzPiQiAS 527 arm AP 713 u 50 89 quotmuseumquot m 232 53quot Jta liv39tiirlvdi4Q1QQ e u r at Huncwmunmnx erwHun u Qifltefttftas auwquot e nu 40 QKI 4tt vg Gtkw NRCQA Iv 3398x amp 0 22 run AET216 n 3 Inches 0 O 20 39 quot AQ122 1900 1920 1940 1960 1980 Year FIGURE 1010 Change of NET and Q as the result of reforestation Oconee River at Greensboro GA Note that while precipitation increased runoff decreased meaning that AET increased greatly While storage changes are important to the water budget for a year or so the signi cance decreases over the decadal timescale Data from Trimble et 31 l987 Average Stream Discharge cfs 5 I I i Annual Precipitation in FIGURE 1011 Ocnnee River at Greensboro GA Regression lines Show the relatinn of runoff to precipitation for the earlier period of cropland and the later period after an additional 21 of the basin had been refurested The net effect is minor in wet years but iowstream ow droughts are exacerbated in dry years Data from Trimble et al 1987 DEBHIS AVALANCHE very rapid to extremely rapid Weathered bedrock soil etc Bedrock DEBRIS FLOW very rapid Upland Channel Debris Fan SLUM PEAFITH FLOW FIGURE 1013 Descriptive drawings of three common forms of mass failure in forestlands After Varnes DJ in Lcmdslider Analysis and Comm Special Report 176 TransporL Res Board National Academy of Sciences National Res Council Washing ton DC 1978 pp 11 33 Willi permissioni new stand may take several years to become as effective in holding ihe soil Creep example of mass wasting along the Sheyenne River valley North Dakota GRAZING I H20 Contem r Texmre Finer OrgContent b c mamquotunnx w a quotL Surface Dismrban e 3 R d d Reduced z xggnstabllilyr 9 Ce Fleduced u ac rusxing Permeabl IW AVailH20 39 39 Reduced vane m C2cngagnoTh Aera m R d d Change Gweg s cm ep i e uce n w r Reduced Reduced Avail Xmamvuanwgwpe shallowa Infiltration H20 E a rocked annual kn rgn HedUCEd Reduced Organic 4 Reduced 4 39 Fauna Materlal and Fertiliky Phylomass 39e Populaton 39 Reduced Aggvegate Stability Porosity incl macropcres Permeability Aeraiion Mixin Fermin FIGURE 1014 Effects of grazing on biofactors that in uence in ltration and erosion xtal j 3tvt mg T gt 4quot Mquotmv 2 L a 1 Janka w n H I like 39t gs W M 4 1 i V sugm mm V max sigma m quot E imn m a 390 h g 4 i t 1 L 3 Wk 393 V FIGURE 1016 Two contiguous reaches of small tributary stream with low silly banks Iuwa County Wisconsin A light mnderately grazed B heavily grazed From Trimblei SW and AC Mendel Geomorphology 132337253 1995 With permissim 1 o o 10 20 30 C 45 20 4O 35 30 25 J O gramsm3 20 15 1O guuneJ 5 0 0 0 20 4O 60 80 100 F FIGURE 21 The relationship between water content of air at saturation and air temperature Values are in absolute humidity weight of watervolume of air Convective Frontal I19 I 101 III I i I I I ll I l I v I l N C0 llD In III101103144 1 iii lx NJ quot Warmmoislairrisesduetowarminglmmsolar healed ground surface Orographic FIGURE 23 Main mechanisms causing air to rise and cool resulting in frontal convective or orogruphic precipiiulion precipitation niprhunimucl Fur mrm mmnlctc and technical but accessible explanations sec AH Struhler und Slruhlcr 2002 Source Region iquot Marilim39e Polar 39 Alr Masse s MP i V n r u l Soqrce Re ion r I i Continental olar l pr i i DFlV HOT X Source Regiom l Troplcal I WARM 2 Continental quot MOIST Air Masses CF Source Region Maritime Tropical M ource Region MarilimeTropical l I FIGURE 24 Muior wcl and dry air masses in uencing hi precipitation pailtern in the US 950 l 990 USDA Slut L39ul Bulletin 834 1992 FIGURE 25 Monthly precipitation bar chart inchan and mean lcmpcmlure solid line F for selected slums in he Teigen LD um 1 Singer Weather In Us Agncululre Monthly Tempamlurc und Preclplmuon by Stale and Farm cgiun US l39 rum I I P218quot 3213quot xP162quot P 180quot P 180quot FIGURE 215 Use of Thiessen method to nd average rainfall A distribution of rain gages in a watershed located on a map B connection lines drawn between rain gage positions C lines perpendicular to connection lines drawn until they intersect to form polygons and D areas measured for each polygon a Otise Lybrook Cf Canyon Upper Rio Grande LEGEND A Stream Gauges Well Transect BemaFLo Ram Gauge Ramfaquot Vivoni ER RS Bowman RL 9 lt 10 mm Wyckoff RT Jakubowski and KE G 20 40 mm Richards 2006 Analysis ofa monsoon ood event in an ephemeral G gt 50 mm tributary to the Rio Grande and its downstream hydrologic effects Water Resour Res 42W03404 doi1010292005WR004036 Radar Rainfall NEXRAD Stage lll 4km by 4km 0 Socorro A JR 1mm TABLE 26 Annual Precipitation for Los Angelcs CA 1934 1953 Depth Depth Year in Year in I lll 40 WM 03 I l35 2L7 N45 ll WM Ill I M lIJi 1937 314 N47 17 l 38 234 W48 7 l93 131 l94 Kl 940 192 I050 HUI I HI 11K l 5 82 I M l Ll I JSZ 2h 2 1943 Ill2 NS 5 TABLE 27 Numerical Ranking of Annual Precipitation Probabilities or Occurrence and Return Periods for Los Angeles CA 1934 1953 Precipitation Probabilin E Return Period f a ye rs Rank a 1 32x 2 262 3 734 4 224 5 217 6 l I I ll S lil2 116 Return Period year 101 111 2 5 1O 20 50100 6039 38 inyr 40 30 20 15i L o 6000 Annual Precipitation in 10 6 999 99 90 50 20 10 5 2 1 05 Probablity of Occurrence Fa 70 FIGURE 216 Annual frequency magnitude of precipitation for Los Angeles CA 1934 1953 Log normal plot of data is shown in Table 27 for Example 25 plotting annual rainfall vs probability of occurrence F Note the relationship between return period and probability A 5 year event may be expected to occur or be exceeded on average every 5 years or better expressed 20 times per century Hence there is a 20 probability for it to occur or be exceeded in any 1 year Note Return period IOUprobability A FIJWIIE 0F WWNPOUIII AND nnounm a mu 20m onlmy Precipitation r Lu mm 7 4 um um mum wul will muse In mm was 3939 unease m mm 4 5 mm D n midv Pmlnltatlon Intensity mu rlinull mmn cancequ m lawn ayl LI Imm Mm quotmu Zonal Percent Snow Covered Area C Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep gm 1 25 Cwarming RanguA ta zuue N N Netwurks a a W m rap H w RH Cumpemmn Well we A B r TWate level Water level Water level hp 39 h 39 quot5quot Sea level 1 Well and hID pressure head S d screen h8 elevation head an Stone gt flow direction total head he hp Shale FIGURE 111 Components of total hydraulic head elevation head he and pressure head hp controlling ow in a sandstone layer B Landsurface Water table LEGEND 0 Well location Equipotential line Flow line FIGURE 112 Relation of owlines to equipmantial lines in a small drainage basin A view of upland area B crosssectional View of basin All units in feel FIGURE 113 Darcy apparatus Hydraulic Conductivity ltd 105 104 103 102 10 1 ioquot 10 2 10393 toquot 10395 l l l I l I I 1 I nid 10 103 to 10 i 10 102 103 10quot 105 l I I l Relative Permeability VERY Hie iiiimx 1333i I VEFIV OW REPRESENTATIVE MATERIALS Clean Gravel Clean Sand Fine Sand Silt Clay Mixtures MaSSive Clay Sand and Gravel ol Sand Silt and Clay VeSicular and Sconaceous Clean Sandstone Laminated Masswe igneous Basalt Cavernous Fractured Igneous and Sandstone and Metamorphic Limestone and Dolomite Metamorphic Rocks Shale Mudstone Rocks FIGURE 114 Bar chart showing hydraulic conductivity values for various types of rock and sedlmenL Modi ed from Bureau of Reclamation ermd Water Manual US Department of the Interior Washington DC 1977 10 Jury 91 al Sandy Soil I I phySIcs 5th ed John 101 6 Wiley amp Sons New York g E O 1 8 39 10 Z 8 Clay Soil 9 s 10393 2 7K 3 a 3 105 3quot l I I I I 10 1o 5 403 1o1 MATRIC POTENTIAL HEAD h cm Figure 311 Typical hydraulic conductivity manic potential curves for a sandy and a clayey soil WATERTABLE ARTESIAN WELL WELL LJJ Z 8 UNCONFINED AQUIFER l CONFINING BED lllllll I lllllll IIIIIII CONFINED AQUlFER Lu 2 O N D UJ I lt n 3 lt m L t We Imes one Screen gt FIGURE 117 Diagram showing hydrogeologic conditions for an uncon ned aquifer and a con ned aquifer Modi ed from Heath RC Basic GroundWater Hydrology US Geological Survey Water Supply Paper 2220 US Government Printing Of ce Wash ington DC 1983 CROSS SECTIONS m PLAN VIEW a g Strea A Losing Stream 1 UPPntini39nQ Bed Watertable 102 Height above datum m 7 Flow lines v Equipotential lines d Streams A A Crosssection location FIGURE 1112 Diagrams showing the relation between the con guration of the water table at a gaining and a losing stream From Heath RiC Basic GmumleWater Hydrology US Geological Survey Water Supply Paper 2220 US Government Printing Of ce Washington DC 1983 With permission g r QB EU 9 a wrap ruia me g a 0 WG oi Dynamics OW Jm Ri ar an Evaporation piration g I f i Precipitation trans p Ground water pumping Crop transpiration irrigation Ground water gains Ground water losses JVJ omitser Es ONDiDA BRIDG E 0 transeccs war quot BVRVOG INIAAROYO O rJ N WeJJs 0 25 S LJ riiagasiiitaiHJWQJ 1 Ci LEGEND iqu hibgiwiiiy WEE lf if i igg 1 3 City c o Existing Transect or Well Proposed drilling Transect Rio Grande Main Channel i LFCC 4 a 4 8 Mics E N rm 1 Human T Groundwater Levels Rise in Winter Cross Sectional Time series data at Highway 380 San Antonio 454800 o Grande A 454600 A 454400 454200 454000 H 453000 A LFCC 453600 100101 112001 010902 022002 041902 060802 Date Groundwater Levels Rise in Winter Cross Sectional Time series data at San Marcial 447700 A RIo Grande N m g 447200 3 g 0 E E 446700 0 5 0 Vquot LFCC 446200 7 FA III 445700 1 i i i 1 100101 112001 010902 022802 041902 060802 Date Gmulldwaterlzvan39nanSl ZQVMAyrEIZ Z rMayrEIZ ESC7E03 7 Water Level Diumal Fluctua ons erMayrEIZ UlJuanK DzJuanK IKJHnVUK A EDZA Ema mymnz USVluanZ Chg SJ 0035 rJQOd Exam 4653 46525 River Stage Water Elevation ft 1 7 p h Furthest Wells 4649 r 91 03 9118403 Date 962 03 9 1 103 M1103 92603 quot lt e rra nsect September 2003 A Vertical Gradients 39 River Stage BC Well Gradient DOWNWARD I FLOW Veniczl Gradient Water Ele minquot in U39PWARD I L OW AJC Well Gradient AB Well Gradient 91 EEI3 921 m3 Baan3 Dale Stratigraphy Legend D No Sample I Clay Sandy Clay Silt Silt amp Fine Sand 400 20 fl D Fine to Coarse Sand Coarse San d Sand and Gravel Gravel I Clayey Gravel D Fine Sand D Fine to Medium Sand I santa Fe Group Badka Medium sand Water Surface 45601 West LFCC RIO Grande EaSt HVVYCVVOG HVWEOS HVWW02 A540 alluvium quotUS Lay HVWW04 HVWW07 HWYE01HVWE02 3 r Aq Lljfer T agslmmg Legend Aquifer Test Instrumentation Well 020 feet Well 4050 feet Well 8090 feet Staff gage 05 miles north of Highway 380 in Son Antonio Extraction well Dooo IIIIIIIIIII I IIIIIIIIIIIIIII CloyLoyer LFCC I IIIIIIIIIIIIII ClayLayer Legend 0 Well 020 feet 0 Well 4050 feet 0 Well 8090 feet Drawdown ft 08 06 IllIIIII1 quot 04 02 001 01 1 10 100 1000 10000 Elapsed Time min Perennial Stream gt Direction of groundwater flow bed FIGURE 1113 Diagram showing the relation between induced in ltration from a stream and the cone of depression developed by a pumping well Modi ed from Peters JG Description and Comparison of Selected Models for Hydrologic Analysis of Ground Water Flow St Joseph River Basin Indiana US Geological Survey Water Resources Investigations Report 8674199 1987 Equipotential lines Igt Flow line 400 800 f1 0 500 m FIGURE 1114 Measured steadyslate potentiometric SUI fEICE January 1986 while pumping municipal wells G and H at a combined rule of l 100 galmin Modi ed from GeoTrans Newsletter Wobum Toxic Trial GeoTrans Herndon VA June 1987 pp 173 800 761 830 am 600 E E 5 400 cuquot 2 200 6 J 0 o 3 2 E 200 U 9 A 75 g 7400 G a 600 7800 3 LO O 8 3 Date g 3 D r FIGURE 1115 Bar graph showing stream ow depletion due to pumping wells G and H Modi ed from GeoTrans Newsletter Wubum Toxic Trial GeoTrans Herndon VA June 1987 pp k3 Initial Water Level w H Cone of Depression FIGURE 1119 Schematic diagram showing horizontal radial ow to a pumping well completed in a con ned aquiferl 9 FIGURE 1120 Outline of the capture zone of a well in a uniform ow eld I rv x l A 29 0 d au I e x Equipotential lines j lt G 95 K Pumping Well 2 gt lt o no la O 00 9 Unconfined sxbs I Dimate D 4 Aquifer 31 W3 2 lt pmre Zone SEA Limits of Groundwaier 039 Entering Weil Flow lines 1000 a 2 0 E 0 WELL gt 71000 I l I 4000 o 1000 2000 3000 Xaxis ft FIGURE 1 1 21 Computed capture zone of the well in Example Basalt formations that compose the Eastern Snake River Aquifer Idaho Discharge of the Eastern Snake River Plain aquifer from basalt cliffs above the Snake River gorge Karstic limestone along the Yangtse River in the Three Gorges region China 20 FSubcritical Flow J 15 E 25 T5 10 c 5 D Q 5 x A 39 o O 5 1O 15 Specific Energy E ft or m IGURE 81 Relationship between speci c energy and ow depth SURE 82 Weir in a stream Courtesy of Dawn Farver FIGURE 83 Flume in a stream Courtesy Kevin King Figure 47 A broadcrested weir The structure causes water in the channel to quotback upquot until the ow over the weir is critical Because we know how velocity and water depth are related for critical ow measurement of the height of the water in the pool behind the weir can be used to determine the discharge in the channel Homberger G M J P Ra ensperger RL Wiberg and KN Eshlema 1998 Elements of physical hydrology Johns Hopkins Univ Press Baltimore 9m 50 35 55 r229 53 6553 1 xx WCK xx 2 f a I 530 2335 2 E6quot 5 4F 4 Velocit Meter 10 m Acrylic glass A 12 m 3 i Fiow 2m Fig top Flume characteristics and bottom plan view showing doors in heir normal no flow manipulation and open flow manipulation positions Vericat D and RJ Batalla 2007 A new tool to study links between sediment transport and invertebrate dri E08 88 41 Headwater Runoff Hydrograph Downstream Hydrograph Discharge Base Flow O 1 2 3 4 Time days FIGURE 812 Attenuation of a hydrograph due to oodplain storage in a stream system 10 08 06 sv 04 02 A Ward Triangle Method B 808 Routing Method IGURE 816 39eservoir Determination of temporary ood storage in a Qpi qu Runoff Rate lt gt tbl Time CURE 818 Detention time determination from triangular hydrographs LWM 1WMV 43 ft A A 1 1 3 ft 3 V V 3 25 ft FIGURE 72 Cross section of Channel for Example 74 d 6 FIGURE 74 Compound Channel cross section showing poss ble locations of dummy channel and oodplain sides u I II 1 n ll aw u Inum muf mncrwrlawm u h j llllll Wittyhhwrx ly IvITrll0hhvh buy1T llllllll Illlll Ju llllll nx wwui llllllll 1 xx ENE Kai fr H 4 3H HruthEIJwrampHvMW r V J 47 rmha Idem y 3 Jessy A743 Ar 34 94 Janus aw Jw QEMNWH WWAII 4 f i uuu WIN 1 JV ermeVVuu Juuuw mh wa v Hrrg r mwrhp fdnmb gww wgwwkrfgw L ewmmmwr g w I rwfffg gfn h wrrMWJ a nnw 9w a h I
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