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by: Demarco Hansen


Demarco Hansen
GPA 3.91


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Class Notes
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This 69 page Class Notes was uploaded by Demarco Hansen on Thursday October 15, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CS 053 at North Carolina State University taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see /class/223662/cs-053-north-carolina-state-university in Crop and Soil Sciences at North Carolina State University.

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Date Created: 10/15/15
NonSelective Herbicides Scythe 5n39EReward 5Finale EiRoundup amp generic glyphosate herbicides What do they have in common 5No soil residual POST only E Nonselective damage most any plants they contact What is different 5Contact vs Systemic translocated This impacts the kinds of weeds controlled annual vs perennial EESpeed of action fi Cost Scythe pelargonic acid cnselective Contact herbicide EERapid Within hours Effective 0n seedling annuals EilTop kill only on perennials and larger established annuals E Odcr can persist for days E v Eye amp skin irritant Scythe 1 erontact burn 5ast Within 30 min on a sunny day Reward diquat STENonseleetive Postemergent E Contaet type Not transloeated EERapid response symptoms are Visible Within 24 hours ifv l iNo soil residual EEffeetive 0n seedling annual weeds EETop kill only on perennials or larger annuals Reward afeW ou 4t ay contact burn sympt OIIlS 1n Finale glufosinate STENonselective Postemergent Systemic translocated 1Rapid response symptoms are Visible Within 48 hours iNo soil residual Effective on annual amp perennial weeds ETENot as well transloeated as RoundupPro nale sympt 48 hr OIIlS 1n Fi Finale not translocated as well as Roundup Finale mu m I l I I lx l Glyphosate Roundup Touchdown and many others Postemergence nonselective control of annual and perennial weeds Systemic translocated SEENo soil residual E EBe careful around conifers with the new formulation RoundupPro amp others active ingredient glyphosate nonseleetive postemergent Fi systemie translocated No soil residual Not toxic to humans or Wildlife E Fish may be injured by the surfactant Glyphosate products nErwiiii ilsopropyl amine salts R0undup RoundupPro Generies Glyfos Gly o Glystar Glyfomax Target Razor the list goes on gufEDiammonium salt TouchdownPro Differences Slight QuickPro glyphcsate diquat 5Rapid action plus systemic kill of annual weeds Will this reduce activity on creeping perennials Probably E v P0pular with many landscapers Optimum timing for RoundupPro Weed Species Solution Suggested application timing for best control Perennial grasses 1 At boot stage rst quackgrass indication of owering Johnsongrass fescue Bermudagrass 2 At boot stage Poison ivy 2 full bloom E summer Kudzu 2 full bloom L summer Greenbriar 3 early spring 5 leaves English ivy 2 23 new leaves E spring Optimum timing for RoundupPro Weed Species Suggested application Solution timing for best control Trumpetcreeper 1 5 Late summer to early fall Virginia creeper 1 Late summer to 1st fall color Sericea lespedeza 7 i 7 1 Full bloom midsummer Mugwort 2 Late summer to early fall 7 Japanese knotweed 2 Late summer to early fall Annual weeds 0251 Younger is better Roundup injury severity depends on I species and season of f if applic Deciduous plants greater damage in late summer Fall Conifers more sensitive in spring Using nonselective herbicides Without injuring ornanigtl 39 7 77 r Selective Methods for Applying NonSelective Herbicides Ein Directed applications E Wipers EEClippers Selective Methods for Applying NonSelective Herbicides 1 gm EEDirected L applications spray quot to the base of the crop avoiding contact With foliage and green stems iSpray shields may reduce spray drift Selective Methods for Applying NonSelective Herbicides hiWipers rope paint roller 0r sponge type devices Just Wipe the weeds When they are taller than the ornamentals 39T Selective Methods for Applying NonSelective Herbicides iiCli ers wet clippers in RoundupPro and clip the weed Selective Methods for Applying NonSelective Herbicides iiiDirected applications Avoid spraying green tissues EEWipers rope paint roller or sponge type devices Just wipe the weeds when they are taller than the ornamentals EigClippers wet clippers in RoundupPro and clip the weed Do not use RoundupPro over ornamentals Getting the most out of Postemergence Herbicides gActively growing weeds SitERight product for the job EgOptimum timing EifEGood spray coverage Alternatives to Herbicides l Vinegar contact type herbicide action EFlame weeders almost as effective as contact herbicides f EESteam contact kill Preemergence Weed Control Before Weeds Emerge 39rriorequot irripdrt ihtly39 39 Before Weeds Germinate r v Preemergence weed control options EinEMulches prevent germination and establishment by excluding light SEEPreemergence Herbicides Prevent seedling establishment Mulches 1 defense against annual weeds Bare ground Mulched Pigweed Mulehes an annual r I weed ns Control many annual contmlled weeds from seed muizhes EEDO not control perennial weeds from roots tubers or rhizomes E Must be replenished yearly Horsenettle eeial weed not controlled by mulches Mulches Typesz organic inorganic geotextile iFunction exclude light to prevent seed germination and seedling establishment iiiAlso holds moisture and improves aesthetics 1quot r 7 39h 39 quot I quot V 7quot 39 J 39 J 1 tan f quot195 5 4 39 Mm V 115 f mulches 3 rm 5amp3 0 13 93 5 39 LI 1 5 3quot 39 39 Hr quotBari31 What makes a goo Mu Coarse texture to dry out r E Aesthetieally pleasing Lava rock some like it V Will not wash 56 t EERelatively weed free 5 fENOt phytotoxie r 39339 J x 95 p ark nugets was easily Phytotoxic mulch E SiiAnaerobic mulches can burn tender plants Make sure mulches are properly composted and stored EtEiPine straw can stunt pansy growth Pine Shaw Mulch Pansy beds EiUse a ne textured mulch around the plants eomposts will do ne because they will be rototilled into the bed the following spring f iEdge the bed with pine straw to prevent washing Most annual beds are done this way How much mulch is enough 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Weed Cover 0 n0 mulch 3 6 10 Mulch Depth inches Source Greenley and Rakow 1991 Mulches How Much EEOrganic mulches 34 in ilnorganic mulches 3 in EEWith a geotextile 2 in fi iBark mulch 1 cu yd covers 100 sq ft to a depth of 3 inches Fi 3 r PinC Straw 1 bale covers about 35 sq ft Gectextile fabrics Woven or Spun w gt v bonded plastic fabrics 39 r53931 nL TFLAL110W water and air to penetrate 5Often sold at weed mats or weed fabrics Geotextile fabrics Advantages EigiLong term annual weed control EEESoil stabilization mHolds moisture EEPossible addon service 33 Geotextile fabrics Disadvantages Cost materials and Annual W dS grow installation on tOP Site preparation MUICheS Slip Off eliminate perennial In heaVy SOilSa it may weeds hold too much moisture Must cover with muleh w aggDeeomposmg organic iti iPerenmal weeds can mulches create a penetrate humus layer where weeds can germinate Geotextile fabrics do not control perennial weeds 53935 Vegetatively propagated perennial weeds can emerge through geotextile fabrics w v Many perennial weeds can growth through geotextile fabric mulohes Equisetum will emerge through geotextiles Weeds germinating on top can grow through the mulch 392 Lif L i Roots penetrate the fabric more easily than shoots r Weeds growing through the mulch damage the geotextile Biggest problem With gectextiles is proper installation v my 4 i Not installed correctly Edges come up mulch washes off Unsightly and ineffective Steps in proper installation 3 Dig trench around perimeter of bed Step 2 place geotextile over bed Install geotextile over plants Don t try to plant through the bed fDirt on top of the fabric leads to weeds Step 3 Anchor edges in SOIL not mulch F39 k Bury edges in 5 soil rememben roots will grow through the fabric Mulchonly will allow edges to come up Step 4 Cover With enough mulch to prevent light degradation 5 5 39 I 3 3 b y v I D 1 l r x V 3quot t39 k g V 39t Iquot L39 u n 7 K 3 e 39 o a 2 W V 4 V quota t Types of Geotextile fabrics 5Lots of different types IrSpun bonded IrWoven iNeedle punched ElliYes between consumer and professional grade products EESmooth vs textured can make a difference on slopes Mulches slip off smooth more easily Install With fiber side up Advice if you use a geotextile Control perennial weeds before planting iiUse shallow layers of mulch Keep geotextiles totally covered Remove kill emerged weeds when small Consider using inorganic mulches Consider preemergenoe herbicide with geotextile when weeds become abundant or for yellow nutsedge control Relative Weed Control Costs IHerbicide IGeotextil D Bark Labor 2 in bark 4 in bark Geotex Herb bark bark Geotextile fabric impregnated With tri uralin Prevents most weeds from growing through the fabric Some Weeds Like Growing in Mulches Herbicides are sometimes needed Landscape Weed Management Principles and Tools Site Preparation Sanitation amp Exclusion Mulches Preemergence Herbicides Postemergence Herbicides Hand weeding Site Preparation The best time to control perennial weeds is before planting Site Preparation The best time to control perennial weeds is before planting There are basically three options repeated cultivation glyphosate Roundup or Fumigation Solarization rarely used Cultivation Repeated cultivation on a regular schedule will control most weeds Area will have to be le fallow for at least one full year possibly two Generally not an option in landscape plantings Controlled by cultivation Goldenrod Spread by cultivation Site Preparation with Glyphosate RoundupPro amp Others Nonselective systemic herbicide that kills d The most common site preparation treatment Spray cultivate no soonerthan 5 days Will control most perennial weeds Glyphosate in the fall not spring Mugwort Goldenrod Japanese knotweed Woody Weeds Timing l 39 J Site Preparation with Glyphosate RoundupPro amp Others Timing is critical for perennial weed control Some species are well controlled in the fall but not in the spring and vice versa will cover this in more detail later Roundup does not control all weeds Understand what can be controlled and what cannot Not Well Controlled By Roundup Soil Fumigation Chemical fumigants kill most weed seeds and vegetative propagules and soil insects and pathogens The site preparation choice of last resort Fumigants are very toxic expensive and require significant site preparation lfthis is to be done DO IT RIGHT Solarization Using the sun39s energy to build heat in the soil killing weed seeds and vegetative propagules Not as effective as Fumigation but simpler Requires significant time usually 4 to 6 weeks Only effective in the summer Many perennial weeds will not be controlled Not widely used Relative Effectiveness of Site Preparation Treatments Site Preparation Amendments lfthe site is to be amended with topsoil or organic matter inspect the sources ofthese materials for oxious wee s Topsoil 39om farmland or stream banks is notorious as a source ofnutsedge tubers and seeds ofmany annual e s like morningglory and sickle o Most mulch and commercial compost are relatively weed free Free mulch typically comes with lots ofweeds Some species frequently found in mulch piles include mugwort thistle spurge in weed an ield horsetail If these weeds are present nd an alternate source Study Questions What are the 3 main options forweed control at site preparation How do you know if fumigation is necessary If you have a landscape bed infested with crabgrass henbit and other common annual weeds would you advise fumigation Goldenrod is well controlled by cultivation Why is this not a feasible option in landscape bed installation Roundup glyphosate is nonselective Under what situations would it not provide acceptable control for site preparation N 0quot 5 0 C5053 Landscape Weed Management Lecture Outlines and Old Test htlp wwMnlsuedujcnezlCS 53Z LGdsczpeZ wehZ silejindexhlm Turfgrass Managern entl c5053 Landscape Lectures 1 and 2 Landscape Weed Management Goals and Principles Required reading Plan Before You Plant See Lecture 1 Outline forthe link Landscape Weed Management Goals Goals Primarily aesthetic improving the visual appearance of the landscape Landscape Weed Management Goals Primarily aesthetic improving the visual appearance ofthe landscape Functional safety allergies insect and disease control What Else Do Weeds Do Cause allergies Harm people Harborinsects and plant gens patho Principles of Landscape Weed Management a 5step planning process NT Site Assessment De ne the Planting 2 5 Types of Landscape Plantings Selection of ornamental species and compati e wee management options Site Preparation 5 Implementation Fquot F Step 1 Site assessment Key weeds perennial broadleaves and sedges Grass weeds can be controlled POST with selective herbicides Ask yourselfthe question Can I control these weeds after Plantingquot Step 2 Define the Planting 5 Types of Landscape Plantings The type of planting will define the postplant weed management options and the importance of pre plant weed control 2Woody Tree and Shrub beds zzg gnwsnd 2Woody groundcover beds tAnnual beds 2Perennial beds 2 Mixed Plantings Fewest post plant weed control options Table 1 Weed management options and limitations for the 5 types of landscape plantings Tree and Shrub Beds Densely shaded plantings exclude weeds Geotextiles and mulches are useful Many PRE amp POST herbicides Spot or directed applications of nonselective herbicides Therefore species selection is flexible and pre plant weed control is not as critical Woody Ground Cover Beds Table 1 Weed management options and limitations for the 5 types of landscape plantings Woody Ground Cover Beds The ground cover should ultimately exclude most weeds Limited uses for nonselective herbicides Control perennial weeds before planting Do not use geotextiles where ground covers are expected to root and spread Control annual weeds with mulching hand weeding andor herbicides Several PRE herbicides are available Few uses for POST herbicides POST control of annual and perennial grasses is possible Table 1 Weed management options and limitations for the 5 types of landscape plantings Annual Flower Beds A closed canopy will shadeout many weeds Periodic cultivation annually or between display rotations will suppress man weeds Very limited use of nonselective herbicides control perennial weeds before planting Geotextiles generally are not useful due to the shortterm nature of the planting Few preemergent herbicides are safe careful species and product selection are required Mulches will suppress many annual weeds Herbaceous Perennial Beds Table 1 Weed management options and limitations for the 5 types oflandscape plantings Herbaceous Perennial Eeds SimiiartuAnnuai Fiuvver Beds Except Lack er perindi cuitivatiun Wiii encuurage perenniai Weed encruachment Fewer Herbicides are iabeiee check tne iabeis carefuiiy restrict gruwtn uf spreadingrtype s Veryiimited use er nunrseiemive ur pustemergence er iEi es Table 1 Weed management options and limit ions for the 5 types of landscape plantings M ed Plantings of woody and herbaceous lant More complex due to the diversity of species Different areas ofthe bed could receive different treatments Site preparation is usually critical Few herbicides are registered for a wide spectrum of ornamental plant types Geotextiles may or may not be useful Step 3 Selection of ornamental species and compatible weed management options At the design phase selecting ornamental p ants with weed control in mind Example 1 Florida betonycannot be selectively controlled in beds planted to herbaceous ornamentals Therefore opting for a woody planting instead will make maintenance easier by allowing the use of effective herbicides Step 3 Selection of ornamental species and compatible weed management options etunia beds but not in Begonia or Coleus If yellow nutsedge has been a problem in the past plant petunias instead of Coleus Step 3 Selection of species and compatible weed management options Example 3 Dodder cannot be controlled in petunia or snapdragons but scaevola and sweet potato are resistant Step 4 Site Preparation Goal eliminate weeds that cannot be controlled after planting Options Cultivation Nonselective herbicides Fumigation option oflast resort Solarization Step 5 Installation and Implementation 0 Site preparation 0 Sanitation Mulches Preemergence Herbicides Postemergence Herbicides N 0quot 5 Study Questions Lecture 1 What are the 5 types of landscape plantings List in order from the most to fewest postplant weed control options Give an example of how landscape plant selection can influence your weed management choices What are the key weed management option differences between the 5 landscape bed types Following a site assessment What is the key question you ask yourself and answer concerning the weeds present in a proposed landscape planting Postemergence Weed Control in Landscapes Postemergence Weed Control T 1 What do I need to know 1Weed Species m xaLabor TOrnamental species and occasionally the cultivar EiAvailable options 5quot Selective Herbicides WonSelective Herbicides ODiIected applications nWiper applications meavkadcmrvcmimsu Postemergence Weed Control Tools Well itluuked like a eedtu me Hand Weeding and Hoeing r Seedling weeds controlled CNot effective for perennial weeds Selective Postemergence Weed Control liiiGrass control 5 Sedge control control of most annual an lEvgLimited broadleaf weed perennial control options grasses in most ornamental beds Postemergence Control of Weedy Postemergence Graminicides Grasses 7 Classi cations 7 iSelective physiological selectivity EggAryloxyphenoxy PrOPionate FOPS oAcclaim Envoy Fusilacle Vantage fenoxapmp Acclalm Ofluazifop Fusilade amp Ornamec FatiiCyclohexanedione DIMS OSethoxydim Vantage and Poast EENon Selective positional selectivity OContact Reward Scythe OSysternic Finale RoundupPro oClethodim Envoy Acclalm Extra F us1lade ivClass FOP fiiClass FOP EiAI fenoxapropp 55M FluaZifopp icontrols summer annual grasses 5 controls annual and perennial grasses iDoes not control sedges or perennial fi Does not control sedges or annual grasses or annual bluegrass bluegrass Used mainly in turf ESLWeak on some fescues Sweet Vernal oclethodim Envoy Grass OS ethoxydim Vantage Vantage EHVOY iIClass DIM iiClass DIM AI sethoxydim EEAI clethodim controls annual and perennial 530011th annual and perennial grasses grasses including annual tDoes not control sedges or annual bluegrass and fescue blue rass K I g IiiDoes not control sedges fy Neaker on perennlal grasses Landscape Weeacmch quot251 ch Landscape Weedcam mlrlc Neal NCSU POST Gram inicides Compared Crab grass Control I Any of the POST graminicides will work I Vantage gt Fusilade Envoy gt Acclaim Early applications Work better l Envoy is the only 39 POST graminicide that controls annual bluegrass Treated rm war emu u ch Uanreated Perennial grass control F silade Envoy gt Vantage Juhnsungrass tmmwwmrwamsu Recommended Application Times for Optimum Control with Graminicides POST Graminicide Safety on Ornamentals or Overthe TupD1r Directed zppl un certain varieties mepaukadcmrvcuaimsu Getting the Most Out of Postemergence Graminicides ETemperature amp Moisture condusive to actively growing Wee s EOptimum timing growth stage amp season Select the best product for the Weed species EUniform application calibrated treatments Fun ga on fiiThe option of last resort EECanI control these after planting r Fumigant options E EChernical Fumigants oMetharn Sodium liquid oBasarnid gmnules Stearn pasteurization I Solarization Before fumigation 7 bed preparation is critical It should be like a seedbed ready for planting Funuganon zFumigants kill Weed seeds and vegetative propagules FiThey are the only herbicides that affect Weed seeds S chemical fumigants are TOXIC 9 1 Good site preparation is critical to obtaining good results 7 regardless ofwhich fumigation method that is chosen For Best Results Si Cultivate to 8 inches oil should be free of debris and clods 5255 F at 6 inches oist not Wet ESAdd amendments before fumigation Chemical Furnigants i Methyl Bromide 5 Metham Sodium EiBasamid Methyl bromide E The quickest most veratile amp effective fiThe most hazardous E NO LONGER AVAILABLE zaInject liquid fumigant Apply granules Rototill into soil N 3 Seal surface Metham sodium formerly Vapam gLiquid application K Tarp helps but can be sealed with irrigation fiTime 7 days then shallow cultivate then wait another 7 to 14 da s Basamid dazomet EiGranular formulation EiRototill then seal surface amp irrigate EiTime 7 days then shallow cultivate then wait another 7 to 14 For best results cover with plastic out for at least 2 Weeks For best results with Metham or Basamid EiUse a tarp Eilf not keep soil surface moist for 7 days This seals the surface and traps the vapors Common reasons furnigants don t ork Soil too wet or too dry quot Soil too cold Heavy soils not cultivated to adequate depth Some hardseeded weeds are not controlled clover Car geranium Steam Pasteurization fiiMaintain 180 F for gt30 minutes fi iWill kill most pathogens EiMany Weed seeds will escape 1w 7 V p r Alternatives to Chemical Fumigants iiSteam EquotZS olarization Solarization 75 Cover soil with clear plastic ESolar energy is trapped Soil is heated ETry to reach at least 140 F for several days 2 Only Works in summer 5 3 Generally takes up to 6 Weeks YEWorks on smallseeded annuals but generally not very effective on perennials or largeseeded annuals Solarization is generally not as effective as chemical fumigants Methyl bromide Solan39zed men sprayed with glyphosate After fumigating Sanitation Inspect nursery stock Add top soil and organic amendments before lmigation rvfE Use weedfree mulches Don39t introduce weeds to ean Regardless of which method is chosen Site Preparation is Critical For Best Results Cultivate to 8 inches Soil should be free of debris ds 55 F at 6 inches Moist not wet 5 Add amendments before fumigation


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