ANIMAL ANAT PHYS
ANIMAL ANAT PHYS ZO 250
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This 15 page Class Notes was uploaded by Tyson Davis on Thursday October 15, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ZO 250 at North Carolina State University taught by Godwin in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see /class/223665/zo-250-north-carolina-state-university in Animal Science at North Carolina State University.
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Date Created: 10/15/15
Zoology 250 Study Guide A word to the Wise how to use this guide It is not possible to summarize an entire course in a brief study guide My goal here is go give you material you can use to quiz yourself and jog your memory about important terms and concepts from material covered this semester It does not cover absolutely everything and you shouldn t consider this a replacement for studying your notes doing study questions or text reading Rather consider it an aid to these approaches which I hope will be helpful Each topic is divided into two sections The first lists important terms that we have covered The second is a very brief listing of important concepts m For reasons known perhaps only to Bill Gates I cannot seem to get rid of the last part of this pages 1314 following the section on hearing Which is just a section from the notes Without crashing Word on my computer Just ignore that section Anim al Siz e Key Terms Q10 rule Endotherm Ectotherm specific metabolic rate Key Concepts Diffusion and major factors affecting this DAnG Metabolic Rate and major factors affecting this 0 body size effects the mouse to elephant curves 0 temperature effects 0 endothermectotherm differences Feeding and Digestion Key Terms heterotrophs Crops and Gizzards Ingestion rumen Digestion zymogen various specific proteins Absorption duodenum Elimination amylase polymersmonomers lipase Digestive Tracts small and large intestine Oral cavity and pharynx PharynX and Esophagus peristalsis bile and emulsification epiglottis hepatic portal vein Key Processes and Concepts Converting bulky food items into a form which can be absorbed The initiation of digestion for different nutrient types in different locations Protection of the stomach from self digestion specializations of the small intestine for absorption 4 small intestine adaptations to diet why is emulsification necessary Support and Movement Key Terms Hydrostatic skeletons Exoskeleton Endoskeleton Myosin Tendons Actin Ligaments Troponin and Tropomyosin Axial skeleton Sarcoplasmic Reticulum SR Appendicular skeleton transverse tubules hydroxyapatite neuromuscular junction ossification acetylcholine lacunae tetanus canaliculi motor units Haversian systems creatine phosphate Key Processes and Concepts Limitations to exoskeletons graded contractions and summation motor unit recruitment role of ATP in muscle contraction muscle adaptations for power vs endurance muscle types and exercise effects muscle characteristics smooth skeletal cardiac 7 size control morphology Bone functions Circulatory Systems Key Terms hemocoel Bundle of His atria and ventricles elastin semilunar and atrioventiicular valves endothelium sinoatiial node atiioventricular node Rete intercalated disks ductus arteriosus foramen ovale Red and White blood cells platelets and clotting Key Processes and Concepts Single vs double circulations ancestral vs derived in vertebrates Characteristics of open vs closed systemsphylogenetic distribution and functional characteristics Electrical coupling of cardiac muscle cells and role of AV node Adaptations to increase exchange by diffusion Need for and function of lymphatic system Blood cell formation Clotting cascade Gas Exchange Key Terms alveoli diaphragm muscle air sacs parabronchial lung Tracheal systemsTracheoles spiracles Hemoglobinheme group Hemocyanin Key Processes and Concepts Different characteristics of Oxygen and C02 Types of respiration Countercurrent exchangers negative vs positive pressure ventilation mammalian adaptations for ventilation Respiratory pigments 7 why have these Cooperative binding in hemoglobin pH effects Bohr effect fetal adaptations C02 vs 02 transport in blood heat and water loss during respiration Immunitv Key Terms in ammation Monocytes Tcells helper and cytotoxic Macrophages Bcells Natural killer cells chemokine CD4 lysozyme CCRS Neutrophils perforin Key Processes and Concepts nonspeci c defenses competition etc Fever as a defense and other similar defensive strategies Key Features of the immune system Origins of T and B cells Clonal selection and antibody diversity antibody structure and actions cell vs antibody mediated immunity Memory in the immune system Self vs nonself recognition Allergies and the IgE system Mechanisms of HIV action and AIDS 7 why is it so tough to fight Regulation of the Internal Environment Key Terms Homeostasis Glomerulus Osmoconformer Loop of Henle Osmoregulator Collecting duct Ammonia Urea Uiic acid ultrafiltrate malphighian tubules ectotherm nephiidia endothenn kidneys cortex and medulla TorporHibernation nephron Key Processes and Concepts Osmoregulation and Ionoregulation in seawater vs freshwater Chondiichthyan e g sharks solutions to seawater life Types of nitrogenous wastes 7 which animals and habitats is each found in Kidney function indiscriminate filtration followed by selective reabsorbtion Countercurrent multiplier function of Loop of Henle Temperature regulation mechanisms Evaporative cooling and water loss Adaptations to heat and cold freeze tolerance hibernation cooling blood in hot climates anhydrobiosis Hormones and the Endocrine System Key Terms hormone hypothalamus pheromone pituitary anterior and posterior neurosecretory cell thyroid target cells adrenal receptors LHRPUGnRH second messengers cAMP IP3 oxytocin Adenylyl cyclase vasopressin Phospholipase C tropic hormones G proteins portal system LuteiniZing hormone LH Follicle stimulating hormone FSH Thyroid stimulating hormone releasing hormone TRH Thyroid stimulating hormone TSH Thyroid hormone androgens estrogens progestins Key Processes and Concepts Why an endocrine system Characteristics of hormone actions Signal amplification by second messengers Differences between the anterior and posterior pituitary Negative feedback in the endocrine system Sex Determination and Differentiation Key Terms heterogametic vs homogametic sex SRY genotypic sex determination environmental sex determination e g social temperature parthenogenesis endocrine disruptors environmental estrogens bioaccumulation Key Processes and Concepts Distinguish sex determination from sexual differentiation Types of sex determination Basic female pattem of sexual development in mammals in absence of other in uences Nervous Systems Key Terms Neuron Axon Dendrite Soma cell body synapse synaptic cleft synaptic vesicles Glia Schwann cells Oligodendrocytes astrocytes myelin and myelination Ion channels 7 gated and nongated EPSPs and IPSPs saltatory conduction Central vs peripheral nervous system peripheral sensory vs motor refractory period peripheral somatic vs 39 l quot quot vs I l quot quot cephalization Myelencephalon cerebrospinal uid Medulla oblongata Telencephalon Cerebellum Diencephalon Hypothalamus Mesencephalon Cerebral Cortex Metencephalon Key Processes and Concepts Why a nervous system Three phases of nervous processing sensory input integration motor output Characteristics of neurons Glial cell necessity and function The membrane potential how it is generated what role specific proteins play the critical important of passive diffusion by Kl Depolarization and Hyperpolarization effects on neurons Action potentials what is happening with specific proteins at each step and what role they play Travel of the action potential why in only one direction Limits on conduction speed and adaptations to increase this Demonstrations of neurotransmitter function what do you need to show 39 effects 11 r r r r r laws I vss J Sensory Systems Key Terms General senses 39 l quot Ther J quot V J Special senses C39 J quot quot P39 l quot Vision 39 Vibrationhearing Muscle spindle proprioreception Somatotopic map Pacinian corpus cle Key Processes and Concepts 0 Receptor potential Intensity coding Adaptation Tactile discrimination Vision Key Terms ommatidium Vertebrate eye Cornea lens retina sclera ciliary muscles fovea rods cones Opsins and retinal Rhodopsin Pigments and color Vision Key Processes and Concepts Creating an image like a computer insects crustaceans vs like a camera vertebrates The retina as an extension of the brain and first site of processing The blind spot and wiring of neurons to the retina Refraction and the process of accomodation Photoreceptor activation rhodopsin and Nal channels Visual cortex as primary site of integration Hearing and Balance Key Terms statocysts basilar and tectorial membranes statoliths hair cell tympanum cochlea neuromast organ oval window Key Processes and Concepts 0 Amplification by the middle and external ears 0 Sensory transduction by the inner earcochlea Frequency discrimination by the cochlea Directional information by differences in intensity and time of arrival Olfaction and Taste Key Terms chemoreception pheromones sensilla glomeruli glomerulus is singular main olfactory system vomeronasal system olfactory epithelium olfactory bulb accessory olfactory bulb Key Processes and Concepts insect chemoreception as shown by Bombykol example olfactory neurons as site of olfactory sensory transduction olfactory receptors and gprotein coupled receptors specificity of olfactory receptors 1 type per neuron different pathways into CNS for main olfactory vs vomeronasal systems Brain and Emotion Key Terms Limbic system Amygdala Hypothalamus serotonin dopamine reuptake inhibitors Key Processes and Concepts 0 Hypothalamus as integrative center and link between the CNS and the endocrine system Serotonin links to aggression depression and sexual behavior Effects of altering neurotransmitter metabolism through blockage of breakdown or reuptake and long term effects of these changes Anterior hypothalamus and maletypical sexual behavior Neural seX differences e g corpus callosum anterior commissure INAH3 suprachiasmatic nucleus somatic innervates skeletal muscle autonomic innervates and regulates the internal environment quot O m Autonomic nervous system 2 divisions This system exerts control over involuntary functions 7 usually opposing input from the two divisions Parasympathetic Division 39 Neurotransmitter Acetylcholine Sympathetic division Associated with alert state functions Neurotransmitter used Norepinephrine Central Nervous System Consists of brain and spinal cord extreme cephalization in case of brain basically a specialized tube in vertebrates Function Integration of information interneurons located here Wrapped in protective layers known as meninges Bathed in cerebrospinal uid outer layer dura mater middle layer arachnoid mater inner layer pia mater The Vertebrate Brain Ancestral organization 3 functional regions olfactory visual balancevibration Five main parts in living vertebrates Telencephalon Diencephalon Mesencephalon Metencephalon Myelencephalon
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