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Information Systems Management

by: Bethel Graham

Information Systems Management BUS 340

Bethel Graham
GPA 3.98

Julia Earp

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Julia Earp
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Bethel Graham on Thursday October 15, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BUS 340 at North Carolina State University taught by Julia Earp in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 53 views. For similar materials see /class/223669/bus-340-north-carolina-state-university in Business Management at North Carolina State University.

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Date Created: 10/15/15
BUS 340 Exam Study Guide Chapter 21 Decision Support Systems Managerial DecisionMaking Challenges 1 Managers need to analyze large amounts of information 2 Managers must make a decision quickly 3 Managers must apply sophisticated analysis techniques such as Porter s strategies or forecasting to make strategic decisions Decision Making Process 1 Problem Identification 2 Data Collection 3 Solution generation 4 Solution test 5 Solution Selection 6 Solution Implementation Decision Employee Focus Time Decision MIS Type Metrics Examples Making Type Frame Types Structure Strategic Senior External Long Unstructured knowledge CSFs How will the mgt industry term nonrecurring focusing on recession impact presidents cross yearly one time effectiveness business over the leaders company multi next years executives year Managerial Middle Internal Short Semi Business KPls focusing What type of mgt cross term structured intelligence on impact did last directors functional daily ad hoc efficiency month s managers monthly unplanned and CSFs marketing yearly reporting focusing on campaign have on effectiveness sales Operational Lower Internal Short Structures info Key What are next mgt dept functional term recurring performance week s managers dayto repetitive indicators Production analysts day ops focusing on requirements staff efficiency Metrics measuring success A project is a TEMPORARY activity a company undertakes to create a unique product service or result Critical Success Factors CSFs are the crucial steps that companies perform to achieve their goals and objectives and implement their strategies 0 Create highquality products 0 Retain competitive advantages 0 Reduce product costs 0 Increase customer satisfaction 0 Hire and retain the best business professionals Key performance indicators KPIs are the quantifiable metrics a company uses to evaluate progress toward critical success factors KPIs are far more specific than CSFs Turnover rates of employees Percentage of help desk calls answered in the first minute Number of product returns Number of new customers Average customer spending one CSF can have several KPIs Common external KPI market share Common internal KPIreturn on investment Efficiency Metrics throughput transaction speed system availability information accuracy response time determined by technology and do not always guarantee effectiveness Effectiveness Metrics usability customer satisfaction conversion rates financial determined by the organizations goals objectives and strategies OperationalSupport Systems quot online r 39 0OLTPUses TRANSACTIONAL PROCESSING SYSTEM Managerial Support Systems analytical information Online analytical processing OLAPUses DECISIONS SUPPORT SYSTEMS whatif analysis sensitivity analysis goalseeking analysis optimization analysis Strategic Support systems Executive Information Systemuses granularity is the finest at this level visualization and digital dashboards Digital Dashboard functions consolidation summarizing data drilldown view details of details slice and dice info at different perspectives The future Artificial Intelligence 1 Expert Systems computerized advisory programs that imitate the reasoning processes of experts in solving difficult problems 2 Neural Systems aka artificial neural networks a category of AI that attempts to emulate the way the human brain works 5 Genetic Algorithms an AI systems that mimics the evolutionary survivalofthefittest process to generate increasingly better solutions to a problem P Intelligence Agents a special purpose knowledge based information system that accomplishes specific tasks on behalf of its users ex shopping bot 5 Virtual Reality a computersimulated environment that can be simulation of the real worlds or an imaginary world Chapter 4 Ethics and Information Security 1 2 4 6 7 8 Copyright is the legal protection afforded an expression of an idea such as a song book or video game Intellectual property is intangible creative work that is embodied in physical form and includes copyrights trademarks and patents Ethics is the principles and standards that guide our behavior toward other people Privacy is the right to be left alone when you want to be to have control over your personal possessions and not to be observed without your consent Confidentiality is the assurance that messages and information remain available only to those authorized to view them Information ethics govern the ethical and moral issues arising from the development and use of information technologies as well as the creation collection duplication distribution and processing of information itself Pirated software is the unauthorized use duplication distribution or sale of copyrighted software Counterfeit Software is software that is manufactured to look like the real thing sold as such Developing Information management policies 1 2 PS 9 Ethical computer use policy contain general principles to guide computer use behavior Email privacy policy details the extent to which email messages may be read be others a Antispam policy states that email users will not send unsolicited email Information privacy policy contains general principles regarding information privacy Social media policy outlines the corporate principles governing employee online communications Acceptable use policy AUP requires a user to agree to follow it to be provided access to corporate email info systems and the internet a Nonrepudiation is a contractual stipulation to ensure that ebusiness participants to not deny their online actions b Internet use policy contains the general principles to guide the proper use of the Internet Workplace monitoring policy tracks people s activities by such measures as number of keystrokes error rate and number of transactions processed a Employee monitoring policy states explicitly how when and where the company monitors its employees Protecting Intellectual assets Downtime refers to a period when a system is unavailable can be unplanned and caused by hackers viruses etcor can be planned for system updates etc Information security encompasses the protection of information from accidental or intentional misuse by person inside or outside an organization Hackers are experts in technology who use their knowledge to break into computers and computer networks either for profit or just motivated by the challenge Types of Hackers o Blackhat hackers break into other people s computer systems and may just look around or may steal and destroy information Crackers have criminal intent when hacking O o Cyberterrorist seeks to cause harm to people or to destroy critical systems or information and use the internet as a weapon of mass 0 Hactivists have philosophical and political reasons for breaking into systems and will often deface the website as a protest 0 Script kiddies or script bunnies find hacking codes on the internet and clickandpoint their way into systems to cause damage or spread viruses 0 Whitehat hackers work at the request of the system owners to find system vulnerabilities and plug the holes First line of defense People against insiders social engineering dumpster diving a Information security policies identify the rules required to maintain information security such as requiring users to log off before leaving for lunch or meetings never sharing passwords with anyone and changing passwords every 30 days Information security plan details how an organization will implement the information 57 security policies Second line of defense technology identity theft phishing pharming People Data and Attack a Authentication is a method for confirming users identities b Authorization is the process of providing a user with permission including access levels and abilities such as file access hours of success and amount of allocated storage space c Tokens are a small device that change user passwords automatically d Smart card is a device about the size of a credit card containing embedded technologies that can store information and small amounts of software to perform some limited processing e Biometrics is the identification of a user based on a physical characteristic such as a fingerprint iris face voice or handwriting f Content filtering occurs when organizations use software that filters content such as emails to prevent the accidental or malicious transmission of unauthorized information g Encryption scrambles information into an alternative form that requires a key or password to decrypt h Public Encryption Key PKE uses two keys 3 public key that everyone can have and a private key for only the recipient The organization will provide all customers with a public key to send information through the internet to them Once it arrives to the destination the organization uses the private key to unscramble it i Certificate authority is a trusted third party such as VeriSign that validates user identities by means of digital certificates Digital certificate is a data file that identifies individuals or organizations online and is comparable to a digital signature k Firewall is a hardware andor software that guard a private network by analyzing incoming and outgoing information for the correct markings l Antivirus Software scans and searches hard drives to prevent detect and remove known viruses adware and spyware m Intrusion detection software IDS features fulltime monitoring tools that search for patterns in network traffic to identify intruders Chapter 5 Infrastructures Sustainable technologies MIS infrastructure includes the plans or how a firm will build deploy use and share its data processes and MIS assets A solid MIS infrastructure can reduce costs improve productivity optimize business operations generate growth and increase profitability A Information MIS infrastructure Supporting Operations 3 b c Backupexact copy Recoveryability to restore information after a system fails or crashes Disaster recovery include factors such as which files and systems need to have backups and their corresponding frequency and methods along with the strategic location of the storage in a separate physical site that is geographically dispersed Business continuity planning BCP details how the company recovers and restores critical business operations and systems after a disaster or extended disruption B Agile MIS infrastructure supports change a P KT 9 5 Accessibility the varying levels that define what a user can access view or perform when operating a system Availability refers to the time frame when the system is operational Maintainabilityrefers to how quickly a system can transform to support environmental changes Portabilityrefers to the ability of an application to operate on different devices or software platforms such as different operating systems Reliability ensures a system is functioning correct and providing accurate information f Scalability describes how well a system can quotscale upquot or adapt to the increased demands of growth g Usability the degree to which a system is easy to learn and efficient and satisfying to use C Sustainable MIS infrastructure supports sustainability and the environment a Grid computing a collection of computers often geographically dispersed that are coordinated to solve a common problem b Cloud computing the use of resources and applications hosted remotely on the Internet Iquot c Virtualization the creation f multiple virtua machines on a single computing device Chapter 6 Data Business intelligence Four primary traits that determine the value of information Information type transactional and analytical Information timeliness Information quality PPN Information governance Databasemaintains information about various types of objects inventory events transactions people employees and places warehouses Database management system DBMScreates reads updates and deletes data in a database while controlling access and security A DBMS proves methodologies for creating updating storing and retrieving data in a database A DBMS also provide facilities for controlling data access and security allowing data sharing and enforcing data integrity The relational database model allows users to create read update and delete data in a relational database Relational database modelallows users to create read update and delete data in a relational database Relational databases offer many advantages over using a text document or a spreadsheet including Increased flexibility Increased scalability and performance Reduced information and redundancy Increased information integrity quality WPF E JI Increased information security Business benefits of a datadriven website A data driven website is an interactive website kept constantly updated and relevant to the needs of its customers using a database Datadriven capabilities are especially useful when the website offers a great deal of information products or services because visitors are frequently annoyed if they are buried with an avalanche of information when searching a website Many companies use the Web to make some of the information in their internal databases available to customers and business partners Data Warehouse a logical collection of information gathered from many different operational databases that supports business analysis and decisionmaking The primary value ofa data warehouse is to combine information more specifically strategic information throughout an organization into a single repository in such as way that the people who need that information can make decisions and undertake business analysis ETL is quotextraction transformation and loading A process that extracts information from internal and external databases transforms it using a common set of enterprise definitions and loads it into a data warehouse The data warehouse then sends portions or subsets of the information to data marts A data mart contains a subset of data warehouse information To distinguish between data warehouses and data marts think of data warehouses as having a more organizational focus and data marts having a functional focus Data mining is the process of analyzing data to extract information not offered by the raw data alone Data mining can also begin at a summary information level coarse granularity and progress through increasing levels of detail drilling down or the reverse drilling up Data mining occurs on structured data that are already in a database or a spreadsheet Unstructured data do not exist in a fixed location and can include text documents PDFs voice messages email and so on Three common forms for mining structured and unstructured data are cluster analysis association detection and statistical analysis Advantages of using business intelligence to support managerial decisionmaking Organizational data includes far more than simple structured data elements in a database the data also includes unstructured data such as voicemail customer phone calls text messages video clips along with numerous new forms of data such as tweets Managers today find themselves in a position of being data rich and information poor and they need to implement business intelligence systems to solve this challenge Chapter 72 mobility the business value of a wireless world Wireless categories 0 PAN provides communication over a short distance that is intended for use with devices that are owned and operated by a single user 0 WLAN local area network that uses radio signals to transmit and receive data over distances of a few hundred feet WMAN metropolitan area network o WWAN wide area network Wireless business applications Mobile and wireless business application and services are using satellite technologies 0 GPS a satellitebased navigation system providing extremely accurate position time and speed information 0 GIS location information that can be shown on a map 0 LBS applications that use location information to provide a service used by both GPS and GIS Benefits of business mobility Enhance mobility Provide immediate data access Increase location and monitoring capabilities 1 2 3 4 Provide mobile commerce opportunities 5 Improve work flow 6 Provide an alternative to wiring Challenges of business mobility 1 Protecting against theft 2 Protecting wireless connections 3 Preventing viruses on mobile devices 4 Addressing privacy concerns with RFID radiofrequency identification and LBS location based service Chapter 8 Enterprise Applications business communications Integrations and their role in connection corporations Integrations allow separate systems to communicate directly with each other eliminating the need for manual entry into multiple systems Building integrations allows the sharing of information across databases along with dramatically increasing its quality Supply chain and its role in supporting business operations Supply chain consists of all parties involved directly or indirectly in obtaining raw materials or a product To automate and enable sophisticated decision making in these critical areas companies are turning to systems that provide demand forecasting inventory control and information flows between suppliers and customers Supply Chain Mgt SCM is the mgt of information flows between and among activities in a supply chain to maximize total supply chain effectiveness and corporate profitability Today s supply chain is an intricate network of business partners linked through communication channels and relationships Benefits of SCM 1 Improved visibility across the supply chain 2 Increased profitability for the firm Challenges of SCM 1 Costs 2 Complexity CRM mgt and its role in business ops Customer relationship management covers all aspects of the customer s relationship with an organization to increase customer loyalty and retention and an organization s profitability CRM allows an organization to gain insights into customers shopping behaviors Every time a customer communicates with a company the firm has the chance to build a trusting relationship with that particular customer Benefits of CRM Identifies customer needs and designs specific marketing campaigns tailored to each Challenges of CRM there is no way that companies WON T receive the messageso they always have to listen with CRM ERP and its role in business mgt Enterprise resource planning integrates all departments and functions through an organization into a single IT system ERP systems provide organizations with consistency They allow for the effective planning and controlling of all the resources to plan source make and deliver goods and services Core components of ERP systems 1 Accounting and finance 2 Production and material management 3 Human resources Benefits of ERP 1 Focuses on improving manufacturing processes through automation 2 Addressed customer issues including marketing and sales 3 Allowed a company to compete on a functional level adopting an enterprise wide approach using the internet to connect all participants in the value chain Challenges of ERP cost software consulting charges hardware expenses and training fees Chapter 9 Systems development and project management corporate responsibility Benefits of successful software development Increase in revenues Repair to brand reputation Limited liabilities FERNquot Increase in productivity Seven phases of systems development life cycle 1 Planning involves establishing a highlevel plan of the intended project and determining project goals 2 Analysis involves analyzing enduser business requirements and refining project goals into defined functions and operations of the intended systems 3 Designinvolves describing desired features and operations of the systems including screen layouts business rules process diagrams pseudo code and other documentation 4 Development involves taking all the detailed design documents from the design phase and transforming them into the actual system 5 Testinginvolves bringing all of the project pieces together into a special testing environment to test for errors bugs and interoperability and verify that the system meets all of the business requirements defined in the analysis phase 6 Implementation placing the system into production so users can begin to perform actual business operations with the system 7 Maintenance performing changes corrections additions and upgrades to ensure the system continue to meet the business goals Software development methodologies 1 Agile method aims for customer satisfaction through early and continuous delivery of useful software components developed by an iterative process with a design point that uses the bare minimum requirements 2 Waterfall methodology follows an activitybased process in which each phase in the SDLC is performed sequentially from planning through implementation and maintenance 3 Rapid application development methodology RAD emphasizes extensive user involvement in the rapid and evolutionary construction of working prototypes of a system to accelerate the systems development process 4 Extreme programming break a project into tiny phases and developers cannot continue onto the next phase until the first phase is complete 5 Rational unified process provides a framework for breaking down the development of software into four gates 6 Scrum used small teams to produce small pieces of deliverable software using sprints or 30day intervals to achieve an appointed goal Project management and the role of the triple constraints Project mgt is the application of knowledge skills tools and techniques to project activities to meet project requirements Triple constraints are scope resources and time which are all interdependent Therefore if one changes all have to change The project s stakeholder s and executive sponsor s roles in choosing strategic projects Project stakeholders interest might be affected because of project execution or project completion The executive sponsor is the stakeholder that stands out as having the most impact on the success or failure of the project That person provides the financial resources for the project Diagrams used in Project planning 1 PERT Program evaluation and review technique is a graphical network model that depicts the tasks and the relationships between those tasks 2 Gantt chart is a simple bar chart that depicts project tasks against a calendar Three primary areas a project manager must focus on managing people communications and change Three types of outsourcing 1 Onshore outsourcing engaging another company within the same country for services 2 M I c C an 5 C with a company in a nearby country 3 Offshore outsourcing using organizations from developing countries to write code and develop systems


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