Edison State College, Naples FL
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Date Created: 12/18/14
O8 27 I4 CHAPTER l INTHUDUETIUN AnoTomy The science of body sTrucTure dnd reloTions omong Them dsk yourself whdf wherequot sub specioliTies of dndTomy grossmocroscopic onoTomy dissecTion The coreful cuTTing oporT of body sTrucTures To sTudy Their reloTionships sTudied by dissecTionrodiogrophy dnd models onyThing oTher Thon o microscope microscopic CyToogy sTudy of cells hisToogy sTudy of Tissues surfoce onoTomy sTudy of surfoce mdrkings To undersTond inTernol dndTomy by looking dnd Touching embryology sTudy of The firsT 8 weeks of developmenT dfTer ferTilizoTion of d humon cell developmenTol onoTomy sTudy of The compleTe developmenT of on individuol ThroughouT life poThologicol onoTomy sTrucTurol chonges gross To microscopic ossocioTed wiTh diseose Physiology The science of body funcTions dnd how everyThing works dsk yourself how whyquot sub specioliTies of physiology ore nomed offer The reldTive body sysTems neurophysiology funcTionol properTies of nerve cells endocrinology hormones chemicol reguloTors in The blood dnd how They conTrol body funcTions renol physiology funcTions of The kidneys exercise physiology chonges in cell dnd orgon funcTions due To musculor dcTiviTy poThophysiology funcTionol chonges ossocioTed wiTh diseose dnd oging There ore 6 levels of sTrucTurol orgdnizoTion 1 Chemical Level The mosT bosic level like The leTTers of The dlphobeT in ldnguoge The oToms smollesT uniT of moTTer combine To form molecules 96 of The body includes Corbon C Hydrogen H Oxygen O liTrogen l Phosphorus P gt Mr CHONP Colcium Cd dnd Sulfur 3 you olso need To moinToin life Molecules can be simple like H20 or CO2 or can be as complex as proTeins or DNA or glucose blood sugar 2 Cellular Level The molecules combine To form cells which are like words in a book Cells are The smallesT living uniT in The body more Than ZOO Types Muscle Nerve and EpiThelial 3 Tissue Level cells combine To form a Tissue like senTences in a book Tissues perform a parTicular funcTion oTherwise iusT a bunch of cells 4 basic Types l epiThelial covers body surfaces lines hollow organs and caviTies and forms glands ll ConneCTive connecTs supporTsand proTecTs body organs while disTribuTing blood vessels To oTher Tissues lll muscuar conTracTs To make body parTs move and generaTes heaT l nervous carries informaTion from one porT of The body To dnoTher Through nerve impulses 4 Organ Level Tissues ioin TogeTher To form organs like paragraphs in a book organs are composed of Two or more differenT Types of Tissues have specific shape and parTicular funcTion examples hearT skin bones lungs example sTomach 39 ouTer covering epiTheliol Tissue and connecTive Tissue reduces fricTion when sTomoch moves and rubs againsT oTher organs 39 underneaTh 3 layers of muscular Tissue called smooTh muscle Tissue conTrocTs To churn and mix food pushes inTo The nexT orgon The small inTesTine innermosT layer epiTheliol Tissue produces fluid chemicals responsible for digesTion 5 SysTem Level organs working TogeTher To perform common funcTion make sysTems like chapTers in a book Example DigesTive SysTem breaks down and absorbs food 39 Organs mouTh salivary glands pharynxThroaT esophogusfood Tube sTomoch small inTesTine liver and gallbladder pancreas parT of Two sysTems digesTive and endocrine ll organ sysTems in The human body lnTegumenTaryskin SkeleTalbones Muscular Nervous Endocrine glands CardiovascularhearT and blood vessels LymphaTic Respirafory DigesTive and Reproducfive 6 Organismal Level All The sysTems funcTioning TogeTher form The organism like The compleTe human or book Examples of The LEVELS of Organizafion AToms C H O N P Molecules proTeins faTs glucose faTs Cells muscle cells nerve cells Tissues bone or nervous tissue Organs stomach brain heart Systems digestive or respiratory Organisms ALL OF US 11 Systems of the Human Body 1 Integumentary skin nails hair and glands protects body and regulates body temperature 39 detects sensation like touch pain warmth and cold 2 Skeletal bones joints and cartilages supportsprotects body and provides surface area for muscles stores minerals and fats 39 aids body movements and stores cells that produce blood cells 3 Muscular skeletal muscle usually attached to bonessmooth and cardiac participates in body movements walking maintains posture produces heat 4 Nervous brain spinal cord nerves and special senses eyes and ears 39 generates actions potentials nerve impulses to regulate body activities detects changes in bodys internalexternal environment interprets change and responds by causing muscular contractions or glandular secretions 5 Endocrine hormone producing glandscells in organs pineal gland hypothalamus pituitary gland thymus thyroid gland parathyroid adrenal glands pancreas ovaries and testes regulates body activities by releasing hormones chemical messengers transported in blood from glands to tissues to target organs 6 Cardiovascular blood heart and blood vessels heart pumps blood through blood vessels blood carries oxygen and orients to cells and carbon dioxide waste away from cells helps regulate acidbase balance temperature and water content of body fluids 39 blood components help defend against disease and repair damaged blood vessels 7 Lymphatic 8 Immunity lymphatic fluids and vessels spleen thymus lymph nodes tonsils and cells that carry out immune responses B E T cells returns proteins ond fluid to blood carries lips from gastrointestinal tract to blood contains sites of maturation and proliferation of B E T cells that protect against disease causing micro robes 8 Respiratory lungs air passageways pharynx throat larynx voice box trachea windpipe and bronchial tubes 39 fransfers oxygen from inhaled air fo blood and carbon dioxide from blood fo exhaled air helps regulafe acidbase balance of body fluids air flowing ouf of lungs fhrough vocal cords produces sounds 9 Digesfive organs of fhe gasfroinfesfinal fracf pharynx fhroaf esophagus food fube sfomach small and large infesfines and anus organs assisf in digesfive processes salivary glands liver galbladder and pancreas achieves physical and chemical breakdown of food absorbs nufrienfs and eliminafes solid wasfes 10 Urinary kidneys urefers urinary bladder and urefhra 39 produces sfores ad eliminafes urine eliminafes wasfes and regulafes volume and chemical composifion of blood helps mainfain fhe acidbase balance of body fluids and bodys mineral balance help regulafe producfion of red blood cells 11 Reproducfive gonads fesfes and ovaries 39 produce gamefes fhaf unife fo form a new organism 39 release hormones fhaf regulafe reproducfion and ofher body processes uferine fubes uferus vagina mammary glands lt females 39 mammary glands produce milk epididymides ducfus deferens seminal vesicles prosfafe penis lt 39 fransporf and sfore gamefes males Noninvasive Diagnostic Techniques one fhaf does nof involve inserfion of an insfrumenf fhrough fhe skin or any body opening inspec rion examiner observes fhe body for any changes fhaf deviafe from normal papa rion examiner feels body surfaces wifh The hands ausCu ra rion fhe examiner lisfens fo body sounds fo evaluafe fhe funcfioning of cerfain organs 39 using a sfefhoscope fo amplify The sounds perCussion examiner faps on The body surface wifh fhe fingerfips and lisfen To The resulfing echo Au ropsy a posfmorfem exam of The body and dissecfion of ifs infernal organs fo confirmdefermine fhe cause of deafh defermines fhe exfenf of injuries and how iniuries lead fo deafh There are 6 basic life processes I me raboism The sum of all The chemical process occurring in The body Ca raboism BREAKDOWN of complex subsfances info smaller and simpler unifs 39 Ex digesfion cafabolize splif profeins info amino acids anaboism BUILDUP of complex sfrucfures from smaller and simpler unifs 39 Ex digesfion amino acids fhen anabolize build new profeins fhaf make up body sfrucfures like bones and muscles ll responsiveness obiliTy To deTecT ond respond To chonges in The exTernolinTernol environmenT exomple increose in body TemperoTure during o fever chonge in inTernol environmenT exomple Turning your heod Toword o sound of squeoling brokes chonge in exTernol environmenT To prepore for o poTenTiol ThreoT differenT cells respond occordingly nerve cells respond by generoTing nerve impulses ocTion poTenTiols muscle cells resound by conTrocTing which generoTes force To move body porTsTr lll movemenT moTion of The whole body or movemenT of inTernol orgons exomple golblodder conTrocTs ond releoses bile info The gosTroinTesTinol TrocT To help digesT Them exomple whiTe blood cells move from The bloodsTreom To on infecTed Tissue To help cleon up ond repoir The oreo l growTh increose in body size cell size number of cells or increose in The moTeriol beTween The cells hyperTrophy increose in cell size hyperplosia increose in number of cells moTeriol beTween cells con increose which mokes The Tissue grow in size V differenTic1Tion developmenT from unspeciolized To o speciolized cell pre cursor dncesTor sTem cells con divide ond differenTioTe To specific cells 39 redwhiTe blood cells come from The some unspeciolized pre cursor cells in red bone morrow one ferTilized egg cell differenTioTes To o embryo feTus infonT child ond Then odulT humon Vl reproducTion formoTion of new cells or producTion of o new individuol lf ony of The life processes ceose To occur The resulT is deoTh of cells Which in Turn meons The deoTh of o pemon HomeosTosis dynomic process wiTh equilibrium sToying wiThin The vioble ronges 986 ESP 12080 moinToining o sToble inTernol environmenT despiTe chonges in The exTernol environmenT body TemperoTure reoches lOO when body is infecTed HomeosTosis of The body fluids moinToining volume ond composiTion of body fluids body fluids diluTe woTery soluTions conToining dissolved subsTonces inside ond ouTside The cell lnTrc1ceuor fluid ICF fluid inside The cell membrones ExTrC1Ceuor fluid ECF fluid ouTside The cell membrones lnTersTiTiol fluid beTween The cells ECF Blood plosmo in The blood Lymph in The lymph vessels Cerebrospinol fluid in The broin C Synoviol fluid in The ioinTs lcl Aqueous humor in The eyes HomeosToTic mechonisms reguloTe The precise composiTion of The fluids Hormones messenger molecules secreTed usuolly info The blood work slowly ConTrolling homeosTosis by feedbock sysTems feedback sysTem a cycle of evenTs in which The sTaTus of a body condiTion is evaluaTed Then changed and re evaluaTed sTimuus any disrupTion ThaT changes a conTrolled condiTion componenfs of feedback sysfem 39 recepTors sense The change and inform The conTrol cenTer conTrol cenTer brain analyses The informaTion and deTermines The appropriaTe response 39 effecTor carryouT The orders from The conTrol cenTer Feedback Loop Example Cold from The exTernal environmenT Too cold for The body RecepTors send chemical signal To The brain saying The inTernal balance is inTerrupTed ConTrol CenTer Brain Tells The body To shake and shiver Once you geT To a warm place inside or a iackeT Brain Tells your body To sTop shaking iTs okay now Negafive Feedback Loop happens in mosT insTances decreaseeliminaTes The change 39 regulaTion of blood pressure ESP BP increase due To inTernalexTernal sTimulus recepTors in The blood vessels sense The increase in pressure informaTion senT To The conTrol cenTer brain as inpuT conTrol cenTer analyses The informaTion and deTermines The besT way To mainTain homeosTasis orders senT To The effecTors as ouTpuT hearT raTe decreases 39 blood vessels dilaTe blood pressure decreases PosiTive Feedback Cyce happens only during childbirTh labor or blood cloTTing increasereinforce The sTimulus childbirThlabor firsT conTracTion of The uTerus pushes The baby inTo The cervix causing iT To sTreTch RecepTors sense The sTreTching and inform The conTrol cenTer brain conTrol cenTer analyzes and figures ouT The appropriaTe response release The hormone oxyTocin oxyTocin causes The EffecTors uTerine muscles To conTracT more forcefully causing The cervix To sTreTch furTher more sTreTch resulTs in more oxyTocin which causes more conTracTions Thus more sTiTch cycle conTinues Till The bdby is born sTreTch on cervix is relieved dnd recepTors sTop sending inpuT To The broin The AnoTomico PosiTion sTdnding erecT fdcing The observer heod level ond eyes forword feeT floT on floor direcTed forword drms on sides dnd pdlms Turned forword PosiTiono Terminology supine lying down wiTh foce up prone lying down wiTh fdce down DirecTionol Terminology superior Towords The heod inferior dwdy from The heod dnTerior Towords The fronT posTerior dwoy from The TronT mediol Towords The midline loTerol dwoy from The midline proximol neor The origin disTol dwoy from The origin superficiol neor The surfoce of The body deep owoy from The surfoce of The body ipsiloTerol some side of The body conTroloTerol opposiTe side of The body Regions of The Body cepholicheod cervicolneck Trunk 39 ThorocicchesT 39 obdommoHobQ pelvic pelvis upper limb lower limb Orgons of The Body brain spinal cord lungs stomach esophagus small intestine rectum heart kidneys thyroid gland adrenal glands ovaries liver galbladder pancreas trachea colon urinary bladder spleen clavicle sternum tongue hair skin nails appendix Abdominopelvic Regions 9 regions made by intersections of two mid clavicular lines with subcostalquot and transtubercular lines right and left hypochondriac under ribs lumbar kidneys inguinal epigastric stomach umbilical belly button hypogastric pubic Abdominopelvic Quadrants Four quadrants made by the intersection of Median Line Transumbilical Line Named As 1 Left Upper Quadrant LUQ 2 Right Upper Quadrant PUQ 3 Left Lower Quadrant LLQ 4 Right Lower Quadrant RLQ The Air Planes sagittal planes divide body into right and left sections midsagittal plane equal right and left sections parasagittal plane parallel to the midsagittal plane divides the body in two unequal sections frontal coronal plane divides body into anterior and posterior sections transverse plane 90 perpendicular to midsagittal plane divides body into superior and inferior parts oblique plane passes at an oblique angle less than a 90 degree angle Body CaviTies spaces inside The body ThaT proTecT separaTe and conTain The inTernal organs cranial caviTy conTains The brain spinal caviTy verTebral canal conTains spinal cord Thoracic caviTy above The diaphragm plural caviTies conTain righT and lefT lungs mediasTinum space beTween lungs 39 pericardial caviTy conTains The hearT inside The mediasTinum Abdominopelvic caviTy locaTed below diaphragm abdominal caviTy above hip bone 39 pelvic below hip bone CaviTy Membranes The body caviTy walls and The organs are lined by Thin slippery membranes called serous membranes These membranes adhere To The ouTer surface of The organs or viscera and Then double back on Themselves To line The body caviTy wall serous membranes consisT of Two layers visceral layer covers The organs wiThin The caviTies parieTal laTer lines The caviTy walls Medical Imaging Techniques and procedures used To creaTe images of The human body allow visualizaTion of sTrucTures inside The body diagnosis of anaTomical and physiological disorders radiography x rays magneTic resonance imaging IVIRI compuTed Tomographic scanning CT scan ulTrasonography USC radio nucleoTide imaging endoscopy
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