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Introduction to Textile Technology

by: Austyn Feeney

Introduction to Textile Technology TT 105

Austyn Feeney
GPA 3.79


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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Austyn Feeney on Thursday October 15, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to TT 105 at North Carolina State University taught by Parrillo-Chapman in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see /class/223675/tt-105-north-carolina-state-university in Textile and Apparel Management at North Carolina State University.

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Date Created: 10/15/15
TT 105 Quiz 2 Review Questions All of these statements are TRUE On the quiz if any part of the statement is false then the entire statement is false Woven fabrics are produced from 2 sets of yarn interlaced at 90 degrees to one ano er Top weight fabrics are light weight and bottom weight fabrics are heavier Weight can be expressed either in terms of ozyd2 or gramsmeter2 Warp yarns are sometimes called ends and warp yarns appear vertically in woven fabrics Filling yarns can also be called picks or weft yarns lling yarns appear horizontally in woven fabrics Selvage selvedge yarns appear at the sides of a woven fabric and are parallel to warp yarns The words pattern or motif refer to the design of a woven fabric Warp yarns are a set of yarns weaving lengthwise in a woven fabric they appear parallel to the two selvages The number of ends per inch in a woven fabric can be expressed as epi or the sley of the fabric ln counting the fabric sley epi warp yarns are counted across the fabric width Filling yarns weave across the width ofa woven fabric at 90 degrees to the ends and selvage yarns Fabric balance is the number of ends per inch epi compared to the number of picks per inch ppi Cover refers to the hiding power of a fabric a fabric with high cover is very opaque very hard to see through The fabric yarn count of a woven fabric is expressed as the warp yarn count x the lling yarn count In the expression fabric yarn count the two yarn numbers are not multiplied only documented The fabric count of a woven fabric is stated as the epi x ppi the numbers are not multiplied together A higher fabric count results in yarn cost length productivity I cover air permeability and weight Fabric count increases as a woven fabric relaxes A higher fabric count implies a higher quality fabric A higher number of ppi implies length productivity I higher yarn and fabric cost I fabric weight and I fabric cover Normallythere are more epi than ppi because of cost and production reasons Basic or simple woven fabrics include the plain twill and satin weaves satin weaves include satin and sateen weaves The plain weave is the simplest woven fabric it is aflat fabric and identical on the face and back Pain weave fabrics can have colored yarns weave vertically horizontally and vertically and horizontally to form plaids designs In a plain weave fabric the warp yarns are thinner and stronger than lling yarns In a plain weave fabric using spun yarns the warp yarns are thinner and have more tpi than the lling yarns A more opaque plain weave fabric has I epi I ppi a Ne yarn in the warp andor a Ne yarn in the lling A more opaque plain weave fabric has a I denier yarn in the warp andor a I denier yarn in the lling Twill weaves are known for their strength and durability Steep twills are more durable than normal twills Twill fabrics do not soil as much as plain weave fabrics Denim fabric appears blue because the warp yarns are dyed blue more warp yarn is seen than lling yarn A warp faced twill has more warp yarn showing compared to the amount of lling yarn Twill fabrics can have a right hand or left hand twill line Satin weaves are made from multi lament yarns and long vertical floats make the fabric very lustrous in the warp direction Sateen weaves are made with spun combed yarns their long horizontal floats make the fabric lustrous in the horizontal direction Satin fabrics are more lustrous if yarn luster the number of laments and the length of oat is increased Leno fabrics are open fabrics and they have warp yarns that cross one another along the fabric length Leno fabrics are often used for mosquito net applications Leno crepe dobby and jacquard fabrics are forms of complex woven fabrics Crepe fabrics have a crinkly or pebbly feel and appearance they often used in table linens Dobby fabrics have small to intermediate size patterns and often have a oral pattern Jacquard fabrics have intricate and large patterns brocade is one example of ajacquard fabric Plain looms are faster cheaper and less complicated than dobby looms Dobby looms are faster cheaper and less complicated than jacquard looms Plain twill and satin fabrics have smaller designs and are cheaper than dobby fabrics Dobby fabrics have smaller designs and are cheaper than jacquard fabrics The production rate in yardshour is determined bythe loom speed divided by the ppi increasing the ppi reduces yardshour Because of yarn interlacing the number of yards of fabric produced on a loom is always less than the number of yards of yarn fed Shedding is the separation of the warp yarns up or down so that a woven fabric pattern can be produced Weft insertion is the insertion of weft yarns across the width of a woven fabric as it is being woven on a loom Weft insertion can be achieved using shuttles projectiles rapiers and jets of air or water bursts of air or water Airjet looms are faster but less exible than rapier looms airjet looms can only work with certain lling yarns Air jet looms have problems with yarn tailing and compressed air is also very expensive In weft knitting yarns knit across the fabric width and the yarns knit from individual packages of yarn ln warp knitting yarns knit along the fabric length and the yarns knit from many yarns wound on beams On weft knitting machines machines with one set of needles can be used to knitjersey fabrics On weft knitting machines machines with two sets of needles can be used to knit rib fabrics On weft knitting machines with one set of needles the fabric is knitted in tube form On weft knitting machines with two sets of needles the fabric can be knitted in a tube or an openwidth form Jersey fabrics curl and shrink easily because they are unbalanced there is less curling and shrinkage if rib fabrics are made Tshirts are knitted from plainjersey fabric terry is used in childrens wear and eece is used to make sweatshirts 1x1 rib fabric is used as trim in sweaters whereas Interlock is used in dresswear Warp knit fabrics are normally produced in open vvidt the fabric is unbalanced so there are curling a shrinkage problems Warp knit fabric can be made on tricot lingerie and headliners or raschel machines lace and auto upholstery Astroturf is made on a raschel machine Runner length warp knitting is the number of inch of yarn required to knit 480 courses offabric Jersey machines are very versatile and are faster and cheaper than rib machines I CL I fabric width I fabric length l opaqueness l ozyd2 lcostyd2 I permeability and I snagging I RL I fabric width I fabric length l opaqueness lozyd2 l costyd2 I permeability and I snagging Nonwoven fabrics are produced quickly and at lowcost in terms of end product their application is usually functional A web can also be called a batt Needle punched fabrics are produced by using one or two sets of barbed needles to entangle fibers in aweb Spunlaced fabrics are made by using high velocity water jets to entangle polyester or polypropylene bers Wetlaid fabrics are made from natural or synthetic bers which have been randomly deposed on a conveyor belt after they were initially suspended in a vat of water Wetlaid fabrics can have their strength increased if an adhesive is applied Drylaid fabrics are made by randomly laying down layers of fibers on a conveyor belt and then using an adhesive or a melting action if polyester bers are used to give the web strength Spunbonded fabrics are formed by fusing laments made from a thermoplastic fiber where they cross one another Stitchbonded fabrics can be classified as being either Maliwatt or Malimo fabrics Maliwatt fabrics involve the use of chain or half tricot stitches to hold bers in a web together Malimo fabrics involve the use of chain or half tricot stitches to hold a series of horizontal yarns together onwoven or nonconventional fabrics are used in the production of diapers interlining products and hospital gowns Oriented bers in aweb all lie in one direction and give poor web strength Needle punched fibers are entangled by barbed needles Hydroentangled fibers are entangled by jets of water Adhesives glues ber entanglement and stitching yarns can be used to increase web strength In needle punched fabrics one or two sets of barbed needles can be used to entangle the bers Needle punching up to a point increases web strength excessive needling reduces web strength Some indooroutdoor carpets are produced by needle punching Spunlaced fabrics are often used in bedspread applications An adhesive glue is added to spunlaced fabrics to increase their strength Wetlaid fabrics are strengthened bythe application of an adhesive and are often used in interlining and surgical gown applications After a drylaid fabric has been produced an adhesive may be applied in either a saturated or patterned way to increase web strength In spunbonded fabrics thermoplastic filament yarns must be used to allow bonding of the laments where they cross one another In Maliwatt products a halftricot knitting action gives more overall strength compared to the only linear strength produced by the use of a chain stitch Maliwatt webs are often used in interlining applications Malimo products are often used in drapery applications 1 How to identify fabric structures plain basket twill jacquard warp knit etc 2 Weft knits knitting versus warp knits Knitting 3 How to list nonwoven bonding mechanisms


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