World History- October 12-16
World History- October 12-16 HIST 1010-001
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Anzlee on Thursday October 15, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 1010-001 at Auburn University taught by Donna J. Bohanan in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 114 views. For similar materials see World History I in History at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 10/15/15
October 1216 Notes The European Renaissance Background While the Middle Ages were falling apart the Renaissance meaning rebirthrevival was emerging This was the revival of classical heritage Romans and Greeks I Italian Humanism Humanism in this context means studying the classics Italy charged ahead during this time In the 14th century Italian scholars were in contact with the Arab world through trade and received sources of classical texts that the Arabs were so intent on preserving The Roman sources were in Latin One famous man named Petrarch was blown away by the Latin context and believed it was far superior to Latin from the Middle Ages even calling the Middle Ages the Dark Ages because of this He wanted to revive Roman Latin Petrarch was named the Father of the Renaissance Him and his colleagues physically went out and ransacked libraries including monastery libraries They were seeking Western culture and heritage by reading texts and becoming experts on the way they wrote as they taught themselves and others A Philology Historical linguistics Through this they could even date texts by the use of grammar and speech The people studying the texts were very critical and could identify individual authors Since there were no printing of books they were all handwritten Mistakes were bound to happen and then these would continue building up as more copies were made from other copies They wanted to clean the texts up These errors were known as textual errorscorruption Lorenzo Valla in the 15th century unearthed a very amazing historical document called the Donation of Constantine which was showing how Constantine gave land to the papacy and the bishops Valla showed that this text was a fake written in the 7th century Vemacular is the language people actually speak In this case most of these humanists were Italian so their vernacular would be Italian Naturally these humanists began to experiment with writing in their own vernacular such as with poetry dramas etc Examples include Decameron a collection of stories by Giovani Boccaccio about the plague striking and Shakespeare English vernacular gt SIGNIFICANCE Humanism was very important because it was the way in which we have preserved classical in uences and texts even today in the present world The interest these people had in these texts caused a deeper understanding of the classical culture and gave meaning to understanding linguistics more as a general concept II III Humanist Philosophy In the 15th century all things were Greek Revival of Plato Plato was the classic philosopher who claimed that ideas exist in a separate reality with one that is perfect Marsilio Ficino was the man who revived Plato by nding bulk Platonic texts and neoplatonic texts He was an independent freelance scholar who was studying under a wealthy family as many of these humanist would do because the wealthy families were capable of having a collection of books This idea of collecting and keeping books was a status symbol Cosimo de Medici was the man who Ficino relied on Cosimo was from a banker family and his library was known as the Platonic Academy Ficino believed humans were very special because of their dignity and their ability to use their intellect to link the idea of the miserable reality and Plato s concept of perfectness Fincino s understudy was Pico della Mirandola who wrote the Oration on the Dignity of Man about how humans were special due to their dignity and the freewill to rise or descend that was Godgiven He said this was partially through mysticism prayer and meditation Michelangelo painted the Sistine Chapel ceiling with stories of the bible one in particular known as the Creation of Adam He also had a sculpture called David which was inspired to be the perfect human This was a celebration of human kind SIGNIFICANCE Humanist philosophy was essential in understanding Plato and for grasping a deeper understanding of how his logic can connect with their present ideas of this time known as the Renaissance This as well as artists works such as Michelangelo s affected the people s attitudes of this time Their ideas of how reality was and how human kind is very special gave a generally optimistic outlook Northern Humanism The idea of Humanism started spreading north and the surrounding areas such as Germany and Spain Instead of mainly Latin being studied people were also looking into ancient Greek and Hebrew However the main focus became classical Christian sources For example even the bible was studied and known to have textual errors from being copied by hand The vulgate was known as the official bible in the Church and was in Latin They wanted to make the bible clearer and better The result was the Polyglot Bible It took decades to compile and was lead by a man named Ximenes de Cisneros Poly means many so Polyglot meant that this bible contained multiple languages There was a Latin column as well as a column with the original language Therefore the original language of the Old Testament was in Hebrew and the New Testament was in Greek This showed a very distinct difference and evolution of language Erasmus of Roderdam was a humanist theologian who claimed that a lot of the importance of the church had become stale and they needed to revitalize Christianity He said it needed to be more focused on the interior than the exterior practices It was very important that people go back to the original message of Christ and live by his word An important tool for this would be the bible gt SIGNIFICANCE The signi cance of the study of Christian sources opened a great amount of doors up to the study and revived appreciation for the Christian religion through philology Religious reformers were happy with this revival of people to rely more on their interior beliefs than their exterior practices
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