Educational Psychology EDP 304
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Constructivism Individuals are active agents in constructing their own knowledge during the course ofinteraction with the environment Thinking is an active process whereby people organize their perceptions of the world Goals of Constructivist Teaching 0 Encourage knowledge formation 0 Encourage metacognitive processes for judging organizing and acquiring information Example of Constructivist Teaching Robin Williams character in Dead Poet s Society is a prime example of constructivist teaching He encourages Personal interest Background knowledge Active learning An emphasis on personal meaning Critical thinking oop Instruction Collaborator organizers cooperative learning schema activation groups zone of learning scaffolding prox dev self scaffolding I domains low modeling groups high achievers achievers I acquisition learning social transactional transmission of learning knowledge knowledge transactional Direct Instruction Particularly effective when teaching contentprocedural skills that have 1 Specific set of identifiable operations or procedures 2 Can be illustrated with a large and varied number of examples 3 Can be developed through practice Phases of Direct Instruction Tips for improving DI Probe often amp observe wait time Ask questions that promote active rather than passive thinking Bring in anything to increase attentioninterest eg props guest speaker Visuals multimedia Exude energy and express personal interest Give many concrete examples Be creative don t lecture from text Discovery Learning Advantages Arouses curiosity Encourages independent problem solving Encourages the development of critical thinking skills Disadvantages Requires special materials Extensive preparation Frustration Typically not as effective for lowability students What de nes Cooperative Learning Positive interdependence Individual accountability Structured activities Team goalsrewards A focus on higherorder thinking after presentation of basic information 2 Speci c types of Cooperative Learning STAD Student Teams Achievement Divisions 0 Form heterogeneous groups ability gender ethnicity etc 0 Compete for rewards based upon improvement of scores as a group Jigsaw 0 Have experts Within each group Who teach other group members What makes Cooperative Learning Effective Potential for accommodating individual differences Dual emphasis on academic and interpersonal skills Social construction of knowledge The ability to engage in higherorder thinking JEAN PIAGET COGNITIVE I A 39 DE VEL 0PMENTA THEORY BASIC ASSUMPTIONS A PERSON HAS HEREDI T AR Y ORGANIC REACTIONS IS NATURALLY ACTIVE IS BORN WITHOUT MIND NEEDS TO ADAPT TO ENVIRONMENT TO ADAPT ORGANIZES THINKING INTO STRUCTURES SCHEMAS Piaget39s Stages of Cognitive Development Approximate Age Major Accomplishments Sensorizmotor 0 2 years Begins to use imitation memory and thought Begins to recognize object permanence Moves from reflex actions to goaldirected activity Preoperational 2 7 years Develops language and the ability to think symbolically Uses oneway logic Thinks egocentrically Concrete 7 11 years Solves concrete problems in logical fashion operational Understands laws conservation and uses classification seriation Understands reversibility Formal V y T king becomes more scientific operational Develop oncerns about social issues identity 7 quot Problem solving increases Egocentrism Decreases Sensorimotor Birth2 yrs Early on bundle of re exes wiredin responses Beginning to discriminate between objects Begin to develop schemes Habits are formed such as thumb sucking Infants begin to use objects to achieve a goal 0bject permanence develops Later on infants perform miniature experiments with objects Later on physical exploration gives way to mental exploration Preoperational 27 yrs Language Egocentrism Lack of conservation Centration Inability to reason about transformations Irreversibility Symbolic Play Transauctive reasoning Concrete Operational 711 yrs Differentiation of one s own perspective from the perspective of others Conservation Decentration Reversibility Multiple classification Deductive reasoning Reasoning about transformations Inability to deal with abstract hypothetical and contrary to fact ideas Formal Operational lladult Ability to deal with abstract hypothetical and contrarytofact ideas Formulation and testing of hypotheses Separation and control of variables Proportional thought Combinatorial thought Construction of alternatives to reality Metacognition Constructivism Individuals construct their own knowledge during the course of interaction with the environment Thinking is an active process whereby people organize their perceptions of the world The environment does not shape the individual BEHAVIOR V I gnitive Development s Biological Facto MEDIA TING MECHANISMS g Adaptation qY Disequilibrium Developmental stages CO 0 How is Intelligence is measured Organization 0 Scheme Patterns of behavior or thinking that children and adults use in dealing with objects in the world These become increasingly complex Adaptation 0 Assimilation Interpreting new experiences in relation to existing schemes 0 Accommodation Modifying existing schemes to fit new situations Equilibrutiorl Process 0 Equilibrium Harmony between schemes and experiences 0 Disequilibrium When schemes do not fit current experiences interactions or information Disequilibrium is not a quotpleasantquot state It serves as the impetus for active searching for knowledge learning 0 Through quotgropingquot with new schemes and adapting old schemes equilibrium is again achieved New Equilibrium gt Disequilibrium gt Groping gt Equilibrium T4 Schemes of Learning Banging is a favorite And assimilation occurs Accomodation occurs scheme used by babies when they incorporate new when the new object to explore their world objects into the scheme doesn t fit the existing scheme Example of Equilibration Process College freshman comes from a conservative background people with similar views equilibrium Surprised to find that many people on campus have more liberal views He engages in discussion with these people and nds that he agrees with some of their views but maintains an allegiance to conservative views assimilation Later in the year there is much debate on campus regarding the changing of a state law Unsure of his position he listens to students with both conservative and liberal views He feels con ict when asked to support the conservative side groping Although not an easy decision he supports the liberal view and upon re ection reconsiders his general approach to politics and now identi es himself more as a liberal accommodation and new equilibrium Results of disequilibrium 0 Appropriate amount of challenge groping ideal learning situation 0 Not enough challenge Boredom 0 Too much challenge Withdrawal About Vygotsky 0 The quotMozartquot of psychology died early 0 0 a a H g m H m g a 0 a E m E 9 LT m r g lt m m quotU a H a n a 5 U l l Forerunn 39 reciprocal teaching amp dynamic assessme it Process more important than pro duct Social Constructivist development cannot be separated from its social context 0 Children construct knowledge Zone of Proximal l Deoelo ment quotthe distance between the actual developmental level as determined by independent problem solving and the level ofpotential development as determined through problem solving under adult guidance or in collaboration with more capable peers Vygotsky 1935 Learner39s private speech Teacher or peer scaffolding urilearned tasks not yet within learner39s ability and cultural tools for learning unlearned tasks at limits of learner39s a ility POTENTIAL LEVEL Q nun INSTRUCTION o o on o o 0 OZHZWgtHE Scaffolding Assistance that allows individuals to complete tasks they are not able to complete independently Why Do You Need to Know This 0 You are doing your students a disservice by not challenging them eg disequilibrium Part of being a good educator is knowing the appropriate amount of challenge 0 New knowledge is interpreted in light of previous knowledge The extent to which something makes sense or is organized depends upon what kinds of experiences and knowledge your students possess 10 Why Do You Need to Know This It is important to shape your curriculum so that it ts with an appropriate developmental level and also capitalizes on students natural curiosities to learn Students are capable of accomplishing certain things in interaction with others that they could not accomplish by themselves Working with a more competent peer or adult over an extended period of time can facilitate cognitive or emotional development that cannot be gained in any other setting Your future endeavors may be in uenced more by your BELIEFS about your abilities than your actual abilities themselves You are not doing students a service by building them up with a false sense of accomplishment WHAT IS A BELIEF An individual s representation of reality that has enough personal validity and credibility to guide behavior and thought VVV VVV How are selfef cacy and selfconcept different SelfEfficacy Context specific Competence for performing specific tasks Reference points for judgments tend to be inherent within the task requirements egHow confident are you that you can successfully write a good essay on the information processing model SelfConcept Judgment of competence at a broad level Evaluates feelings of self worth Reference points for judgments tend to be social and selfcomparisons eg I am a better reader than most of my classmates I am better at science than I am at math High Efficacy Learners 0 Engage in challenging tasks 0 Persist when goals are not initially reached They also 0 Expend high effort when faced with challenging tasks 0 Believe they will succeed 0 Control stress and anxiety when goals are not met 0 Believe they are in control of their environment 0 Discard unproductive strategies 0 Perform higher than lowefficacy students of equal ability Factors Influencing SelfEf cacy F actor Example Past Performance iPast success in solving algebra equations increases individual s beliefs in their capacity to solve other algebra problems Modeling 7 Observing others successfully solving algebra equations increases observer s beliefs in their capabilities to solve them Verbal Persuasion A teacher comments l know you will be able to solve these equations increases the likelihood that individuals will engage in demanding tasks and if successfulbelief in their capabilities to solve them increases Psychological StateiThoughts such as I can t do this stuff use working memory space that could be devoted to solving the problemssuccess is reducedand efficacy decreases Important Dimensions of SelfEfficacy for Educators to Consider 0 General Teaching Efficacy 0 Personal Teaching Efficacy 0 Student Efficacy Personal Efficacy from Teacher Efficacy Scale gt When I really try I can get through to most difficult students gt If a student did not remember information I gave in a previous lesson I would know how to increase hisher retention in the next lesson gt When a student gets a better grade than heshe usually gets it is because I found better ways of teaching that student gt If a student in my class becomes disruptive and noisy I feel assured that I know some techniques to redirect himher quickly Teac E f cacy TeacherEfficacy Scale gt The amount a student can learn is primarily related to family background gt If parents would do more for their children I could do more gt The hours in my class have little in uence on students gt Compared to the in uence of their home environment gt Teachers are not a very powerful in uence on student achievement when all factors are considered Improving Personal Teaching Ef cacy gt Teachers should be ARMED with a Quiver of General Teaching Strategies gt Teachers should be Masters of their Domain gt Teachers should seek out Mentors and learn through Apprenticeship gt Teachers should understand that Rome wasn t built in a Day Improving Student Ef cacy gt Present Challenging yet doable activities that are Mastery Oriented gt ARM students with a Quiver of Problem Solving Strategies gt Encourage students with Speci c Feedback about their performance gt Avoid verbal persuasion even subtle persuasion which may squelch a student s engagement gt Gain awareness not only of your students ability but also their perceptions of their ability Teacher Preparation amp Self Efficacy gt What role do teacher education programs play in building preservice teachers efficacy gtWhat has the teacher education program done to improve your efficacy gtHow could your ef cacy be further improved before you begin your career SELFEFFICACY How does it affect us 0 THE CHOICES WE MAKE THE EFFORT WE PUT FORTH HOW LONG WE PERSIST WHEN WE CONFRONT OBSTACLES AND IN THE FACE OF FAILURE Maslow39s Hierarchy of Needs Self Actualization 39 Need quotBeingquot Growth Aesthetic Needs Needs Need to Know and Understand Esteem Needs Belongingness and Love Needs Deficiency Needs Safety Needs Physiological Needs Attribution Theory gt The study of the causal explanations for success and failure gt Efficacy focuses on confidence for future performance whereas attributional judgments relate to past events gt 3 primary dimensions of attributional responses Locus of Control Stability and Controllability gt Student attributions are derived not only from themselves but also are in uenced through interactions with teachers parents and peers Attribution Inherited ability or aptitude Locus Internal Stability Controllability Examples Stable Uncontrollable I have talent I wasn t cut out for this Personality Internal Stable Uncontrollable I m naturally outgoing I m a very anxious person Effort Internal Unstable Controllable I worked really hard to improve my skill I didn t study long enough Study Strategy Internal Unstable Controllable The mnemonics I used really helped Attribution Locus Stability Examples HealthEnergy Level Internal Unstable Uncontrollable I was feeling really good that day I had the flu when I tried out Task Difficutly xternal Stable Uncontrollable Math is easy The test was too hard Teacher s Attitudes External Stable Uncontrollable My teacher helps me when I have 0 le My teacher doesn t like me LuckC hance External Unstable Uncontrollable This is my lucky day You never know when something bad will happen to you Thinking about Attributions in the Classroom gt Above all emphasize EFFORT for achieving goals gt Student attributions are affected by explicit feedback from the teacher eg maybe you just don t have talent in math and through more subtle feedback offering unsolicited help gt More successful students tend to attribute their success and failure to internal and controllable factors such as effort and strategy use gt Assist students by explicitly discussing different types of attributions gt Consider alternative attributions such as prior knowledge strategies monitoring skills amp automaticity Goal Orientations Entity magnets gt Performance Goals Normative Prove competence Grades Comparison Others39 perceptions Gaining Recognition Goal Orientations teaming em Monumental theorists gt Mast 5mg Knowledge acquisition Progress C t ompe ens SelfImprovement Dweck on selfesteem Selfesteem we will see is something completely different in the incremental system It is not an internal quantity that is fed by easy successes and diminished by failures It is a positive way of experiencing yourself when you are fully engaged and are using your abilities to the utmost in pursuit of something you value It is not something we give to people by telling them about their high intelligence It is something we equip them to get for themselves by teaching them to value learning over the appearance of smartness to relish challenge and effort and to use errors as routes to mastery pg 4 Self Theories 2000 Implicit Beliefs about Intelligence Learning goals lead to greater persistence more varied strategy use appropriate help seeking and are more likely to have high selfefficacy and attribute success to controllable factors such as effort and strategy use Performance goals lead to attempting easy rather than challenging problems a defensive attitude regarding ability and a greater frequency of developing learned helplessness because of fear of failure Fostering Adaptive Goals Promote the view that intellectual development is controllable Reward effort and improvement while de emphasizing native ability Emphasize the process rather than the products of learning Stress that mistakes are a normal and healthy part of learning Encourage individual rather than group evaluative standards S elfR egulated Learning The ability to control all aspects of one s learning from advance planning to how one evaluates performance afterward 3 Core Components 0 Metacognitive awareness Knowledge about cognitionRegulation of cognition 0 Strategy use Selectively choosing then evaluating strategies 0 Motivational control Goals selfef cacy effort Prina39plex r Promoting Conceptual Change convincedthalthese currently believe correct explanations forthe their thinking about phenomena they observe Examples of Cognitive Strategies SelfChecking Creating a productive physical environment Goal setting and planning Reviewing and organizing information after learning Summarizing during learning Seeking assistance Determining how much information to learn Examples of Cognitive Strategies Determining how new information relates to existing knowledge Determining how information will be used Identifying main ideas and important information Predicting Monitoring Re ecting on previous learning 3 Levels of Cognitive Study Strategies I Basic Study Strategies 1911ighungUnderlmmgNoterakmg 7 Don t take for gamed that students lmow these I Comprehension Monitoring Strategies 7 Selfrquestiomngsummanzing 7 These are thingsyou do onrlinequot While learning I Critical Thinking r Mostimpo antleveLthisisyourgoal 7 What is critical thnkmg7 Ten Essential Critical Thinking Skills I Distinguishing between veri able facm and value claims I Distinguishing between relevant and irrelevant information claims or reasons Determining the factual accuracy of a statement I Determining the credibility of a source I Identifying ambiguous claims or argumenm Ten Essential Critical Thinking S kill S c ont I Identifying unstated assumptions Detecting bias I Identifying logical fallacies Recognizing logical inconsistencies in a line of reasoning I Determining the strength of an argument or c aim Taken rom Beyerlti988gt A Good Strategy User Hasabmadvepenmveu151vategwes when and Where m use ve egwes Has a bvuad knuw edge base gnmesmsuammns samumaucmmeuuvcumpunems descnbed abuve A cc n c Effecme Study Strategles xmummmmm udammn Teach semen Knvwmgnlxnexm mdwned images wages are e emve Fumeempp y wages ngu sd ef cuy abwutleamxng Transfer ofLeammg mm Must a 39 mmmpuw Facwrs Affecung Transfer N mm x Mnnn Geneml PmlllemSalvingMadzl W Four Obstacles to Effective Problem Solving I Lack of experience in defining problems I The tendency to rush toward a solution before the problem has been clearly identified I The tendency to think convergently I Lack of domainspecific knowledge IllDe ned I Desired goal unclear I Informationrnissing I Seveml possible solutions WellDe ned I Goal clearly stated I All information present I Only one correct solution Algorithm I Exhausitive I Solution guaranteed E a g5 5 Solution not guaranteed Examples 7 Trial 42 Errnr 7 Means EndAnagu39ix 7 Analugy 7 Wurking Bucknin Convergent Thinking Divergent Thinking I Focus on one solulion I Consider novel Topics for Assessment Classroom Assessment What are objectives good for The foundation of assessment reliability amp validity Traditional and authentic assessment Developing items What is Item Analysis Standardized Tests Why Evaluation is Important Feedback to students Feedback to teachers Information to parents Information for selection and certi cation Information for accountability Incentives to increase student effort What are objectives good for 0 Have a master plan a roadmap 0 Top Down planning Broad objectives for class Objectives for large units Speci c behavioral objectives 0 Ensure assessment at all levels of knowing Bloom s Taxonomy The 2 Building Blocks of Assessment Reliability The extent to which the assessment instrument yields consistent results for each student 0 How much are students scores affected by temporary conditions unrelated to the characteristic being measured testretest reliability 0 Do different parts of a single assessment instrument lead to similar conclusions about a student s achievement internal consistency reliability 0 Do different people score students performance similarly scorer reliability The 2 Building Blocks of Assessment Validity The extent to which an assessment instrument measures what it is supposed to measure 0 Does the assessment tap into a representative sample of the content domain being assessed content validity Does the instrument measure a particular psychological or educational characteristic construct validity Do students scores predict their success on a later task predictive validity Important terms Formative vs Summative evaluation Formative How are you doing Summative How did you do Normreferenced assessment vs CriterionreferencedMastery assessment Norms comparison to peer group Criterion meeting instructional objectives Traditional vs Authentic Assessment Traditional measuring basic knowledge amp skills Spelling test 0 Math word problems 0 Physical fitness tests Authentic measuring skills in a reallife context 0 Develop a school newspaper Build a model city Present a persuasive argument Portfolios Advantages of Authentic Assessment Motivation increases 0 Teach to real life Assessment and educational product are the same External validity Utilize energy Student understanding of their work increases 0 Tap higher level thinking amp problem solving Disadvantages of Authentic Assessment 0 Often contrived assessments 0 Increased cost material 0 Increased time 0 More difficult to score reliably 0 Capture only a small part of academic achievement 0 More things to consider for classroom management and planning Should a classroom assessment instrument be very hard very easy or somewhere in between 0 When assessments are too easy students may not study very much and therefore may not learn as much as we would like 0 When students become accustomed to passing assessments with minimal effort they may be easily frustrated in later years when they encounter more challenging material and do have to work hard Should a classroom assessment instrument be very hard very easy or somewhere in between 0 When assessments are too easy teachers and students alike may think students have mastered something they haven t really mastered at all In other words the assessments are not a valid measure of students learning When assessments are too dif cult students may become discouraged and believe they are incapable of mastering the subject matter being assessed Creating Your Own Assessments 0 Remember it takes a lot practice to develop good assessment instruments and items 0 Ideally you should consider measuring outcomes in multiple ways eg multiple choice projects homework etc 59H Equot Constructing MultipleChoice Items Ensure the ONE answer is clearly the best The question should not typically be answerable without studying the material Avoid giving the answer away in the question or in the remainder of the test Create items that measure knowledge at all levels Work on your distractorsthey make all the difference What to consider with your Test Items Content Validity The extent to which an instrument is a representative sample of the content domain being addressed Construct Validity How well test performance can be interpreted as a meaningful measure of some characteristic or quality Carefully analyze how each item is writtenexplained What to consider with your Test Items 0 Overall percent correct or percent attaining mastery 0 Effectiveness of your distractors for multiple choice items 0 Item Discrimination the degree to which items discriminate between pupils With high and low achievement Figuring Item Discrimination getting the item cone getting the item correct Upper GI OUP Lower Group The total of students per group Item 1 Item 2 OverallTest Student 1 Student 2 Student 3 Student 4 Student 5 Student 6 Student 7 Student 8 Student 9 Student 10 Student 11 Student 12 Student 13 Student 14 Student 15 Student 16 Student 17 Student 18 Student 19 Student 20 Student 21 OOOHOHHHHOHOOHHHHHOHH 1 O 1 O O 1 1 O O O 1 O O 1 1 1 1 O 1 1 O 93 Item 1 91 637 43 87 Item 2 86 457 14 Two Approaches to Testing NormReferenced 0 Performance based upon comparison with other individuals Typical on standardized tests Looking from discrimination among individuals CriterionReferenced 0 Performance based upon meeting speci ed goals or criteria Typical on teacher constructed tests Intended to measure mastery in an area Functions of Standardized Tests 0 Student Assessment 0 Diagnosis 0 Placement and Selection 0 Accountability 0 Predictive Validity 3 Kinds of Standardized Tests AptitudeIQ StanfordBinet Wechsler Raven s 0 Normreferenced achievement tests ITBS CAT GRE Stanf Ach Test Criterionreferenced achievement tests CRCT Origins urpose of Behaviorism n Arose in an attempt to make psychology a science more objective n Also referred to as traditional learning theory n The focus is on changes in observable behavior n Early work started With animals and transferred to humans Two types of behavior Involuntaryre exes physiological states eg heart rate often associated with emotions 7 Classical conditioning 7 Stimuli from environment paired with re ex or physiological state to form conditioned physical or emotional responses Voluntarypurposeful activity behavior to get something 7 Operant conditioning 7 Behavior changes that are in response to consequences 7 Skinner s ABC s The Big 4 of Behaviorism 0 Ivan Pavlov 0 Edward Thorndike 0 John Watson 0 BF Skinner Examples of Classical Conditioning Puff of air in eye paired with a tone War veterans fearanxiety with loud noises Fear of a particular song playing during an accident Students becoming ill during a particular subject Flickering lights as a cue to be quiet Thorndike s Law of Effect An act that is followed by a favorable effect is more likely to be repeated in similar situations an act that is followed by an unfavorable effect is less likely to be repeated Important TermsClassical Conditioning Generalization Conditioned response is elicited with a stimulus similar to the conditioned stimulus Discrimination Ability to give different responses to related but not identical stimuli Reinforcement amp Punishment 0 Reinforcer Any consequence that strengthens increases the frequency of a behavior 0 Punishment Any consequence that weakens decreases the frequency of a behavior of 1quotquot 2551mm cous w c EFFE T aplr39 t Strengthened Behavior Antecedents gt Behavior gt Reinforcer lt Repeated Behavior Weakened Behavior Antecedents gt Behavior gt Punishment Decreased Behavior Kinds of Reinforcement and Punishment Behavior Encouraged Behavior Suppressed Stimulus POSITIVE PRESENTATION Presented REINFORCEMENT Reward PUNISHMENT Type I Punishment Example good grades Example after school detention Stimulus NEGATIVE REMOVAL Removed or REINFORCEMENT Escape PUNISHMENT Type II Punishment Withheld Example excused from chores Example no TV for a week r Name that Consequence 0 Sarah s mother makes her eat soap every time she says a bad word 0 Ronnie gets out of read aloud time by pretending that he is sick Ms Thomson always praises Sylvia s high math scores in front of the class but her scores are gradually decreasing 0 LaMont has to give back three bonus stars for talking to his neighbor The US Air Force continues to improve the stealth capabilities of its bombers Name that Consequence Kramer hears applause by all who watch him slide awkwardly through Jerry s door Andrea trains hard in track practice to become faster in order to avoid disappointing her Father Ben Johnson had to sit out of three Olympic competitions because he used steroids Teresa continues to crack jokes in class to the dismay of her teacher who always throws a fit 0 Tina now wears bellbottoms and retro clothing because all of her friends do too Antecedents insSetting Events insClassroom Rules IIIClassroom Schedulemm routines transitions n Room Arrangement insTeacher s Attitude insLesson Plan Guidelines for Preparing Rules Keep class and school rules consistent State rules clearly Provide rationales State rules positively Keep the list short Encourage student input Setting Events Physical Well Being eg tiredness illness Emotional Well Being eg personal problems Environmental Stimuli eg how warm the classroom is lighting Social Stimuli eg Who is in the class relationships Principle of Least Intervention 1 Prevention 2 Nonverbal Cues 3 Praise Correct Behavior 4 Praise for Other Students 5 Verbal Reminders 6 Repeated Reminders M0 7 Consequences Least Recommendations for Reinforcement IIIReinforce immediately following the desired behavior nUse the least tangible or elaborate reinforcer that will work nUse PreMack Principle or Grandma s Rule Eat your vegetables so you may go play nMake the reinforcement process informational nTry reinforcement before punishment if possible nUse reinforcement to shape behavior The Process of Shaping First reinforce any response that in some way resembles the target behavior Then reinforce a response that more closely approximates the target behavior no longer reinforcing the previously reinforced response Then reinforce a response that resembles the target behavior even more closely Continue reinforcing closer and closer approximations to the target behavior Finally reinforce only the target behavior Schedules of Intermittent Reinforcement Schedules of Reinforcement Continuous Intermittent Intermittee Re m ereemmem Schedules Fixed Interval Reinforcement after set period of time Examples Weekly Quiz Preparing for class to start everyday Shopping for Holiday or Birthday gifts Praising a hyperactive child every 15 minutes for appropriate classroom behavior Feeding your pets every morning Response Rate Increases as time for reinforcement approaches then drops off after reinforcement Intermitteme m eieemmeml Schedules Variable Interval Reinforcement after varying lengths of time Examples Pop Quizzes Telling students that their projects that they are working on will be graded in a few days A pigeon being reinforced on a random time basis for pecking at a panel that lights up Giving your students tokens for being on task at different times during the day Response Rate Slow steady rate of responding very little pause after reinforcement Intermitteea g Re m enemem Schedules F lxed R61th Reinforcement after set number of responses Examples Paying workers 50 for every car they paint Giving a pizza coupon for every third book read Giving a struggling speller computer time for every 10 new words spelled correctly Receiving an advanced colored belt in karate after meeting the requirements at each stage Receiving recognition pins for writing your 5th 10th amp 25th essays Response Rate Rapid response rate pause after reinforcement Intermitteiafg m eweemem Schedules Reinforcement afterElr gznggq responses xam les Playing slot machines Telemarketers calling to solicit credit cards A dog occasionally getting a bone after begging Students being called upon at random when raising their hands Maintaining a high level of academic performance because of occasional praise from a respected teacher Response Rate Very high response rate little pause after reinforcement x x x xm Punishment should be 1 Mildly unpleasant 2 Short in duration 3 Applied as soon as possible after the behavior Examples of Effective Punishment n Time Out n Response Cost n Verbal Reprimand n Inhouse Suspension Examples of Punishment to Avoid n Physical Punishment insPsychological Punishment n Extra Classwork n Suspension from School Guidelines for Using Punishment Choose punishment strong enough to discourage the behavior but not overly severe Don t Bluff Explain Why the behavior is unacceptable Teach and reinforce desirable alternative behaviors Potential Problems in Using Punishment When a behavior is punished in one situation it may increase in another situation one in which it is not punished Punishment often conditions negative emotional responses and may lead to escape and avoidance behaviors Punishment may lead to aggression Punishment does not illustrate the correct behavior Severe punishment may cause physical or psychological harm Satiation Reinforcer is overused to the point that it loses its potency Extinction Behavior decreases because it isn t being reinforced Be Prepared for the Extinction Burst P9P Equot 9 Applied Behavior Analysis Identify target behaviors amp reinforcers Establish a baseline Choose a reinforcer and criteria for reinforcement If necessary choose a punisher amp criteria for punishment Observe behavior during program implementation amp compare to baseline When the behavior management program is working reduce the frequency of reinforcement Effect of Rewards Praise if used correctly can increase intrinsic motivation by being informational Give unexpected rewards Avoid tangible rewards for something the student already finds interesting Rewards may decrease intrinsic motivation when given for simply engaging in an activity Rewards should be contingent upon meeting a standard or advanced level of performance httpwwwalfiekohnorg About Social Cognitive Theory 0 An outgrowth of behaviorism 0 Retained focus on learning but broadened the notion by including social context and observational learning 0 Albert Bandura as primary spokesperson About Social Learning Theory 0 Took some of the emphasis off of reinforcement as a requirement for learning 0 Cognition mediates behavior 0 Major terms Observational learning modeling vicarious learning self efficacy amp reciprocal determinism BEHAVIOR lt cc pEFRAEgESAL v w ENVIR 13 ENTAL 08 RECIPROCAL DETERMINISM Social Cognitive Theory Observational Learning Vicarious Learning ModelingImitation Learning from other Watching someone else successes or perform a skillcopying failuresobserving other someone s behavior being reinforced or punished 3 Explanations for Modeling 9A girl is more likely to imitate the Perceived similarity behavior of a female chemistry teacher than the behav1ors of a male chem1stry teacher OChildren who observed peers successfully solve problems solved more problems than children who observed adults successfully solve problems 3 Explanations for Modeling person imitates the behavior of a successful instead of a less successful peer 3 Explanations for Modeling Perceived status OYoung people wear Reeboks because professional athletes endorse them 9A student imitates the behavior of a popular peer