Cell phys notes 10/13-10/15
Cell phys notes 10/13-10/15 BIOL 3301 - 002
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BIOL 3301 - 002
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ashley Lutz on Thursday October 15, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 3301 - 002 at University of Texas at Arlington taught by Laura D Mydlarz in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 32 views. For similar materials see CELL PHYSIOLOGY in Biology at University of Texas at Arlington.
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Date Created: 10/15/15
101315 Protein based diseases are mostly based on the proteins not being formed correctly in the ER and therefore not allowed to pass into the cellwherever else they need to go If the proteins are not properly taken care of they will clumpaggregate in the ER causing a group of problems Vesicular traffic this is the process that moves proteins around the cell via the use of vesicles in the cytosol Vesicles originated from the membrane of organelles such as the ER or the Golgi The membrane pinches off a portion that will contain different proteins and this becomes a vesicle The vesicles travel over the filaments that form the cell39s cytoskeleton to the different destinations within the cell The membrane around each vesicle will bond into the membrane of the organelle it is transferring the protein to Because most of these vesicles originate from the ER most of the phospholipids in the cell are formed for the ER rough and smooth and then transferred to the other organelles by the vesicles that are carrying proteins The lipid bilayer of the organelles and the cell itself do not stay in one place The lipid bilayer of the entire cell is moving between organelles all the time For the proteins to move where they are supposed to they have to have signals telling the cell to move them and motifs that show where the protein is supposed to go The vesicles have to bud off of the original organelle and fuse with the lipid bilayer of the destination organelle Default signals are actually the lack of signal which means the protein does not move It stays where it is formed Recruitment signals are the signals that send the protein out of the ER There are proteins surrounding the vesicles that leave the ER The proteins that are being transported bind to internal ER ligands After enough of these proteins are bound to ligands in a specific area that section of the lipid bilayer will turn into a vesicle be coated by proteins outside and leave the ER for the golgi or other organelle There are several different forms of this protein coating on the vesicles These are based on where the protein is going These are designated by COP The signal sequence on the protein is what tells the vesicle what protein coating it will form These signal sequences are what we talked about with the mitochondria Use of ATP and GTP mean the process needs energy but also that it must be highly regulated ATP and GTP can give the regulation to a cell process even if there were a possibility of doing the same thing without energy The coating of the vesicle pulls the tether proteins to the surface of the membrane that show where in the cell the vesicles are traveling When the vesicle forms out of the ER the GDP and coating leave the membrane and the vesicle39s destination is solely determined by the tether proteins Tether proteins are what attach the vesicle to the membrane of the destination organelle The tether proteins attach to certain proteins on the surface of the destination organelle and fuse the membranes ejecting the contents protein of the vesicle into the organelle remember Vsnare VS Tsnare 10 15 15 Test will cover everything from last test through today The golgi apparatus is not physically connected to the ER but it counts on the ER to do its job The Golgi is formed from the vesicles sent out by the smooth and rough ER The Golgi is formed of three different parts cis stack and trans Cis is closest to the ER is absorbing vesicles trans is closest to the cell surface and is sending out vesicles pH goes down the farther into the golgi you get KDEL is the targeting signal that sends proteins back to the ER from the golgi The golgi are in charge of much of the posttranslational modifications This changes the proteins39 structure and function They can add tags to the proteins to show where they will go or to allow the proteins to become fully mature fully functional proteins Golgi stack is formed of cis medial and trans cistemae This is where sugars are added to proteins The cis golgi and trans golgi are more focused on sorting the proteins than modifying them TGN the transgolgi network Lysosomes the destructive organelle The highly acidic environment allows for almost instant break down of macromolecules or organelles in the cell The proteins that break everything down are only active in low pH environments So if the lysosomes burst the proteins denature and cannot perform their function Lysosomes have high concentrations of H pumps in their membranes to keep the internal concentration of H very high internally resulting in a pH of about 5 the hydrolases break whatever their name suggests name of molecule broken down ase Signal patches are not a sequence on the amino acid chain they are an area of the folded protein where specific sequences of the amino acid chain are folded together Clatherin coats the vesicles that move to the lysosomes
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