Flood lecture notes
Flood lecture notes GEOG 103 001
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Eliza Lynch on Thursday October 15, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GEOG 103 001 at University of South Carolina taught by Larianne Collins (P) in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 56 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Geography in Geography at University of South Carolina.
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Date Created: 10/15/15
92915 GEOG103 Notes Global Climate Weather vs Climate Weather always changing short term atmospheric conditions Climate very typical seasonal norms long term average weather conditions Climate is the normwhat you d expect but weather is what you get Geography Normal special patterns for types of weather Effect of normal weather patterns on PLACE Climate Controls factors influencing climate LAPDOG Latitude distance from equator Altitude elevation Prevailing wind wind horizontal movement of air Distance to Ocean landwatercooling differences Ocean Currents Great Mountain Barriers Climographs Shows monthly averages for temperature amp precipitation of a particular location Line temperature bars precipitation Koopen Climate Classification know the general climate regions map for test A Tropical climates represented in orange near the equator Rainforest plentiful rainfall yearround savanna dry summerwet winter more and longer dryer periods monsoon dry amp wet seasons more and longer wet periods virtually winterless rarely drop below 60 degrees Fahrenheit 3 desertdry areas 0 Desert huge daily temp swings little vegetation arid o steppe too dry for trees very short rainy season dry but not AS try as desert typically on borders of deserts o constant moisture deficit not enough precipitation C Mild Midlatitude climates Mesothermal humid subtropical wet in all seasons tropical summers shortmild winters Mediterranean mild winters amp summers slightly drier than humid subtropical Marine west coast warm summers cool winters More than half the human population resideshistorically where most food was produced easiest O O O O D Severe MidLatitude Climates Microthermal o humid continental severe winters warm summers 4 distinct seasons 0 subarctic very severe winters cool summers 0 most variation in temperaturesseasonality Epolar climates o Tundra very low temps permafrost ground is frozen solid 0 glacier very low temps continental or alpine glaciers o basically summer less rarely gets any warmer than 50 degrees Fahrenheit Hhighland climates Microclimates altitudinal zonation the further upout you go the climate is going to chance 0 on avg every 1000 ft difference in elevation the temp is going to cool 36 degrees Fahrenheit Koppen studied what vegetation exists where goes hand in hand wclimate classified based on temp amp precipitation uses letters to broadly define climatic zones know AH vegetation is an indicator of temp amp moisture ACDE all based on temperature H was not in the original classification complex local variations 8 odd one out based on moisture efficiency and temperature but primarily based on its lack of moisture SC s climate Humid subtropical Cfa c mild mid lat fno dry season a hot summer Volcanic Activity Happens on a natural basis Changes the temp of planet cools it down despite what people think Variations in EarthSun Relations earth orbitstiltsearth wobbles 235 degrees earth s tilt41000 year cycle What will happen in the future Hurricanes Tropical cyclones increase intensityfrequency Precipitation increase in high latitudes and decrease in tropics ArcticAntarctic ice reduction Sea level rise due to melting ice Increasing temps especially in higher latitude terrestrial 000 101 1 5 Hazards amp Disasters Hazard any large scale natural or manmade event that is POTENTIALLY harmful Disaster a losscausing event that impacts human systems hazard people disaster actually taking placealready happened Tornado flash flooding earthquakes etc examples of disaster Severe thunderstorm lightening wind freezing rain avalanche blizzard etc examples of hazards Vulnerability Place Vulnerability susceptibility to harm from hazards Exposure severity biophysical characteristics Magnitude how bad is it maximumepicenter ex Richter scale earthquakes lntensity how strongbad did it actually feel here Ex Mercalli scale earthquakes M speed of onset how much warning M duration how long does the event last ReoccurrenceSize frequency how often does it happen ReoccurrenceSize areal extent how widespread was the impact Can affect other aspects of life insurance ratesflood insurance on rent etc Sensitivity human characteristics Factors that influence sensitivity Age Housing tenure owner vs renter renter more vulnerable Raceethnicity majority vs minority majority always less vulnerable than minority Language barrier gender females more vulnerable Income Employment agriculture services people who are self employed are going to be less vulnerable than those who always have to go into work 0 Medical dependence Medicare insurance special needs 0 Access to car hurricane Katrina RiskLoss Risk likelihood of loss numerical Ex losses property crops death injury Emergency Management Disaster Cycle Preparation Evacuation stockpiling protecting property Prepositioning support teams SHORT fuse Response Rescue operations Providing water food medical care etc Mitigation Reducing susceptibility to future disasters Resilience The ability to withstand future disasters and maintain functionality Sustainability Belief that current development actions should minimize future risks 0000000 000000 A Hazards approach Hurricane Dynamics Hurricane an intense rotating tropical convective weather system with sustained winds over 74 mph Warm ocean water mT air gt energy temps gt 70 degrees F Coriolis effect gt spinning motion Where do they occur Tropicssubtropics Storm surge abnormal water rise generated by a hurricanes winds and low pressure this is the most destructive part of the hurricane Hurricane Impact heavy rainfall flooding tropical cyclone tornados Mid Latitudes Cyclone Noreaster Power outages freezing rain heavy snow Know Hazard v Disaster Exposure Sensitivity vulnerability Losses Mitigation to reduce impacts Recoveryresilience
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