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Radiation Safety and Shielding

by: Oliver Jones DVM

Radiation Safety and Shielding NE 404

Oliver Jones DVM
GPA 3.95


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This 198 page Class Notes was uploaded by Oliver Jones DVM on Thursday October 15, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to NE 404 at North Carolina State University taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see /class/223773/ne-404-north-carolina-state-university in Engineering Chemical at North Carolina State University.

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Date Created: 10/15/15
NE 404504 Radiation Safety and Shielding Lecture 23 Internal Dosimetry GI and Bone Models Unique SourceTarget Geometry AF factors SEE factors The gastrointestinal transit model shown in Figure 41 divides the tract into four segments or compartments stomach Sr stunI intestine SI upper large intestine ULI and lower large intestine L111 and depicts rstorder transfer of matcrial from one segment to the next Material is assumed to transfer from St to SI at the fractional rate of 24 dquot from SI to ULI at 6 14 from UZIto LII at 18 dquot and fromLLIto Fares at 1 1391 Absorption of ingested material to blood generally is assumed to occur only in SI and is described in terms of an elementspecifich value In the absence oi radioactive decay the fraction f of ingested material moves from SI to BLOOD and the fractton 1f1 moves from SI to UL and is excreted in feces The transfer coefficient from SI to BLOOD rs 6f1 l d39l Ingestion Respiratory Tract 3 l S 6 Blood UL LLl t 1 d39 Figure 41 Structure of the ICRP39S model of the gastrointestinal tract ICRP 1979 i u 5 7 3 m a DOSIMETRIC MODEL FOR TI 1E GI SYSTEM ransl39er 0139 materials ID the body uids BF is assumed to ntin occur through the small 39 l 39 1quotr T intestine SID The parameter I is tised to calculate t S trans L Model of GI System GI tract is composed old our segments which are treated as separate organs Se merit Walll 1 Contents 1 Mean Timeidzivl Aim 5 150 250 124 24 1 640 400 434 6 ULI 210 220 1324 18 LLI 160 135 2424 1 NOTE Mean Time UAW GI tract is viewed as ti smoothrwallcd pipe in which the dese to the walls is Itie to activity contained in the contents Under CPE con itiens the dose to the wall is halfet the dose to the euntems e target tissue ofconeern is the GI mucosa lining which is located at a depth of 10 pm SEE 39 for the GI tract 7 et39th speci c absorbed fraction AFlTvS GI Tract Model SEE Factors ll Tract SEE Factors Two cases are mnsidorcd in deriving the SEE factors Sallval y glam Pharynx r t MES E In oxmcnetrattnuttt rml ons Saltvaryqlann man I Snuhaqux For up radiations the speci c absorbed 39ractinn is modi ed whore ML is ttntcosal lining T i 39 IlfICl SLCI 0 arqztnxtzxtmz mass 01 11 tract SCCUOH contents c l v is the penetration l39nctor A 39 V mallquotEmmi nmum Radiation v Recoil atoms 0 a 1 Its on pmdum 00 Beta and electrons l GI Tract Model SEE Factors ating p radiattons For n rarltatinm thC speci c absorbed l39ractton is based on IE dose to the GI wall as an approximation ot39thc lose to the mucosa lini g arms AFWS M u MT r where W IS GI section wall GI section tract T wall s are calculated for photons and ssion neutruns Combinmg up and p radtattons gwea Y E Q AFML T YEQAFUFS 5EE P quotP quotP nP P P P P 2m Mun 252 M Bone Model Human Skeleton K v m 7 32mm H a Phalangas Pam Tamas Metamsals Ph a 925 EnnhanledLeammg com DOSIMETRIC MODEL FOR BONE Bone is composed ofCortical bone CB and Trabecular bone TB 39 39 mpact or dense bone on the outside of the bone TB is cancellous or spongy inner portion of the bone containing the marrow Soure s in bone CB with a mineral mass of4 kg TB with a mii quot11 mass of kg Mineral bone 1n skeleton is composed of CB 1 TB with a mass of5 kg Total skeletal mass is g mineral bone 1 red marrow 1 yellow marrow t cartilage t 39 Dis ibL n on bone surfaces Alkaline earth elements with Tm lt 15 days Distribution throughout the bone volume Radionuclides with Tl2 gt 15 days 0 Bone dosimctry data is given in metabolic descriptions of elements Targets in bone Ilematopoietie stem cells ofred man ow RM Osteogenic cells located on endosteal surfaces and certain epithelial cells close to bone surfaces BS Characteristics of targets RM is oeated in small eavitics in the TB with a mass of 1500 g 0 BS is located in epithelial lining outside of the CB and endosteal lining of canals within CB BS is lo ted in the lining ofmarrow cavities within TB lculated from 12 m2 with a depth oflO pm which gives a total BS mass half in CB and halfin TB Bone compact Bone a spongywaneenous Bone Model Ustmn Eicumpa bane Lacunae Cnntammg usteucytes 2 ae 39 Trabeculae ur SFDngy bane Haverslan ana vmkmam scanal Ostson Pennstaum cme ORGANIZATION luuduesm nuwc WWW Bone Modd Small blood vessel Newly deposited bone matrix Osteoblast laying down new bone to flll tunnel dug out by osteodasts Loose conneztive tissue Osteudasts di gin a tunnel throng cl bone Cnmmm Lamzlla ICRP 30 Bone Model Due to its structure the source and target organs in bone are unique As a rtxult the SEE factors must be modi ed for the following p a emitters in bone volume Beta emitters in bone volume sur Recs 1 S with an aver39 ge EB gt 02 MCV Beta emitters on bone surfaces with an average Eu lt 02 MeV Photon emitters u AFTS are calculated to be one Volume Bone Surfaces AFTS Alpha Beta Alpha Betagt02 MCV Betalt02 MeV AFBSTB 0025 0025 025 0025 025 AFBSCB 001 0015 025 0015 025 AFRMVTB 005 035 05 05 05 AFRMCB 0 0 0 0 0 Forbene volume seekers AFBS TB ranges from 0018 to 0032 for 3 and 8 MeV alphas and rang 39om 0021 to 0027 for 008 to 093 MeV average beta energies Typical values are listed For beta particles MT AF TVS M S where MI is 120 g ferBS and 1500 g for RM MS is 1 kg for TB and 4 kg for CE For bone surface seekers AFBSTB ranges from 015 to 043 for 3 and 8 MeV alpha and ranges from 025 to 0025 for 005 and 1 MeV a eta energies There is a marked change at 02 MeV Typical values are listed 2 c r Forbene vulume seekers AFBS vCB is based on 22hRa ix particles and WSr for beta partic es Fer bone surface seekers AFBSCB is taken as AFBSTB for DL particles and varies wit 39 ge beta energies There is a marked change at 02 MeV for 3 parlie es Typical values are listed Fer bone volume seekers AFRMVTB ranges from 002 to 009 for 3 and 8 MeV alphas and rang mm 018 to 043 for 008 and 093 MeV average beta energies Typical values are listed Fer bone surface seekers AFRMTB is taken as 05 based on geometry for 0 particles and ranges from 015 to 04 for 005 and 1 MeV average beta energies The 05 value is used for 3 particles Forbene volume sceku s AFRMVCB is negligible and taken as zero furbeth 0 and 5 partlc es Forbone surface seeku s AFRM CB is zero for ix 5 and ff since all RM is in TB ICRP 30 Bone Model Fission fragments have ranges in tissue similar to those of 3 MeV alphas Therefore AFTS values for 0 particles are used for ssion fragments Recoil atoms a re ne gleeled for purposes ofbo ne dosimetry AFTS for photon emitters are determined by Monte Carlo techniques using the skeleton as the target in place 0t BSr BS are distributed throughout the sllte eton SkelS and AFRMV S Translbrmalions v x l For bone suiiam seekels L1B UCB 05 Ummmlbm For bone volume seekers UTB 02 U mineral hon 7 Una 05 Uminerul buns Bone Dosimetry Arms 15m WitJ15 Mal 14 T mmW ANT FfRM s I n A SAMi4 AFK ricrml 5 m k u m 765 39 Fax NM H kHTRSEEBSeTB 8g so x lt ca f a 56 B Hm k6m v scERmlt TB Bone Dosimetry MM MBx 103 mg g 74 of 0 Wm 560 M414 s ouoa Iowa 4 Vmog 75 w m5k L 1bN 39 E Raxwgum an 354 UTE um 0 I med 1mm 39 Fm KajlomuJMNa MANNM 4A Lana wovenML 73 T 039 1 390ou Low as 0 up th Lrvu ThelloneDoaimetryofPuhlicatloM in contrast to the old model in which dose is averaged over the bone the current model contains separate calculations of the dose equivalent to the active haematopoietic tissue within the cavities of trabecular bone and to osteogenic cells in particular those on the endoeteal surface of bone Developing blood cells are found in various stages of maturation within the red marrow which is therefore of concern with respect to the radiation induction of leukemia The need to limit the dose to this tissue was recognised in Publication 2 but was not explicitly addressed in developing the recommendations for honeseeking radionuclides The osteogenic cells are the precursors of cells involved in the formation of new bone osteoblasts and in the resorption of bone osteoclaats and are of concern with respect to carcinogenisis in bone The location of the osteogenic cells in the skeleton is not well de ned for the purpose of calculating the derived guides the average dose equivalent is determined over a lo pm thick layer of soft tissue adjacent to the surface of the bone The following discussion is limited to the example of particulate alpha and beta irradiation of endosteal tissuea Energy deposition in endoateal tissues is averaged over a layer of cells near the bone surfaces the mass m of which is taken to be no 3 We distinguish between radionuclide that reaide on bone surfaces and those that are distributed throughout the bone volume The speci c effective energy for endosteal tissue from a radionuclide distributed uniformly on bone surface may be expressed as SEESwSo sone es ANBse CB F5013 Al smsv TB 1 Q E m 13 where E is the energy emitted per disintegration FsCB and FSTB denote the fractions of activity in the skeleton residing on the surfaces 5 of conical bone CB and trabecular bone TB and listen Pm l Conical and trabecular bone are de ned as bone with a surfacevolume ratio less than and greater than 60 em2 cmquot respectively AFSUJS e CB and AF5BS T3 are the fractions of the energy emitted from the surfaces of conical and trabecular bone that are absorbed by the endoateal tissue at the bone surface BS AF3BS C3 is normally smaller than AF5BS TB because of the greater absorption of radiation by the bone itself A corresponding equation can be written for SEEVBS Bone for radionuclidu that depoait within bone volume V FquotCB would then be the fraction of activity that is dispersed evenly throughout cortical bone and so on Values of parameters for the above formulation are contained in CRP 30 see Chapter 5 of lCRP I979a The quality factor Q for alpha radiation is taken to be 20 rather than 0 as in ICRP 2 and the relative damage factor39 n is no longer used AF and SEE Data Conversion of MIRD Data Absorbed Fraction AF MIRD Pamphlet 5 data given as specific absorbed fraction per g of target ICRP calculations given as fraction only eg Liver to Lung for 1 MeV photons MIRD Pamphlet 5 gives 790 E6 per g ICRP gives 789 E3 Lung mass is 1000 g SEE Factors MIRD Pamphlet 11 data given in rad per uCih ICRP and FGR 11 data given as MeV per gd 1 MeV per gd 213 rad per uCih MIRD PAMPHLET 5 DATA AF Data th39lIwww nm nrnlinds ID131U um m can nund sncm nasoxazu Pyncuous or warm mugs um um COEFFICXEMS oI vuunon u some In men nmusv IIIsz quotwens oIzoo 0500 Luna Isoa mom II LEIEos 12 Luz es I5 hs xOS I8 IJGZDS 2I LSZBDS 22 Lenas zI suunzn nu 55uzm 25 nusus 30 macsa7 as gamma n5 9022 07 3v 9932427 no new mom 3475415 2 2533435 2 230346 2 226505 2 220206 1 LBSBG a STOMCH nu 696206 s 65 06 a GAME06 m LaosM Io Lupus II I2 GI 51 cmmmsI mums sauna06 u ltIszoa n 5mos 5 Lawns s n 3406 a mu nu 971206 s mint06 e 7 1256 6522 9 5963416 a IIIz WILL manav In hut06 W 299247 22 LIME06 ZI 933201 25 mums Lisa0 4 129205 5 mas95 s I NEOS s IIna a man LEZEDS I Lesa05 I 3071 I usuas I 6862 I was a In 3 23 a 7 90 I 72a06 u 63 u mew no Learn 2 2 Lawcs z 12ssos a 3 as 3 mm nss InnscI Lamus c c 359206 c Luauas c 3303415 e omzus Lama06 32 no 2u9 a a s as 2222425 a mmsns Mass05 397 9 magas In I2Ixos I2 999305 I3 sun Lsezns z a EEOG u ozx e u 2Iue as s 3 na 5 a 9 35m 5 I2 295E06 W 3 W IEs K Es 3DSElt07 a a 576207 as H7DB 7 a amenIn a Tnmoxu SJJEI III a 651901 687307 a 690307 a uosav n Imus noncsaum magma Is 22 masas ze 297205 2v LEIE39UG 19 135206 3n TOTAL am 59206 I 5E6Egtns I 5 war I 565 05 I as s I 53 06 I a BUILWP FACTOR Hyman h EXTRAPDLH39RD nwn menu new c cucnmnu a Myanmar 1 Indus le mI nIusxn In counsnlau MIRD PAMPHLET 11 DATA SEE Factors httg lwww nm org ndex c 39n7Pagel 2199ampRPD 310 canmryco 5 Assault 0052 m um cmmn Am n cnsnnxusSI n mm ovum mcms mule IDMFHALS Amy 102 6 aLADDxa my Intros 2 M m mun Leg07 2 s 7 7 a 1310 um 202M mnos s 5 2 as mam 6 mn mu H1 a LL Hum Lugn7 mm turns mu Lou 05 muss Ema M Mmon Mm snagav max07 m ms muss Mum07 JAE01 mums Lures Laxas n c c3279 an 1 raw 6245 ms mxna mm maus In mws aming mam mm you 53 mu um pzvxsznruncn 972 su m n 15 Didi75 5K2 xmuu Fuss Inn some onus on a mm mm m m ans snarm mon s r 01 n 2142 m nxm 35Ko7 M32707 Lax as mun u a as m 253n1 2 mm 259m 192m mu v9 Ilzn7 1Iz 7 Lurrn u unv 121 mm v71 o7 mum he a z nzrm 25km Lurm Luzm Luzo7 25201 nanM LsP Inaas Lat01 307 155417 zap m 25mm Lon m I E07 mzm 50207 352a7 wsrzmczmu mm mu m mm mama Mme 2 Ixov 2 3505 3 um 22mm LEBiAV 2 1 506 mmv mu 32w7 352707 mam n62vn6 n we wanum mu Lbii n2 was mum mzua pm 32309 mmn 29km I s 31107 00 Lawn m m u L 2M1 232477 m 09 2 was 2 xx07 n6ao1 2011 so Dose Conversion Factors Use FGR 11 DCF for Inhalation DCF given in SvBq Ingestion DCF given in SvBq Submersion DCF given in Svh per Bqm3 May estimate DCF from 10 CFR 20 Appendix B using Stochastic ALI and annual dose limit of 005 Sv 5 rem Nonstochastic ALI and annual dose limit of 05 SV 50 rem FGR11 DOSE CONVERSION FACTORS httpwwweoaaovradiationdocsfederal520188020Ddf Table 21 Exposuremm Conversion Factors for Inhalation Cunmiued Dun Equinan per Unil nuke SvBq Nudide Clanf loud Bren Lunl R Murrow 8 Surface Thyroid Remind E oclive Coco w 5 10 405 10 416 IIquot 357 104 425 11739 15410quot 3 72 1039 765 10quot M41quot Y 1039 476 11139 184 10 345107 112 10 135 10 L62 10 360 117 501 10 1131 D 1 0 251 10 788 1039 657 10quot 626 10 573 1039quot L92 Ir 803 Hrquot 88910quot Table 22 Exposureolo Dose Convenion Factors for lngeslion Committed Don Equinan yer Unil Intk SvBq Nuclid f Gould Brunt Lulu R Murrow B Sumo Thyroid Rzmlinder E mive CM 5 10quot 319 1039 110 10quot 377 1vquot 132 10 939 10 7113 10quot 497 I0quot 277 10 3 m39 723 10 ms 10 496 101 549 10 8 10 463 1039 106 11739 72 141quot 10 407 10 121 1039quot 10210 944 1039quot 87210quot 16 Iquot 157 1039 14410 FGR111OCFR20APP B Table 23 Exposureto Dosc Conversion Factors for Submersion W Svhr pct Bqm Thyroid Rem nder Effective Dot Equivllcnl Rn per Unil Air Communion Nuclidz Gomd Brent Lung R Murrow BSur no Kr8S 51310 452 IUquot ul mquot 575 mquot 6l5 I 250 llr 420 NT 470 IO39quot I If n 712 loquot 403 0 an Irquot XeIJJ 630 HT 5in NT 484 m Los m HS 10 1 Inhalation ALI DAC IJCi l ICiml Oral 39 Ingestion Atomlc I No Radionuclide ALIlJCI values Inhalation Ingestion Atomic Radlonuclld ALI uCl DAC No e ALIWC39 uCiml 10 CFR 20 Appendix B httpwwwnrcqovreadinqrmdoc collectionsCfrQart020Qart020aggb html Table 1 Table 2 Table 3 Cobalt 60 Occupational Values Effluent Concentrations Releases to Sewers Col 1 Col 2 Col 3 Col 1 Col 2 Oral Inhalation Monthly Ingestion Average Atomic ALI Ci Al I DA Air Water Concentration No Radionuclide Class ll IJCI lICIml uCiml uCiml uCiml 27 Cobalt 60 W see 55CO 5E2 2E2 7E8 ZElO 3E6 3E5 Y see 55CO 2E2 3E1 lES 5E11 10 CFR 20 Appendix B httpwwwnrcqovreadinqrmdoc collectionsCfrQart020Qart020aggb html Table 1 Table 2 Table 3 Occupational Values Effluent Concentrations Releases to s IOd39ne 131 Col 1 Col 2 Col 3 Col 1 Col 2 ewe Oral Inhalation Monthly Ingestion Average Atomic ALI Ci ALI Fc39 DA Air Water Concentration No Radionuclide Class ll lICIml uCiml uCiml uCiml 53 Iodine 131 D all 3E1 5E1 2E 8 compounds Thyroid Thyroid 9E1 2E2 2E10 1E 6 1E 5 SUBMERSION DOSE External dose is concern for noble gases and shortlived airborne activity T12 lt 2 hours Noble gases are not significantly metabolized May adjust submersion DAC for room dimensions for energy spatial equilibrium concerns Exposure of 2000 hours at 1 DAC or 2000 DACh gives the annual dose limit to the whole body or lens of eye or organ whichever is most restrictive DOSIMETRIC MODEL FOR SUBMERSION IN A RADIOACTIVE CLOUD All noble g LS exeepl Radon and Thoron give a radiation dose almost exclusively due to external rm 1 mon Do L 39 39 romi aled or absorbed gases are neghgible 2 TE geometryhalf sphere is assumed for submersion in a radioactive cloud External dose where Cskg E H57 pA C is in Bq ln l s is Svh from 1 Bqg k i atio of mass stopping powers oftissue to air 1 pA is air density 0 L g m 3 gE is geometry factor to account for shielding bylissues Radiation Tissue gE ill on all 0 5 Low y skin lens 05 7 deep 05 to 1 Dose from absorbed gases where pI is density of tissue ofl E6 g m 3 5 is the gas solubility factor ranging from 002 to 01 for 11 and Xe respectively gA 05 for sur aee tissues and N for 0 3 low y gA X lEV so ltltlforhig1 y LungJ dose from inhaled gasm where vL is lung volum 3 153 m3 111 s lung 11 1000 g gL l for on B low 7 and o lEY for high y By comparison Ii Ii 2130 E2oo HL HA Therefore Ht gtgt llA l llL s values are determined by transport calculations for photons and bremmstrahlungfrom beta particles Dose rates to the skin and e 39e lens are evaluated at 0 to 2 mm for photons Dose rates to the skin and eye lens are evaluated at 007 mm and 3 mm respectively for beta particles and electrons H 114 quotBEdE f where B03 is Berger39s point kernel for electrons Submersion Dose ICRP 30 Model IIE for photons was evaluated for different size rooms 100 mi 500 m and 1000 in3 since 391 depends on charged particle equilibrium and for high Ev equilibrium may not be achieved if lu or mean free path is much larger than the largest room dimension H 2H1 e39 room where r 29m for 1001113 r 49 m for 500 m3 r 62 m for 1000 m3 For elemental tritium KHZ IIL 2 60 IA since 6 varies from 002 to 005 and IIt 0 However IITO vapor is more limiting since inhalation intake and skin absorption are equal Internal and External Dose Coi bined exposures should be limited for stochastic and non stochastic effects to the followin TEDE or II or IIE lt11 i 2 W 115 g 005 Sv 51mm or iwmiw Aw 0731 0 05 1 ALI 7 ALIj 3 ZOOODACM TODE or 11 r IID HSILT 050 Sv 50 rem or Hquot 2 H39s I1 2 I m I1 0 50 J ALI 7 ALIj E 21 quot57mg ZOOODACM where HP H1 or 11 or DDE in Sv ALI is Annual Limit on Intake DAC is Derived Air Concentration NG is submersion dose from noble gases C is average concentration j is thejn1 radionuclide Airborne Radioactivity Controls RESPIRATORY PROTECTION and BIOASSAY PROGRAM Elements should include Commitment to engineering and process controls Use ofrespirators Limitation ol39time Other control measures Enginecrinu and process eonlmls Use ol39air lrealmenl s Use ol non Volatile mat s Control ofrcleased aerosols vapors and gases hoods dmvndrall tables glevebags glovebox tents F Respirators Air purifying type to remove particulates gt 03 p and vapors Atmosphere supplying to protect user from gases partieulatcs and vapors Airborne Radioactivity Controls Air sampling and monitoring program Contamination monitoring and decontamination program Whole body personnel contamination monitoring Keep items wet Keep items confined Limit work activities that generate airborne activity eg Vacuuming sweeping Drying of powders Evaporation of volatile liquids Cutting grinding Post area as Caution Airborne Radioactivity Area if gt 03 DAC Limit personnel exposures to 12 DACh per 40 hour week Air Sampling General Area vs Breathing Zone 82 BZ sample at location of head at typical breathing rate use lapel air sampler Occupational air sampling if gt 1 DAC is expected Airborne exposure limited to 12 DACh per week 03 DAC for a 40 h week 1 DAC maximum Effluent air sampling Stack use isokinetic nozzles Offsite References NUREGs and Reg Guides from NRC ANSIANS and ANSIHPS standards Effluent Radiation Monitoring Glovebox Snorkel Fume Hoods Bioass BIOASSAY ntemal monitoring is required il gt 01 ALIis expected valuation level at 002 ALI or 40 DACli ulexposure nvestigation level at 01 ALI or 200 DACh ol39exposure unit is 1 LI ioassay methods 39 Blood urine or I39eces is collected and analyzed for activit determine activity p Frequency can range In 1 weekly to once every two years depending on work u activity anticipated use of RAM detection nenmtivity I39m the iadiouuclide and bioassay method Y Bod or 021011 01 body 15 placed near a radiation detector to reien Whole Body Counters Liquid Scintillation Counting For alpha and beta emitters in liquid samples urine blood eg High efficiency detection Sample preparation required Automated system for counting large numbers of samples INTAKE RETENTION FUNCTIONS IRFL Mostinternal exposu 5 are a result ofacutesingle intakes ot radioaetive materials RAM IRF have been described and provided for stable nuclides in ICRP 30 NUREG 4884 provides data for the amount ofRAM remaining in the body and organs or excreted by the bo y at various times post intake IRF for the n h compartment at time t post intake it 3 C140 1 wherq qnt is the expected activity I is the intake activity By analogy to equations given for the eompartmental chain jt 1 lnt TmemHn k1 kj n H p1j AP A1 where m is pathway leading to compartment n m is fraction of deposited in pathway leadingto n Consider lung IRF from an acute intake imngm 9 it iut DIB t exp AC I Am idt Dwtd exp td l Art l AFDJ lexptrtrtexptd l Attdtr ICRP 30 Model iet DP fe cxp AE l Mt ikt D1 fr cxp Arl At igm Dp fg exp Agl Ark ihm DI fh exp Ah l Mt it D1 fh Ah 1 exp A l Am for Class D or W it vah lh cxpAh l Lrtcxp Al l ANNAAnn for Class Y ijt E 0 for Class D or W iJt D1 fh l cxp Art for Class Y only IRF for various bioassa I wt lil ronr times havr 11mm P39Ilr lll 391le for inhalation and ingestion pathways Results are given in NUREG 4884 Respirators Respirators Personnel must be Medically qualified for respirator use Fittested amp trained on each type ofrespirator used NIOSIIMSIIA approval of all respirators used is required no modi cations PF should never be exceeded unless TEDE is not kept ALARA Typical Respirators Dust masks no protection factor Air purifying for particulates and halogens with combination filter SCBA for particulates and halogens Air supplied respirators hoods suits Appendix A to Part 20Assigned Protection Factors for Respiratorsa Operating mode Assigned Protection Factors 1 Air Purifying Respirators Particulateb onlyc Filtering facepiece disposabled Negative Pressure d Facepiece half e Negative Pressure 10 Facepiece full Negative Pressure 100 Facepiece half Powered air purifying respirators 50 Facepiece full Powered air purifying respirators 1000 Helmethood Powered air purifying respirators 1000 Facepiece loose fitting Powered air purifying respirators 25 II Atmosphere supplying respirators particulate gases and vapors 1 Air line respirator Facepiece half Demand 10 Facepiece half Continuous Flow 50 Facepiece half Pressure Demand 50 Facepiece full Demand 100 Facepiece full Continuous Flow 1000 Facepiece full Pressure Demand 1000 Helmethood Continuous Flow 1000 Facepiece loose fitting Continuous Flow 25 Suit Continuous Flow 9 2 Self contained breathing Apparatus SCBA Facepiece full Demand h100 Facepiece full Pressure Demand i10000 Facepiece full Demand Recirculating h100 Facepiece full Positive Pressure Recirculating i10000 III Combination Respirators Any combination of air purifying and atmosphere supplying respirators Assigned protection factor for type and mode of operation as listed above Respirator References httpwwwcdcqovnioshdocs2003144 httpwwwcdcqovnioshnpptltopicsrespi rators httpwwwoshaqovS LTCrespiratorvprot ectionindexhtm httpwww nrcqovreadinqrmdoc collectionscfrpartOZOpartOZOappahtml EPA 520188 020 Federal Guidance Report 11 Stochastic Effects For noble gas 2000 Zj Hawk s 5 rem For other nuclides HEM Xi Ij Hwh s 5 rem for all k intake routes NonStochastic Effects For 3H2 and noble gases to skin 2000 Zj HTML Ci 3 50 rem For 3H2 and noble gases to lens 2000 XI HTMLj CJj s 15 rem For HTO and other nuclides Organ HEM Xi Ij Plumb s 50 rem for all k intake routes where IfIprt Zr WT 131mm in Svh per Bqm3 HE50 2 ET WT HT50 in SVBq j is jth radionuclide I is intake activity C is average annual concentration Reg Guide 834 3 CALCULATION OF COMMITTED EFF C TIVE DOSE EQUIVALENT FROM INHALA TION The mternal dose component needed for evaluat ing the total effective dose equivalent is t e comm Led effective dose equivalent The committed effec tive dose equivalent is the 50 year effective dose equivalent that results when radioactive material is taken into the body whether through inhalation in gestion absorption through the skin acctclemal Injec tion or introduction through a wound The contribu tions from all occupational intakes for these modes of intake are added over the yearly ttme pcrlod lor which the total committed effective dose equivalent IS bemg evaluated The regulatory requirements for de termining the internal dose are in 10 CFR 201204i There are at least five methods acceptable to the RC staff or calculating commit effective equivalent from inhaled r droactive materials dose The five methods are described below 3 Use of Federal Guidance Report N0 1 Federal Guidance Report No 11 Rel 1 lists the committed effective dose equivalent per unit in per microcurie SvEq x 37 x 106 remuCi 32 Use of Stochastic Inhalation ALIs from 1 rt 20 inhalation presented in Column 2 in Table l corre rems 005 Sv or a co mitted dose equivalent of 50 reins o a sented in Table 1 is limited by the 50rem committed dose equivalent the controlling organ is listed directly below the ALI value at i Q m 5 o r 3 5 gt lt 3 lent is listed in parentheses directly below the organ name If a stochastic AL is listed in parentheses that using the estimated radionuclide intake by Equation L H A Equation 1 ALI where HLE Committed effective dose equivalent from radionuclide i terms I Intake of radionuclide i by inhala lltJI39l during the calendar year uCi If multiple intakes occurred during the year 1k is the Sum of all in keg AH Value of the stochastic inhalation ALI based on the committed effecr iive dose equivalent from Column 2 of Table l in Appendix B to 201001 202401 MCI 5 Committed effective dose equivalent from intake of 1 ALI rems I intakes of more than one radionuclide oc curred the total committed effective dose equivalent will be the sum of the committed effective dose equivalents for all radionuclidest The ALls In Part 20 are based on a particle dis tribution With a lmicron activity median aerody namic Llhl etcr T me A 1 m y be used regardless of the actual median diameter H r the OWEVB allows adjustment of AL to account for particle size but only With prior approval from the NRC 10 CFR 201mm 33 Use of DACs from 10 CFR Part 20 Committed eliective dose equivalent may also be calculated from exposures expressed in terms of DAChours If the DAC in Appendix B to 20100140 240 for a radionuclide represents a 5t0chastic value ie the corresponding ALI does not 0 Lquot i g i a S Q E a U 3 0 s at 2 E a39 a 20240 the case any time there is ti stochastic ALI value in parentheses it is preferred but not required that the licensee calculate and use a stochastic DAC The sto chasiic DAC can be calculated from the stochastic ALI the ALI in parentheses by the following equa lion DACWN Equation 2 where DAC mm The strichaslic DAC for radio nuclide i micrucuriesml AUiiom The stochastic ALI or radio nuclide I microctiriesl 24 x 109 The volume of air inhaled by a worker m a workyear ml lhen Hl Equation 3 39F 2000 DACMN where H Committed eIfective dose equivalent from radionuclide i rems C The airborne concenualion oi radionuclide i to which the worker is exposed microcuriesml t The duration oi the exposure hours 2000 The number of hours in a workyear 5 Committed effective dose equivalent from annual intake at l or 2000 DAC h0urs rems here is a mixture oi several radionuclides it is permissible to disregard Certain radionuclides in the mixture that are present in relatively small quantities 10 CFR 2012mm These radionuclides may be disregarded ii the iollowmg Conditions are centages for all of the radionuclides disregarded in exceed 30 and 3 the licen see uses the total actiVity of the mixture in demon strating compliance With the dose limiis and monitor ing requirements 34 Use of ICRP Publication 30 The supplements to ICRP Publication 30 Rel 2 llSl weighted committed dose equivalent to target or ans or tissues per intake of umt activityquot for mh la given is the comm lCRP Publication 30 Ref 2 does not give the sum t the licensee can easily add the values given to um 37 x 105 X SvBq remuCi 35 Use Of Individual or MaterialSpecific Information NRC regulations 10 CFR 201204C slate that When specific inform non CI calculate the committed equivalent 39 u rior NRC approval is required lur using this approach but records must be kept This approach requires the licensee to do consid erably more work an to have greater technical ex pertise than the other approaches Thus the spy proach is unlikely xo be attractive in most licensees or small routine intakes On the other hand it might be alll aclive in the case of accidental large exposures if more accurate information would lead to a better estimate of the actual dose When his approach is used the dme to organs not significantly irradiatedquot may be excluded from the calculation 10 CFR 201202b3 3 CALCULATION OF COMMITTED EFFEC TIVE DOSE EQUIVALENT DUE TO INGESTION are annual limits on intake ALIs for ac cupational ingestion of radioactive material Only one ingestion ALI is given for each radionuclide whereas used for all chemical forms of that radionuclide ll ingestion has occurred the methods for deter mining the committed effective dose equivalent are similar to the methods used for estimating inhalation dose Four acceptable methods are described here Some noble gas radionuclides in Appendix B to 201001 202401 do not have ingestion ALI val ues listed because the ingestion pathway does not contribute significantly to the dose These radio nuclides may be excluded from the determination of the internal dose from ingestioni 41 Use of Federal Guidance Report No 11 Federal Guidance Report N0 11 Ref 1 lists in its Table 22 the committed effective dose equivalent per unit of intake by ingestion in sieverts per bee querel These values may 6 used directly after con verting the units from sieverts per becquerel to rems per microcurie by multiplying the SvBq value by 37 x 105 42 Use of Stochastic Ingestion ALIs from 0 CFR Part 20 If the amount at ingested radioactive material is known the stochastic ingestion ALls from Column 1 ol Table 1 in Appendix B to 201001 202401 may be used Equation 4 may be used for this deter miriation 141 F A Equation 4 ALIEmi where H Committed effective dose equiva lent from radionuclide i rems II Intake of radionuclide i by ingesv non during the calendar year no ALIIEoral 39 Value oi the stochastic ingestion Ll for the commit effective dose equivalent from Col n 1 of Table App ndtx 201001 202401 uCi 5 Committed effective dose equiva lent from annual intake of 1 ALI rems 43 Use of ICRP Publication 30 The supplements to ICRP Publication 30 Ref 2 list weighted committed dose equivalent in target or gans or tissues per intake of unlL activrtyquot or oral ln rake in sieverts per becquerel The sum of the values given is the committed effective dose equivalent ICRP Publication 30 does not give the sum but the licensee can easily add the values given to calculate Th i the sum 1 is only necessary to convert from sieverts per becquerel lO rems per microcurie by multiplying the SvBq value by 37 x 105 44 Use of Individual or Material39Specil ic Information NRC regulations l0 CFR 201204c allow the committed e ective close equivalent 0 be calculated b due to ingestion can be calculated using the Specific information previ ously described for inhalation 5 DETERMINATION OF ORGANSPECIFIC COMMITTED DOSE EQUIVALENTS The internal dose component needed for demon strating compliance with the dose limit specified in 10 CFR 201201alii is the organ speu c commit ted dose equivalent The organspec1iic committed dose equivalent IS calculated for an individual organ Tissue weighting factors are not used gain specific committed dose equivalents need be calculated only it t tv overexposure has occurred the 50rem nonstochasnc organ limit can not be exceeded Five acceptable methods to calculate the organ speciflc committed dose equivalent are described here 51 Use of Federal Guidance Report No 11 One method for calculating the organspecific committed dose equivalent is to use the factors in Federal Guidance Repnn Not Rf 1L The organspecific exposuretod Se nversion factors presented in T e 2 l for inhalation and 2 2 provide acceptable data for calculating indi vidual organ doses based on intakes as follows 1 it x DCF x 37 x 106 Equation 5 where Hm Committed dose equivalent to the tissue or organ from radionuclide i r l Intake of radionuclide i no DCF Dose conversion factor lot radio nuclide i from Table 21 or 22 in Federal Guidance Report N0 11 SvBq 3 7 x 105 Conversion factor 0 convert lrum Svqu to rem Ci 31 Use of Nonstochastic lnhalalion ALIS from Part 20 it is possible to calculate organspeci c commit ied close equivalents for those radioactive materials or which nonstochastic ALIs are given in Part 20 Nonstochastic ALIS are l 39 to 20 1001 20 2401 The equation is 50 l H 39 quot ALlLr Equation 6 where Hm Committed dose equivalent to tissue or organ T from radionuclide i rems Intake of radionuclide i by inhala lion during the calendar year co ALIMT Value of the nonsrochastic inhala dose equivalent from Column 2 of Table J in Appendix B 0 20100 202401 010 u 0 ll Committed dose equivalent 0 maxi mumexposed organ from inhalation of 2000 DACJmurs terns 53 Use of DACs from Part 20 If a adionuclide has an ALI based on a non stochastic dose limit to an organ the corresponding DAC may be used to calculare the organspecific committed dose equivalent to the organ with the high est dose using the following equation 50 Ct H g E uation 7 39T 2000 DAC q HLT Committed dose equivalent to tissue or organ T from radionuclide reins C The concentration of the radio nuclide i micrticurtesml DAC The nonstochastic DAC for radio nuclide microcurieSml t The duration of the exposure hours 2000 The number of hours in the workyear 50 Committed dose equivalent to maximumvexposed organ from any nual intake of 1 AL or 2000 DAC hours rems If intakes during the monitoring period are from more than one radionuclide and the 0 ans receiving mum organ dose In this situation the licensee may wish to use one at the other methods 54 Use of ICRP Publication 30 The supplements to lCRP Publication 30 Rel 2 may be used to calculate organspecific committed dose equivalents alter converting the units from Sv Eq to rem ti 55 Use of individual or MateiialSpecii ic information NRC regulations 10 CFR 201204C state that and biochemical properties of radionuclides taken into the body Although not explicitly stated the organspecilic committed dose equivalent may 2i so calculated based on specific information in general if specific information is used to cal culate the committed effective dose equivalent it should also be used to calculate the orgttnispecilic ose equivalent so that both dose calculations have the same basrs Airborne Radioactive Effluent AIRBORNE EFFLU ENT mum th mgulmum m CFR 20 0 CFR 50 Appenth Luml urdmnncc Suurce Fun huud building mm incinumul Mk Tteunlen meiuu ofpurllculnk nmllm Amumuun orvapmuumumml Mogm Dccuy En Virunmm ml relenm rmm nmmul hcemeew B Tablel Valusx Amman h mum nude lmng gm mm and gm hem ur gmmu gtpecruscupy cuunhng Wm Alvin and hem apcclmxcupy 1un mnnumun m gm gamma cuunhng my mu he me hwmn uf cunccm m inmluuun submcrnun mm milk Vegaublex ma gmund m dupualuun Dust mm mm nwem y fur In CFR 20 I In mmm y M40 CFR 6 Refer m EPA cumpum code COMPLY Effluent Dose from Routine Operations 39 WWWangOV Regulatory Guide 1109 DCFs based on old models but are still used since limits are very low 10 CFR 50 Appendix I gives annual dose limits 10 CFR 50 Appendix I Design Obiectives Limits Type of Dose Annual Limit Air Dose 10 mrad 20 mrad Total Body 5 mrem Skin 15 mrem Organ l5 mrem C omments Gamma radiation Beta radiation External Gamma dose External Gamma Beta dose Internal dose From all pathways If 10 CFR 50 Appendix I limits are met EPA annual limits given in 40 CFR 190 25 mrem and and 10 CFR 20 limits for the general public are met 100 mrem TEDE Effluent Dose from Routine Operations Dose is calculated for the maximum individual in each age group for every or all pathways to demonstrate compliance with 10 CFR 50 Appendix I limits The maximum individual is considered to be an individual with above average but realistic habits that result in maximum exposure to radioactive ef uents Additional Offsite Dose Assessment Considerations EPA 40 CFR 190 for power reactors Offsite Dose Calculation Manual Site specific models Dose from Accidental Releases EPA 400 wwweoaqovradiation ACCIDENTS EPA 400 R 92001 HE Ej Cj H1502 DCFi Ci where DCF is sum of external dose from immersion and ground deposition and committed effective dose from inhalation for HE DCF is committed dose from inhalation for H150 for I nuclides only j is the jth radionuclide including I radioiodines i is the ith radioiodine Protective Action Guides PAG are l rem HE and 5 rem H150 for the thyroid RA DIA TI ON SA FE TY and SHIELDING NE 404504 Fall 2008 0 Lectures 8 Gerald Wicks CHP Objective 0 Describe factors affecting exposure close and doseequivalent calculations and measurements from external sources 0 Perform calculations converting Gamma fluence to exposure close and doseequivalent Dose in different media Factors Affecting Photon Exposure Dose amp Dose Equivalent 0 Source strength 8 0 Energy E 0 Response R o Shielding Attenuation Factor A or expux o Shielding Buildup Factor B 0 Geometry G point line area volume 0 Dose Limits Source Strength Activity and Source Strengh Activity 39 4 439 its quot radiatim type and mergy eg B quot at 0511 MeV S AY whae S is source strm A is source decay rate Y is demy fraction or frequency or yield For cxieuded SDlerCS assume uniform lismbution Dl39activiiy Geomeir I S mbol Units Linc 5 Pan er unit disiance per unit time Area Sa Pan per Llnll mm per unu umc Volume S Part per unit olumcper mm mm 0 Source Strength Energy groups are used for multiple radionuclide sources with discrete energies e g ssion products and for continuous energy distributions e g Xray machines Groups are de ned by energies that have similar attenuation or energy absorption properties Photon energies with similar mass attenuation coe icients Q or rmss energy absorption coe icients Q11 W rmy be combined into groups weighted by the source strength lt E5 EEY AY for photons With similar Q or Q1 values Where lt E is the average energy for that group and Q or Q1 values apply for a specified material 0 Energy 0 Photon Energy E Higher E more energy available for ionization and deposition so XDandHoE Higher E attenuation coefficient is function of E or uE Affects Buildup term value Response depends on Radiation Quantity Measured Exposure is the charge produced by gamma or xray interactions in a dry mass of air 1 Roentgen R 258 E4 Coulombs per kg Dose is the mean energy deposited by radiation interactions per unit mass of matter 1 rad 100 ergsg 1 Gy 100 rad Doseeguivalent is the product of dose D the radiation quality factor Q and modifying factors N H DQN Modifying factors N have a value of 1 unless exceptional situations have been documented and a new value approved Whole body head trunk of body upper arms and upper legs Extremities lower arms and lower legs See 10 CFR 20 for more definitions and units httpwwwnrcqovreadinqrmdoc collectionscfrpart020 Free Field for Exposure Measurement Free Field C1 or Q E 39 70mm X Absolute al ol39all negam incremental volume 0 Units Radiation eld is unin ueneed by Ihe presence of the human body Considered aeeepIable for X Km and K Used for 11 and D primilive mm He 01 inn charge 0139 one Sign produced anywhere in AIR by the complete slnppage 9e and p0quot 39 c elecll qns mm are lilgermed by innizing PIIOTONS in an per mm muss ol mr m that volume X limAm OA Qa Am dm R C kgquot l R 258E 4C kgquot Free Field Exposure to Dose Conversion Corrections for air temperature and pressure are needed because X is referenced to dry air at STP V N T Dquot rmquot I M NVquot In a law 5an T 760 X X x a x 5quot a 273 Pa Where X5 is exposure at STP and X is observed exposure a i observed temperature Kelvin P is observed pressure Torr mm Hg Conversions 1R 258E4 wa lrad X lMeV X 1602E Gerg 10009 602E19C looergg l lE6eV Where W is mean energy expended in a gas to form anion pair W Ei n E is itial kinetic energy oi39partiele which is completely stopped by the gas n is number ot39ioii pairs forme a e 185 eV ip Free Field Exposure t D C 39 1R 0 87rad au dTpds 11 t 0 Dix dTpds 11 Where dTpdsc m is the mass collisional stopping power for tissue 1 or air a Ralio is l13 For 1 R D 087 rada x 113 098 139ad1raldl Ka and X may be compared using W and by reducing Ka for radiative losses bremssirahlung by secondary charged parlieles Dose Conversions for Different Media 0 May use ratio of mass energy absorption coefficient values penp for dose conversion for different media rather than the ratio of mass collisional stopping powers since dose is proportional to the penp for a given medium D1 D2 o Airto tissue at1 MeV DTDa 00307 00279 DT Da 110 Units and Conversions EXPOSURE XE k peEp Ja E pE k 6606 E5 for Rh if cpE is used k 1835 E8 for R if fluence DE is used E photon energy in MeV penEp air mass energy absorption coefficient in air in cm2g cpE is the photon flux density for energy E at the point of interest in cm392s391 DOSE DE kIHenEP E WE k 577 E7 for Gyh or 577 E5 for radh if cpE is used k 1602 E10 for Gy if fluence DE is used peasEyp mass energy absorption coefficient for energy E in the medium of interest in cm g KERMA K KE k ptEp E goE k 577 E7 for Gyh or 577 E5 for radh if cpE is used k 1602 E10 for Gy if fluence DE is used ptrEp mass energy transfer coefficient for energy E in the medium of interest in cm2g DOSEEQUIVALENT HE DEQ DE for Q1 units are Sv or rem and DE must be dose in tissue 0 DoseEquivalent Response 0 Based on phantom of interest for H or HE ICRU sphere used for for H Anthropomorphic used for or HE 0 Multiply response by calculated flux or fluence for a given energy energy group to determine value of the response HE kH9nEp It ssue E WE HE k IlenEP fissue E ltPE where k penEp tissue E is the response function RE gIVIng HE RE pE for doseequivalent rate HE RE ltDE for total doseequivalent ICRU Sphere Phantom Used for Dose Equivalent Index HI 0 Hs Shallow Dose Equivalent at a depth of 7 mglcm2 0 HL Lens of Eye Dose Equivalent at a de 300 mglcm2 0 HD Deep Dose Equivalent at a depth of 1000 mglcm2 0 Density 1 glml 0 Composition of HCNO o ICRU Sphere Phantom HI ICRU Sphere used for dose and dose equivalent indiccs D1 and 11 30 cm diameter sphere with p of 1 g cmquot and composed of Element Mass O 762 C 111 11 101 N 26 Used to determine 113 11 and 1111 at depths of 7 300 and 1000 mg cm39z respectively for radiation which was incident upen the sphere for different geometries Currently used for external dosimetry quantities NVLAP standard n I J ANSIPrescribed Photon and Neutron Response Functions for the Dose Equivalent Index H PHOTONS NEUTRONSquot E McV CSv cm E McV cSv c1112 E MeV cSv c1112 01 786011 26 106009 25008 102009 015 105010 28 111009 10007 102009 02 139010 325 123009 10006 124009 175010 375 134009 10005 124009 211010 425 145009 10004 120009 244010 475 156009 10003 102009 274010 50 161009 10002 99010 300010 525 167009 10001 60009 325010 575 177009 50001 26008 353010 625 187009 10 37008 378010 675 198009 25 35008 400010 75 213009 50 43008 422010 90 244009 70 41008 467010 110 286009 100 41008 550010 130 328009 140 58008 697010 150 369009 200 63008 831010 400 69008 950010 1000 50008 Source ANSI 1977 Claiborne and Trubey 1970 Source ANSI 1977 NCRP 1971 Read as 786 x1039 and so on Anthropomorphic Phantom used for Effective DoseEquivalent HE Anthropomorphic Phantom used for lIh Shape size and composition similar to body including Head Trunk with organs ns an egs Soft tissue skeleton and lungs Used to determine H and H1 for at depths of 7 and 1000 mg cm39l respectively for radiation which was incident upon the phantom for different geometries External dosimetiy studies have been performed Cun cntly not using results Used for internal dosimetiy for Hk n SEhE mes mu mach mam mm mva rrswa mum ma wtzswr manna G 82 Auhriui view a the pr nltipal organ in he had and trunk cf the phanlom FIG B l Enemy of Ike u uh pumau Anthropomorphic Phantom used for Effective DoseEquivalent HE Various projections and sourcephantom con guration data are given for HE These include AP Anterior to Posterior irradiation with a parallel beam normal to the front and long axis of the body PA Posterior to Anterior irradiation LAT Lateral irradiation ROT Rotational irradiation in which the phantom is rotated on its long axis While irradiation is in a parallel beam normal to the axis ISO Irradiation in an isotropic eld Effective DoseEquivalent HE Note new wT factors are not in use in the USA Effective DoserEguivalent H 1 IIE accounts for the dt 39crent mortaltty risks Ii39om cancer and risk of severe hereditary illness in the first two generations associated with irradiation of various organs andor tissues HE Ererr Where WT IS the ratio ofstochastic effect probabilities from irradiation of organ T to that of tmiform irradiation to the whole body 4 wr 1 Target organ wr Gonads 025 Breast 015 Red Bone Marrow 012 Lun 012 Thyroid 003 Bonc Surfaces 003 Remainder 030 Whole Body 1 NOTE Remainder contains 5 organs with wr of00 each HE Response Function V Prescribed Response Functions for Photon Effective Dose Equivalent Hg in Units of 10 Sv cmz for Incidence in Various Geometries on an Anthropomorphic Phantom of an Adult Human E MeV AP PA LAT ROT 150 j 001 0062 00000 00200 00290 00220 0015 0157 00310 00330 00710 00570 002 0238 00868 00491 0110 00912 003 0329 0161 00863 0166 0138 004 0365 0222 0123 0199 0163 005 0384 0260 0152 0222 0180 006 0400 0286 0170 0240 0196 008 0451 0344 0212 0293 0237 010 0533 0418 0258 0357 0284 015 0777 0624 0396 0534 0436 020 103 0844 0557 0731 0602 030 156 130 0891 114 0949 040 206 176 124 155 130 050 254 220 158 196 164 060 299 262 192 234 198 080 383 343 260 307 264 10 460 418 324 375 327 15 624 580 470 524 468 20 766 721 602 656 593 30 102 971 840 890 819 40 125 120 106 110 102 50 147 141 126 130 121 60 167 162 146 149 140 80 208 202 185 189 178 10 0 242 223 229 216 Source ICRP 1987 ANSIANS6Jl 1991 Revismn Attenuation o Photon range has no endpoint in theory 0 Shielding is based on photon energy R R0 exp uT where R is response p is the linear attenuation coef cient T is shield thickness or optical thickness from source to point of interest u is a function of photon ener y for a given material and varies with type of material atomic number varia ility 2 o up for a composite well mixed shield ulp Z Wiulpi where wi is the weight fraction of the ith material 0 Why use up O u cm1 x cm or up cmZg pX gcmzl mass pV mass density thickness pX up allows comparison of materials 0 Useful for material substitution 6 g brick for concrete Thickness of x in cm 000 cmZg Aluminum 10 no2 Phomn Energy MeV i mm A anua on m cmmm Grammy Edge Effect IS High Z better Iron 2 10 no2 Phomn Energy MeV 39mx Amnuaoon m cmmm Grammy Photon Interaction Coefficients Data 0 Mass attenuation and energy absorption coefficients are available in various texts and publications and at the following internet sites NIST Physical Reference Data XRav amp W NIST XRav Mass Attenuation Coefficients W httpbhvsicsnistqovthsRefDataXravMass Coefcoverhtml httpbhvsicsnistqovthsRefDataXcomht mlxcom1thtml Mean Free Path MFP MFP is de ned as the average distance traveled in an absorber before an interaction occurs and is given by MFP We 393 dX We 393 dX MFP W Qge 393 dX where the integration is from 0 to in nity all values of X MFP Q Qg l MFP 1 At 1 MFP Q l and the survival fraction is e391 or 03678 NOTE MFP is sometimes called the Relaxation length Halfvalue layer HVL and Tenthvalue layerTVL HVL05e39g and TVL0le39g HVL and TVL are thicknesses at which 12 and 1 10th of the incident radiation survives without consideration of scattering Photon Shielding Half Value Layer Shield thickness that will reduce radiation intensity by half Depends on gamma energy and material 25 CONCRETE CO 500 mRh 25o mRh 1 HVL 6O 2 CO 500 mRh 125 mRh 2 HVL 60 y CO 500 mRh 625 mRh 3 HVL 6O Photon Shielding Half Value Layer HVL H p Mass Attenuation Coefficient Dependent upon material and gamma energy units will be cm2g 1 12 A 10 A No of HVL is radiation intensity Photon Shielding Half Value Layer HVL H p Mass Attenuation Coefficient Dependent upon material and gamma energy units will be cm2g 1110A10 A No of HVL is radiation intensity Hall value layers cm 50 100 7 i 20 50 y gt 0 1 2 20 5 2 A 1o 2 7 5 1 5 b7 8 mm 5 r 2 05 7 0392 1 H20 zen 2 83 p 1 gcm 0391 2 Brick hollow p 12 gcm 3 Concrete v 7 22 gcm m 0 05 7 m 4 Heavy concrele p 312 gcm3 if 5 Fe 2 26 p 78 gCma 002 e Pb Z 2 114 gcm m 7 w z 74 p 1911 gcma L 001 l a U z 92 p 190 gcm i g 002 39 j r r l l l l 001 quot 10 2o 50 100 200 500 keV 1 2 10 20 50 100 Energy Cs 137 Cu 60 20 50 100 200 500 1000kV Tube vollage Average HalfValue and TenthValue Layers of Shielding Materials Broad Beams Bf R per mA min at 1 m 102 2nd 300 kV cp l l J 11111 I 1111111 1 1 rum lllllll um I 104 250 kV 3 10 s E E 100 kV 19 6 510 kv I j l I l I 1 l o 2 6 8 10 12 Lead thickness mm Xray attenuation in lead Note curvature As lOW energies get ltered out only the photons With higher energies remain Use of 2nd HVL or TVL or at large attenuation depth Will be therefore conservative since it is based on higher energies Buildup Factors 0 Buildup B accounts for the contribution of secondary photons of a particular energy for a particular material shield that reach the point of interest 0 Secondary photons include Characteristic xrays Compton scattered gamma photons Annihilation gamma photons o B 1 RsRO RS is scattered photon response Ro is uncollided photon response 0 B is 3 1 0 Buildup Factors Thus any of the common gamma interaction processes may result in secondary photons that have a finite probability of reaching the dose point The extent to which such secondary photons add to the fluence or dose at the dose point is usually described through the use of an appropriate buildup factor Buildup factors may refer to various quantities of interest such as photon fluence photon energy fluence exposure or dose and the values among all are somewhat different For most of our discussion here we shall assume that the dose or exposure buildup factor is of interest Much of the available buildup data relates to determination of exposure or kerma in a small air volume envisioned to be located within the shielding medium of interest These data are also suitable for evaluation of dose to water or other lowZ material of interest The dose buildup factor is a dimensionless quantity that represents the ratio of total dose including the dose from secondary photons at the dose point to primary photon dose at the same point The primary photon dose naturally comes from original photons that have penetrated the shielding material without interacting Magnitudes of buildup factors vary widely ranging from a minimum of 10 to very large values depending on source and shield characteristics Attenuation 05 MeV buildup in lead and concrete 1E01 I Pb direct 1E00 Pb total 1E01 Conc direct 7 m Conc total 1E02 M 1E03 1E04 x 1E05 1E06 K 1E07 mux m fp 0 Buildup Factors 0 Depends on quantity of interest Exposure Dose Flux density KERMA in shield material for heating and radiation damage 0 B for exposure and dose are most commonly used 0 Depends on ux type of material material thickness and photon energy angular distribution source geometry etc Buildup Factors B Flux density B 1 oCoT Exposure B 1 oCoTE Ep en pen where 0C is compton scatter interaction coefficient CT is total interaction coefficient E is scattered photon energy E is incident photon energy p en is scattered photon energy absorption coefficient pen is incident photon energy absorption coefficient eg consider 1 MeV photon in lead at 90 degree scatter B for flux density 1 173b243b 1712 B for exposure 1173243O3331374E5359E5 1246 B for dose in water 1173243O33310032200310 1245 B Dependence on E u x Z Quantity Shield Z EMeV ux Bexposure Water 8 1 1 24 4 1 16 1 7 147 4 7 51 Concrete 1 1 1 7 144 4 7 49 Iron 26 1 7 97 4 7 49 Lead 82 1 7 30 4 7 36 Shield Z EMeV ux Bexposure Bdose Water 8 1 4 768 766 Iron 26 1 4 53 679 Tin 50 1 4 386 570 Lead 82 1 4 219 299 0 Use of Buildup Factors Photon shielding considerations 1 Uncollided photons are those which have not interacted 2 Collided photons includes those which have interacted and account for the contribution from scattered photons 3 Buildup factors B are applied to the uncollided photons to estimate the contribution from scattered photons 0 One energy is used to estimate the B value to be used for each energy grouping o All energy groups all summed to obtain total exposure or dose 0 In some circumstances energy groups may be neglected but care needs to be used B Values for Multiple Energy Groups Multiple photon energies In the above expressions we have assumed a single gamma ray energy When a gamma emitting radionuclide emits more than one gamma energy the same expressions as above may be used individually for each gamma energy the appropriate values for S E penp p A on and or2 must be used for each distinct photon energy The total dose rate is the sum of results for the individual photons In some instances when photon energies are close to each other the photons may be grouped together by using the average energy and the combined yields A classic example of this is for 60Co which emits 1 gamma per disintegration at 117 MeV and 1 gamma per disintegration at 133 MeV Many shielding calculations for this nuclide have been done using an energy of 125 MeV and a combined yield 012 gammas per disintegration When energies are more disparate it is often not suitable to attempt to combine them When quite lowenergy photons are emitted along with moderate yield high energy photons one may often neglect the lowenergy photons in doing shielding calculations because they will not contribute appreciably to the shielded dose rate Such decisions must be made with some care however and generally improve with experience 0 Buildup Factor B Tabulated values of buildup factors for point isotropic dose may be found in a number of sources eg Bureau of Radiological Health 1970 Shultis amp Faw 1996 Such values are arranged according to shield material photon energy and shield thickness usually expressed as the product p w ich represents the number 0 photon mean free paths represented by the shield thickness Such tabulated values are useful especially if one knows the shield thickness and wants to determine the dose rate When one wishes to determine the shield thickness to yield a specific dose rate equation 4 cannot be solved explicitly for T because the value of B depends on T Solutions can be obtained by making educated guesses for the value of T lookin up the corresponding values of B and solving for the dose rates results can be plotted and the correct value of T determined for the desired value of dose rate Alternatively we can use an analytical form of the buildup factor that can be incorporated into equation 4 and through an iterative process using a mputer or calculator solve for the desired thickness There are a number of algebraic expressions that have been used to represent B Among the most popular is an expression referred to as Taylor s form of the buildup factor given by B MW 17 Anew 5 where A co and olt2 are constants for a given energy and shield material Tabulations of these parameters can be found in various engineering and shielding sources eg Shultis and Faw1996 2000 It should be noted that there are a variety of individual values of Anon and or that will yield the correct value of B for a given energy shield material and shield material thickness so different literature sources may ave quite different respective parameter values A few other analytical forms that have been used for the buildup factor are given below m Berger s form B 1a uTe where a and b are constants for a given energy and shield at 39 erlal Linear form 3 lelr1Twhere k is often taken as a constant eg 03 to 1 but actually varies signi cantly with shield thickness and photon energy not often a very accurate form and Polynomial form B 1 041T 6 uT2 1T3 where or 6 and v are constants for a given energy and shield material Taylor s form has the advantage that it has only exponential terms in HT and when it is have twrce as many terms because of the two exponential terms in the buildup factor Geometric Progression B galplop faction As would be expected high accuracy requires an elaborate buildupfactor ap proximation Le a formula with many parameters An extraordinarily precise for mulation called the geometric progression or GP approximation of the buildup factor Harima et al 1986 is the favored choice 39I 1 KW 1 X 1 BEn39 E K 1 1b 1Itr K21 K751 where dta11h1r 2 tanh 2 Kur CWT 1 tanh 2 in which a b c d and g are parameters dependent on the gammaray energy the at tenuating medium and the nature of the response Example values of the parameters for kerma in air as the response and for attenuation in air water concrete iron and lead are listed be o W Multi layer Shields Multiple component shields eg concrete concrete with signi cant reinforcing rods Multilayer shield Buildup l39actor lnlinite media B values are often used in calculations wiLh l39inite media especially shields made up oflayers ol different media CorTeetions to this approach are available but are not typically used in hand calculations 5 Commonly used rtile for 2 layer shields are l llshield l is closer to the source and ilZl ltZl then uscBuE w v uzxzt 2 Otherwise use B E urx x B2E ulxz Other rules LaMarsh l lfshicld media are alike Z do not differ by factor oIS or 10 then use shield With highest B value for the tour relaxation length or B E X w l 2 ll39the media are different with the low Z media closer in he sotircc then use B rom the second medium as is the first medium was not there or B1 w 3 If the media are dil l erent with the high Z media closer to the source and if E lt 3 MeV for heavy high Z elements then use B E pix ix 13103 use 4 If the media are dil39l39erent Wllh the high Z media closer to the source and if E gt 3 MeV for heavy high Z elements then use Bi E um X BJE Willis where min is evaluated at 3 MeV minimum u value ltut pgt Z W WP Geometry 0 Geometry point line area volume affects the flux density 0 Narrow Beam vs Broad Beam affects the amount of scattered radiation reaching the point of interest O O 0 Point Source Flux Density Fluence Rate D S Ar ie point on surface of a sphere with radius r Assumes radiation emission is isotropic In spherical coordinates T Zr A f f 139 dp r sin H LW ii i 39 vlfir Thus D S 4Trr2 0 Geometry and Scattered Photons Buildup factor 11161de and Colbmated Detector 11161de and Colhmated Source Target Nizterlal x IOBeH Broad Beam with Significant Scatter x Ioe H Narrow Beam with Insignificant Scatter 0 Shape of Source 0 For uniformly distributed activity integrate the point kernal to determine the flux density Line source S S L p IL SI 41Tr2 B expux d Area source 86 S A p IA 86 41Tr2 B expux da Volume source SV S V p IV SV 41Tr2 B expux dv Objective 0 Describe factors affecting exposure close and doseequivalent calculations and measurements from external sources 0 Perform calculations converting Gamma fluence to exposure close and doseequivalent Dose in different media Factors Affecting Photon Exposure Dose amp Dose Equivalent 0 Source strength 8 0 Energy E 0 Response R o Shielding Attenuation Factor A or expux o Shielding Buildup Factor B 0 Geometry G point line area volume Dose Limits for Shielding 0 Variable dose limits for shielding based on ALARA Type of facility Design criteria Practical factors Who is exposed public or radiation workers 0 Regulatory based limits include 10 CFR 20 based values lt 2 mremh and lt 50 mremy for the general public lt 25 mremy for decommissioning post ALARA clean up lt 5 mremh to be below Radiation Area lt 100 mremh to be below High Radiation Area 49 CFR Transportation Radioactive Package Limits Surface of package lt05 mremh lt 50 mremh lt 200 mremh lt 1000 mremh 1 meter from package lt 1 mremh lt 10 mremh 2 meters from vehicle lt 10 mremh Vehicle cab lt 2 mremh 10 CFR 50 Appendix I nuclear power plant limits 10 CFR 61 Waste disposal 10 CFR 71 Transportation especially for Type B packages 0 Facility Radiation Protection Program may contain additional limits 0 Internet References 0 httpwwwrsiccornlqov httphvperphvsicsphvastrqsueduhbasehframehtm httgwwwndt edorq Ed ucation ResourcesCommunitvCoIleqeRadioqraphvCC rad indexhtm httpwwwradgrocalculatorcomlndexasgx NIST Physical Reference Data XRav amp GammaRay NIST XRav Mass Attenuation Coefficients Section 2 httpphvsicsnistqovthsRefDataXravMassCoefcoverhtml httpphvsicsnistqovPhvsRefDataXcomhtmlxcom1thtm 00 00000 External Beta Dosimetry NE 404504 Lecture 11 Fall 23908 External Beta Dosimetry Why is it necessary Beta radiation exposure results in Shallow doseequivalent SDE Lens eye doseequivalent LDE SDE or LDE exposure may be significant gt10 of limits Prospective evaluation to determine controls for planned work I Retrospective analysis dosimeter lost or not worn high dose eg Calibration of equipment and dosimeters Assessment of airborne effluent dose ICRU Sphere Phantom Used for Dose Equivalent Index H1 H5 Shallow Dose Equivalent at a depth of 7 mgcm2 HL Lens of Eye Dose Equivalent at a depth of 300 mgcm2 HD Deep Dose Equivalent at a depth of 1000 mgcm2 30 cm diameter sphere Density 1 gml Composition of 762 0 111 C 101 H 26 N SDE and LDE Typically measure dose at entry point to tissue of interest Of cially measured at 7 mg cm392 depth average depth for body entrance to live skin layer varies with part of body Dose limit is 50 rem per yar for whole body and extremitis Hmlth effects of concern require a thrshold d eeded an include unacce table skin changes and abnormalities skin ulceration scar tissue formation DE Of cially measured at 300 mg cm392 depth lens of eye Dose limit is 15 rem per yar Hmlth effects of concern require a thrshold dose to be exceeded and include opaci cation of lens cataracts and migrate outward attening as they go to form a protective barrier of dead cells at the surface stratum corneum The stratum corneum is a multilayered 39 line structureucun i u 3939 39 39 39 5 hydrop quot Iobic areas 39 39 39 39 that are 39 Lquot and an 39 The epidermis is avascular contains no 39 and is nourished lgy tri me from the 39 e main ty e or the four principal types of cells which make up the epidermis are 39 t 39 and The o utermost layer of epidermis consists of 25 to layersof dead cells nhkNw off 1quot r I quot Hausha l aw14721 nfrkm VMM39 V K 77 V r mee 39 4 MWquot for head mm 3 mm 39 V II upJu an 4 uppu k5 demur V 3531121st Melssners colpuscle Z 57m for Iowa arm w fr Free nerve enaing bAck of hand Iowa 29 l v I l Emma ny s ukk 4px upper 4 Warm Sebacecus oil gland Anecxm pm muscle 1 39 10 0M 45 fam vfhaud 0am v r r mud fall a Pork 39 39 ISEnsmy newchber Eccrine sweat giand Paciman corpuscle I Aye A 7W7LML l odcrm Ia thus Pix 54 Adipose nssue Hair mm Han mllmle Eccnna sweal Halr lolhcle recenlor gland root haquot plexus skin shudurm lhrcc dwmensmnal mew of me 5km and unaevlymg sum news txssu The apldelmal and derma laws have been pulled apan at the ght came to revaal me devma pawn Cataracts occur when the normally clear aspirinsized lens oflhe eye starts to become cloudy impairing vision Pnslenor chamber legion behind in ms Anatomy of the Eye Aniaviav chambev vegmn between the came and ms Re ne Opin News i HMacuia cumy body and ciilely mustle Cumudive External Beta Dosimetry What does it depend on Source energy nucljde Source geometry Overlying shielding part of body clothing Distance away from body on skin surface Backscatter External Beta Dosimetry General Equation 0 k 0 dTdemll Dose is determined from ux density and average mass Collision stopping power Loevingei s equation Semiempirical equation used for point and extended urces Analytical equation that has been used in NRC publications Berger s equation Scaed Point Kernel Used in ICRP and NRC publications Federal Guidance Reports Solved by computer codes Average Energy Average 3 energy for i lransislion 5m k dENEE Equot1112mm 5 Average 3 energy for iquot Iransistion E E E E x1 11E 3 50 4 3 Average 3 energy per Iranalbrmalion decay E F E cammcnmm Beta Energy Spectra Carbon14 Name am TI204 The 2739de given Mn approximanas the theorental enunem or first forbldden bets spertrum 2 point sourcet The formalae and data used nre given by Hur h u U370 Accuraty at the spectral sha 5 beta energy and maximum beta energy is repurteu by I39mrHuU Wa to be v 11 m quadxalic eqLetLun we a tme Fermi function by mm W70 to estimate the heurenlcal spectra distribution The neff1czzns 2 lestea my Mudhglwa cemruing to z Integratlcn of He quadratic is easily performed alluvlng calculaticn of Te The equation Ednw given the promabxlity of observing a beta particle from a yoint source with unetxe energy between 39r and nut PTdT Hunx AynAZsz am 132 an n hare K is a constant CD is a correction factor Ao A1 A2 are rhe quadratic equation aeffjcients The above aquition ms an approximation mi he selw equuumn paqu Fltzw u 411 Hum T cndT Vher w 1r where FZW is the Fermi funetioll describlng he Ceunemne effect on Data parliclz emxsalnn 5 the total energy of 5 meta paxti1 2101 is the rust mass energy eqnualemte at an electron mmuhyqu quotWWWM S SV T At ooquot 1 5on 21 VII I570 Mass Collision Stopping Power 12 quot 15 1 E ZAEE 7 211 A oifl3 where A and MS have been analyzed for some common materials see handout 245 E715 unit conversion constant for erg cm Evans equalion is accurate to Within 10 for energies between 001 MeV to 10 MeV for electrons Average stopping power for multiple energies n mcmmmthds dE7ds I squot dE NE l1 STovvllslt POWER 4 quot ELEchoris A morc CXBCI treatment has been given by BUle this utilizes the Misha instead ofthc Tquot 39 39 39 he binding encrgy of thc arom c electmns represented abcv by hm is replaced With a suicalale average excitation potential I For a rgla vis c electron of luneuc energy T ille result is lLAe pz mnr T f 2 dz muc A In 2110 539 2 1 5 l 9 1 sin 7 MP The average excitation potential 1 has been shown by Bioch sorbet with a constant of CV 17 where 5 is nr to be proportional to the atomic number or me ah proportionality equal to the Rydberg energy 135 I 1352 Deviations rmm IL have been discussed by Brandt However deviations may 39nns or imeresi in health physics because of the puSIIlOII or 1 inside the logarithm where such deviations result in only a small Chang in the Hopping powe F 139 molecular materials the stopping powet may be written7 s dT 217NA2 ian a Fm dz mas5 A wharc 2 and Ax are the fractional mass abundance alomic number and quotdZ x 0quot53P5tz 21df frail flag Mr 0 0153 H X is MquMI Z 7 lit 71 Ed 9 lt A 393 Values or Paiamelers Used In Slapping rower Formula rm Various Maierials Paramcler H20 Air A lsobutnne Pb Cu Sn 5 24 0555 0500 0432 0555 0 396 0456 0421 a 39 17 166 154 179 l22 IAiI i3i atomic weight orthe ith conslitnenl and n and 13 are given by a 2 am In iinth1lZfz4 Value or LZlAQ and a ror several materials or interest e 81 The qua 39 39 Academy or SciCHCESANatio s are listed in Tab 2 t r71 17 In 3 70 5 32 243 1 E39Jln2 i 7 5 in 7 1 5 82 I h mos in Peneimiion in healh physics function or electron nal Restarch Cauncil Report 1133 U964 EnergyDependent Fararnclcr 5 Uses in Stopping incr Fnitnuic review 5 TMcV 5 000m 00 0013 00002 006 00003 008 0503 00004 01 0543 00005 02 0695 00006 03 0777 00008 n 0523 0001 05 0351 n02 06 0382 a 003 0 s 092l 0004 094 0005 2 0979 0005 4 0 989 L008 4 0994 0 S 099h 001 i 0997 n 03 8 D 993 MumZ MaVcm lzm dEpdx 4739 77 swam m m 002 006006 01 02 0106 Lo 1 J 5310 Mass napping powev of water 0r 1wenevgy ehnmns T Mew Elmmn smpping power plunrd as a funclion a may in wmcr air copper Indicad Kineuc 0 6X 1 n d m n d u alum Enemy 0 MeV 0039 gquot MEV cm 339 391 IMev anquot y39y Vield 10 v 0 7 30 000012 A 7 50 000020 7 7 75 KIWI 7 I00 000030 4 7 00 000070 000770 7 5 0093 I0 00330 7 000m 15 009l l 7 00002 50 0 x70 n 0004 75 0239 4 00006 100 0 1m 7 00007 100 04x a 000 mm 2 07 5 0 010 00020 700 kV 0 22 om 00036 Me 386 D 017 00069 4 0907 0 065 00sz 7 0991 0034 I 0208 I0 0 993 0181 0mm 100 n 999 240 0 mm MLV 0 999 20 0774 WATER LIQUID Eu 5 gt o E a E 54 an 5 S s m VVVVHH VVVVHH VVVVHH VVVVHH 1 10 101 102 Enugy McV Collision Snapping Power Radian39ve snapping Power 7 Tmal Slapping Puwer Air Dose Approximation rom Isotropic Point Beta Source Bela dose rate in rad hquot d7 D 576E539 39 u 1 ads where 576 E5 is unil conversion constant Beta dose rate in AIR in rad hquot for energies ABOVE 03 MeV DB 9 795 54B NOTE dEpds 7 MeV 01112 g Beia dose rate in AIR in rad h for energies above 03 MeV a I foot negleming air absorption bum30039C where C is activity in Ci and 300 979E537E10 dpsCi4 1 3048 emf Loevingcr s E nation Semiwmpiricol equation useful in bola losimclry Applicable 0 homogeneous in nite media of low Z For a beta particle point source k J I v12 VI 17 l vz cue ce vre 1 For r gt cu Jr k e 1 vr Jr is dose a disiance r 13 6 E k128 E9 nWEmforradperbc1adccay v 39v2 p is mass density in g cmquot anquot Em 0 036 13937 im 33 031 c r is issue depth in g 111392 u is Lovinger39s absorption coef cient in cm2 g v 16 22 e Equotquot quot EW 0 039 1 Cum 7 E 0 31 1 3 55 quotm E39 is average 3 energy for allowed decay Plane Isotropic Beta Source Useful for skin me nil aml personnel 39 39 39 quot N39RC allows averaging of dose over 10 cm2 for point sources Reciprocity theorem is used for point sources eg quothot particles or discrete radioactive particles Loevinger39s Equation for Plane Isotropic Sources For an infinite plane Jz IQBJ1 andr Solving c u 2 1 Jtz 2nkQ rElavtc 1lnv e at I z where Jz is rad B if2 7 k 8 E 9 rad squot and Qa is cm392 s 0 forzgt cv Beta Dose Rate From Submers n in Ainaor ne Clouds of Activity Assume beta activity is uniformly distributed within a spherical volume and that energy spatial equiliurn exist CPE v I within 139 A leaving Human body surface represents a plane surface within this sphere Therefore about half of 39 f e the beta radiation energy is incident upon anybody sur ac Dose rate in air from airborne cloud Y DumkZP 21 c z lt i n E where k is unit conversion constant C is eoncentrati on ofj h nuclide 39 ir density o12 E3 g emquot at NTP E is average beta energy in MeV 13 for i h l YK is beta yield in 3 d fori p IfC is in pCirnl and k 37154 dpspCi3600 shl6E6 erg39MeVl radg 100 erg Then D 888 2 C 2l El Yi in rad hquot NC is in Ci mquot and k 371310 dpsCil6E6 erg39MeVl radg 100 erg rad s39l Then BM 0229 E C 39 En E Dose rate to tissue from airborne cloud Rm 1000 2 ci i E Yl in rad 14 where C is pCiml 1000 888 times ratio ofmass stopping powers of tissue to air 113 or 114 Rm 0261 2 C 2 E Yi in rad squot Xfaparallel beam o is assumed then Rum 1000 2 Ci 2i 13 Yl cXpVKIE in rad h where V is Loevingei s lis sue absorption coef cient I is tissue eplh C is in Cim1 Rmue 0261 E C 392 15 Yi exp viri in rad squot C is in Ci m 3 Beta skin Dose Rate Beta Air Dose Rate Point source m an a1 10 cm 77 Point scurce In air a 10 cm insn sous we 2 E 3 sum g as 5 mm 5 W I 56 255113 EN EL 2n 52 um E m n EDS Ba name u U 050 I 200 250 05a 00 znu 250 Emax In MEV Emlx In quotEV Beta Air Dose Rate Bela Skin Dose Rate Plane sum In aw at 10 cm FIanE source 1 air an 10 cm 702 some 9 A u see 39 E s g 595 u 492 g 75m ansooa u m a mo a g nEna zusam E x we amp mam new name m m m 3 am I354 Ina Isa zoo 250 Emax in MeV KanoW loam quaint Au m W31 MW M quotWM Wu hurt men L20 mutn Bela Rm Dose Rules for an lsulrupil mm m u my 1m m umlulr m u mm m mmm a R m mm a I 3 1L mm W M m a mu mud Alum h R The mm n q m m g m m xadh A R on mm a I mm mm m 3 mqu um T39 quot 39 39 ql llu HI I MIM ind m n Inilt am Dnsc a s m mm m u m mm a plane sumcc r l nsz n1 1 gm 3w 3 7 n n um um mum uf lhc valuts 1 n a few pmm cxccm max m md nr Ihc mg Thu number m signiluzm gulu gnrcu m m Vahl um no u ummmw m dose tilts s Luvml Ax I In m an mm a 37 MIX mm s mu m ir Ilw dknc hm K I w 239 anh u I u fxuln a I mL39x pmnl Wm M quotIn 39Llnnx L n u ku39m Hzlxw139 11p m m 1 cm In mm a My am plan wun m 17 Mn u l m h a g 06 r 4h Fm a win sown n mumxe mg do Inn K 17 x rm mm Al 1 mm mGyh a m mum m maoanmmr mm ATOMIC n zmsy A use 74 Hem a be m ux mm x mm s m n mmm conunumuon of 11 cumm Curve axe mum wuh m depth of n 111 terms or length nu ma n mes wm appiy m the am rue 15 mm u use denuty a ssua w suusucuzea m the unsky u m In n M297 EA vwgrfc H A fwd IA 53 NI W W a 0 39 3 MA 7 1m1 LM plug HA 4 291 3 30 Beta Skin Dose Rate Irom Conlaminaliun Averagea ever 10 m2 at 7 mgom2 damn Rad paruCI a Em3x In McV gfnfl EMU w LaniAja Fiuwf39tm 2591M SCALE Mcnk CALcaLATrM a GinW quotmurmu lm nn H mnum Irplln m m he ccclr0n dose 39 Clurs al dcplll uraV x I an rug n 7 as a Ihncuon of cmiucd energy for mnnu as uhtaincd lrnrn eqns 4 and 15 are shown in Fig I 0 ans ll sut 1 hr Agam hesc are the depths orndi 5 1 pa on e bodv ID as cqu mus LII he ho rc ze mum lnr me average dcnlh of s n rug L39m rm oman cd in RI l uhh 39ulivn 26 ICRPTH aquot nu huwn in Fig Lh Iarc nnly 2439 rcalcr lhan m V In a a any 4 3M1 mam ahaquot 94 me m39 r 39VY FI VV TT T l V39YTWT VquotY391TVHV gt ELECTRON DOSEiFIATE V F FACTORS IN SKIN r 3 a 9 3 g m 7 E 39 i a D 1 m L J Hum H uu1 u mu 9 ammo ELECTRON zuzam tug1 I g I 1mm ummulc 15m annn ds l lhs m x u x rclnvn mug a monomerch muno mnmmd mman u mg bud wrracc xhc Elnuw m uu hmquot I lhr hnIIII mm Augml um MW 5 Nu m2 Ih w my munh m m We Nwlnlr 4 mme mum 4K1 mxrm quot I II I A HI xul w I m rIlI VIIquot H III 39 I III I V II A In 7 In 39 IgtIKI39 YII xm bin 7 vln I m K II m u I1 39 v m 39 1 m t Iquot 39 v III III III39 10 I1I HU39 yl1l V II Inquot v m n n I I III I v In V HI 1 x m39 51 III 1 MI HI39 In u kuv HI39 III39 IHIII IU39 tIII39 m u MI I I u m n vum w v w m39 I HI v I I II N W 39 gt hl 39 H X mquot I I H HI m In N v I q u I u I n m i HI I I m w I III I a w w m y u I m m n I IV I 39 I ur Mmquot I u A m I 4 II 39 1H n I I m I n x m39 X m 1 vanm K m39 H mm M W 1 III 39 YH X HI 1 II 39 lrWIv w mv RuHH xm H w y mi x w I x m I mum I mm m9 xan un llh K l m x v In tw I MIN I HI I 1 leu39 MIN Um I n N N i lt I k I II mu m u u I w AWNquot I xlII39 H 039 Ix Wm 1 7 III 39 Iquot HII Ah I III39 H39HI39 39xluc m ImwsvyV m mmquot ruu Mu my 39x V Mluwm u m w w m u M um I Mm N h w l Lyiwwh M Mya ve METEOROLOGY AND ATOMIC ENERGY mes 5H mm m 91mm Evhln am a con mnnue ulu am an vrxous depths H mm produced by an mmm m m cum secm4 rum an mm a hemAmalia quotmomma A39go u afafzMMI YEU if 1 124 if 14 VoU m J gymswanna A n 39 j J skim mm i f mme i imuuwm my mu 7 a ii We mamaMm 0 0 2 5 1 x Gum 777 4 VI a at 739 j a A aw 021 720 d 1 MW wHv M mmquot W 9110ng AJQIJM 4 ML ReamJory 914 NM TABLE 81 DOSE FACTORS FOR EXPOSURE TO A SEMIINFINITE CLOUD 0F NOBLE GASES Nuch de e nr gnr aSkinnwfsi gtAir or xBodzquotDFBi Kr83m 2335411 193E 05 7 56E08 KrBSm 197203 146E03 Lug oz 117E 03 Kr 35 1955 03 134E03 172E05 16 E05 Kr87 LUBE 02 973E03 67EU3 592ED3 mas 253503 237soa 1 szzoz 147502 Kr B LOSE02 LOIS02 mas n2 166E02 Kr90 783E 03 729E03 153E02 L56EOZ Xe S39lm 11EO3 475ED 1 156E04 915EDH Xe l33m 148E03 994E04 327E04 251E04 Xe133 105503 LOSEOn 353z 04 2345 04 X24351 739EO4 711204 336E03 312E03 Xe135 245E 03 186E03 192E03 151503 X9437 127502 LZZEUZ 151503 142503 XEIBE 475E03 413Egt03 921E03 853E03 ArM 328EOS 269E03 9 3DEO3 934E03 39ww Ws quotMW T523 n 4 288E04 288 x 10 EPA Documents Dose conversion factors for many conditions geometries tissue and organs and dose quantities Based on transport codes Tables given for several radionuclides i h r r AIMU n5 3 quot n ml Federal Guidance Report FGR 11 EPA 520188 0 l FGR 12 EPA 403R93081 FE II SUBMERSION IN All The old model oomidered me don from In airborne Donecmnliau o znm nabam mumh such as nob sis mdioiwlopu Body Ihieldin Ind IliumIon in air were uhn into leeounl by mnmin um only phmun udinum na bell pnnickn al39 curly 5mm hill on ma comn39bme In In whole body done For low energy hen emmcrs only dose lo xkin wn cumidgmd 11 new model consider ill shielding of oqms by outlying hula nd lb aqualion at Ihe photon speclnlm through some m menu on by n The due from ban paniclca i evluIed u depth or 007 mm for skin nd 1 deplh of 3 mm or In km of m eye Th worker quotmed lo be immersed in pur pun udionuclide and no ridillion from lilbome proge ix msidzmdo In meal cues m communion limil for submerslon in n mamam 39 in nile coud is land on munI irradiuion or the body it does no Ilka Imo lemunl either a n u w39 hin he body or me inhamion or ndiucliv deny produm cepuom m elemcnul mumn n 1 Ar 0 which aim xposuu of me lungs by inhaled mimy Iimiu llochl icllly conccnlulion in 39 r Dose Convemun mm 15v hquot pct an nrly or Organs um and rm mc quotemu Dose Equivalent ms hn snhnmnn m sunnxnnnnn kinds cl Radioale Nome Cam Based nn ICRP Pubhulvan w AH mun msn ms mu no an H xJEu mm mm 15E m menu 5 272m 154 upquot new m uEIs up up vs 4 ms or n 354 m m n a m Mus m m sr uu le im mm AM In N on LZEm m w mumquot on m 5km NE m 1743 2 sh in km uLm 17L n a 2 27pm quotK 12mm 35245 no u 4 up n xuahn mu xm XbBSm xem Gould m 17mm Wm w 62L 1 Lung AVE H mm as IJE lz m4 a FrH sr es un 22 I mm 9554 m 2 m 3741 xsu n mquot u 1 57911 me Newquot My 024 n u k HE n u mva 1m 14 us I 15 uA u 1 Jul n me In Ru aKL39 x lUquotquotund oon Wclglu mm In Ammitd m muduw ounvvrwm laclnr nymhennmcv nlgam aneml r Em n ddcnm39nuliun n um mm Mrwuccnlmlmn Source ICRP 1m FGKII Tahl 2 Exposure mm Conversion Faclors for Submersion KrIS KrBsm XeIJIm XnIJ Xe I 38 clcmenIl 603 ID quot L90 loquot 231 1039quot 395 Mrquot I w 335 mquot 126 IO quot 34 Iaquot 733 loquot 272 10quot 510 Iaquot 132 mquot 200 m 721 wquot L74 1039quot ml mquot 953 to 301 m 452 m 266 Hr L43 Hrquot 365 HTquot 69l IUquot 336 IO u I 2 1039 552 wquot 43 wquot 42I I0 quot 731 IV 106 IO quot Lu 990 ID quot 130 mquot 453 Itquot 210 10 quot L93 1039quot 595 mquot L68 10 quot 413 wquot 90 urquot Llo I47 433 mquot 257 mquot L4I Hrquot 399 IVquot an Itquot 111 IVquot 793 I0 L03 10 quot 40I Ioquot 42I IV 130 IV Lo 147 434 Wquot 433 mquot 4431 mquot 704 Ivquot L93 Ia m km per Unil Air Cancu Surfw 9I0 IVquot 22 IfquotI 152 mquot 935 mquot 224 IIIquot 536 m L37 wquot 35I m 375 3939quot 443 1aquot L52 quot1 quot 343 NTquot 343 l 39 345 147quot L15 10 L29 wquot 3 wquot 57019quot 596 Mr 125 w 01 Hrquot 737 w us IITquot 351 wquot 2I I mquot 934 mquot 247 lo 169 IV 632 NTquot 333 m 472 HTquot 67 m39 1 NTquot 903 quotTquot 376 347quot L3 147quot L39 Hrquot 557 mquot 117 mquot 655 1039quot 247 HI Iquot wquot 795 m 659 wquot 91 mquot 231 wquot 594 mquot 207 wquot ll2 HTquot L39 mquot 230 m 295 w L42 mquot 374 Hrquot 464 Mr 136 wquot 730 wquot 824 39quot 392 mquot 423 mquot 424 wquot 16 wquot 7 I z w 439 IV 339 quotIquot 332 wquot L9 10quot s a per nqm Remnod r 333 wquot 175 Itquot 214 IO quot 1quot Inquot L46 In quot 372 147 532 mquot 303 347quot 722 IO39quot 973 mquot 162 mquot 376 47quot 242 HT Eff Ll Itquot as Ir 554 30quot Skin 137 It IA 470 w sun Lu Irquot 142 wquot no Irquot 1 Ifquot 401 IVquot 334 wquot 361 wquot 7334 Mrquot L95 wquot 1 a 2 s A a v as C mam g 04 45 E as E w 104 a 2 g 3 14 39 01 1 1n 5 ELECTRON ENERGY MeV 4quot 06 Conversion me 39lcients relating 31007 HY DI and me to Lhe 11mm of manaeuemcic electrons m 10 1 incident on Dan ICRU sphere normal to the Cross etal 1991 Elsmmn Energy MGV Fig 1125 Electron skin dos cocf cicnl for submersio conmminaled air F 6 I I2 3 395 e A i E q o 395 m 3 a i r m gt m 3 E W39 In an ANGLE OF INCIDENCE a 1mmquot variaeinuorairen ml dole aquivalanl H39o01uwich angle of mciamce m for a given nance 53999quot E 399Y MW of monoenergetic electrons The numbers on the curves quot k MV Cross 1955 F15 mu Enemaquot skin am cne ininnvc rm quot9mm ANNAA m J Vnrlntmn m Absorbed Dose with Energy and Angle of Incidence Mnowuyt39h elmm trim4 47 quotquot w n mm I 1 MW A 07M M am 1 0 amxm z 0 7m 41 r MW 7 LCJ 4 va I 51 l fn 1 W W x 11 I 2 gr r 3 1 ILEL 05517L4V9r Hy rmwquot f quot on 039 39g PAM W Tf 31 muh M W quot1 1 6 quot fad MW a KS m 15w 1711 HMA y w w W m Wltrg rr t r w k Milr1 3 m d A yr mm 3 y vhf9 wc 71391 f 1 6131 mm b 33 randL Ly rahJim M45 L U l39W c K I39R7i31h mm 4M le MrV I I c M 3l1 L 75994va l l X 11th m A M 0an 7 l i y i w e I39V 175 M m LNh vvlm v AamcIT wye any A aquot k 44 WW 3 mm a or mug am mk A J sz AM WM r a of 71w4A L7 wk Law M LW39FLV W 74 77W 52 5 1y V1 r v D 71 MA by Mm m LW W Xffcfl lay e 7 n 11quot a law f L2 ergu I My d U 7 All c 14 y hi397 7 37 b M nnb i Mark My Sufi W L1 91 am raJqu un 9quotquot 3 2 N14 124 lm 1 slum 4n an My 31 1 XML uA 511 1 Ysu m a 0140131 Lk zvn zKXEJ H mindA M1 11 n all I cm 5 mg M Mg0y W cmddz 40quot an a ah lm c 57 y m 414 r mums um m rJA y 117 1271 4 4km w 0117 Jr aha 1n ragA 12 mu 44 MW 4 21M A JAMS a zm 11 13 galK 1 MAW774 Md 64447 Cuquot bumg 41 1 MI rl a m W x 4 39 51 D a 7 X quotI MJA A A LA L Wm M m u Hf My quotquot 5 7 W2 Zr 7 3 SvL m 5 I HamA IL 7191 I 31m W 4 393 AFJ Y N K I X 1 rMpu mm m loi qd 39au h A 10 A quotY m m w m 79 S A quot1 Vquot L M a m c M47 179 fl g MmL man 7 119917 157535 y 513473 k ow 739 I 91 PP W L l a a M pg 033 ML yr Up Vjfm 6quotqZ W e a Jam MA4 L AW Kain alum 755 39 15 109 i 3 7 M M9 439 7 7ELX X lnl x rmyxE mzrl a 1 5 CaLulkh ML mutual 50 M An 4w MPmu Wm h an Mn 4 4quot 2 AmeVE u m 31 25MAd an 1 W KHzz menZ IE35IEAQGXMT ft m M M4 M Z7 mm 4m Ma aob Maw 5m 063 v07 rad 9010153 m1 ZINEu law LE 5 quotf 0 15quot 717 MM 39ltquotirWw mer m M Kuwf tICIIP 1a lb Ft 147 ZNm zap17 Ir afg msq Egm7 lugzy 55 WINJquot mm m km mm SvEN11f63 If8ID23n2 13 156744 V U Wimpy Data and Calculations Regulatory Guide 1109 available at Meteorology and Atomic Energy 1968 Federal Guidance Reports FGR 11 and 12 available at Varskin available at RSICC r NIST stopping power calculations for fixed energy electrons Example Problems NE 404504 Fall 2008 Lecture 24 Internal Dosimetry III Cobalt60 Class W Example Metabolic data f rom ICRP 30 I Transformation calculations for Respiratory tract GI tract Body uids Systemic organs SEE factor calculations Organ dose equivalent calculations CDE Effective dose equivalent CEDE ALI and DAC calcUlations METABOLIC DATA FOR COBALT l Metabolism Data from Reference Mun lCRP l975 Cobalt content of the body 5 mg of the liver 0 mg Daily intake in food and uids 030 mg 1 Metabolic Model a Uptake to blood Data from balance studies with humans indicates a fractional absorption of dietary cobalt from the gastrointestinal tract of between 02 and 095 Harp and Secular 1952 Engel er al I967 Hubbard ct a1 1966 Valberg et 11 1969 Absorption of radioactive cobalt usually administered as C001 is generally rather less and appears to be related to the amount of cobalt administered Paley and Sussman 1963 Smith et al 1972 Evidence obtained from the inhalation of cobalt oxide by man Sill er 4 l964 suggests that there is only minimal absorption of this compound from the gastrointestinal tract Because of the above considerations fl is taken to be 03 for organically complexed com pounds of cobalt and for all inorganic compounds of the element except oxides and hydrox ides in the presence of carrier material f is taken to be 005 for oxides and hydroxides of cobalt and for all other inorganic compounds of the element ingested in tracer quantities b Inhalation classes 39The lCRP Task Group on Lung Dynamics 1966 assigned oxides hydroxides halides and nitrates of cobalt to inhalation class W and all other compounds of the element to inhalation class D Experiments on mice lCRP 966 and dogs Barnes at a1 1976 are in agreement with this classi cation However experience in man Newton and Rundo 1971 indicates that insoluble compounds of cobalt may be much more tenaciously retained in the lung than this classi cation suggests For this reason in this report oxides hydroxides halides and nitrates of cobalt are assigned to inhalation class Y and all other compounds of the element are assigned to inhalation class W Evidence from experiments on man Paley and Sussman 1963 Smith et aL I972 suggests that tracer quantities of cobalt are only poorly absorbed l39rorn the gastrointestinal tract Further the experimental data suggest that cobalt oxide trans located from the lung to the gastrointestinal tract is only poorly absorbed Sill et al 1964 For these reasons fl is taken to be 005 for cobalt reaching the gastrointestinal tract following inhalation mum 39u pc ofmhxll lmluion Clul w Y Radionuclide s x wquot s x mI Co AL 4 x m a x o 1 x 1 x w39 DAC A a x a x xu quotCo ALI z x mY z x m J x 1 x m me 7 s gtlt 1 x 1039 Co AL 3 x 1039 z x 1039 1 X z x m7 DAC A x 1 x 10 quotCo ALI e x w s x 1039 4 x 3 x 10 DAC z x 1 x 104 quotCo ALI leo39 leo39 3x1 2x10 DAC 7 w l X I X 10 Co AL 1 x 1039 1 x ml 6 X I x 10 we J x 5 x w1 wcn ALI x10 1 gtlt I x IO 5 x lo 5 x mm ST W St u DAC 7 a x 10 4 x m39 Cn AL 1 x 10 a x ml 1 x m 2 x w39 DAC I x m 9 x 10 no ALI IX 10 1 x m a x o39 5 x IO39 2 x 10 2 x o39 5139 wm sr wu DAC 1 x w z x w mun W cunnn39rzn nos munnunr n1 nlcrr oncus on nssun m rum M nut ACTH svaqp av c0411 5151 115115119 cuss cuss x 5rltoz c3zu1 zszoz hungoz 5139 IuLL 5 FALL LUNGS LUNGS L39AlII Lilll 29212 IZlIZ 1o 19 an 11 16 any 5 nu 51 nu LDl ll 20 2 manrm CONHITTED nus murmur 111 um onus on 1155 1111 mu or nun Acnvnr 1svuq1 or C S l 9 MM cuss u cuss 1 5z02 l1n1 tszo2 5soz 51 11111 51 run 1111155 111m 3231 32343 Lina11 Luzu 51 11111 51 11111 12243 12213 111111111 1111th on 11111111 In no Dunn 1111 coucznnlnuws Inc 110 rlk r011 osnn 1511551 Luann 9M 1111111191 cuss I cuss 1 152 z3 n1 Ll02 5zuz 211 n I 1 11 1 11 15 101 15 m1 5 11111 5139 um Cd 71139F x1same SPECIFIC EFFICTX39E ENERGY Ila PEI GIAH Pl TRANSFDINII IDII 039 1360 5 5 ouucz vusns 51 an 11 mul mums cannu can 011 cnnznr 11sz will 12111ka 152115 11105 52205 1120 Lil06 1szos 1112151 1uus 11205 LilUS 13205 Innas 112415 I unov 95105 19205 h6l05 2212415 auras Luz us Lnus 212ou LIZ06 152 05 Luzus 202115 122 05 51 11111 231505 LSlOll LIIDI sun115 1zns 17Ius m 11111 Lszos 17m 55ou 331145 Luz05 15105 111 1111 6607 LizL75 Luz115 15241 21zos 11205 monumed LIMITS FOR INTAKES or RAUIDNUCLIDES BY unnkrvs Ll v9Ius 15Aos 102n5 353os 252ou 15205 rnynus 1nos IIIA06 15ln6 66307 593ni IIros uxznns I7DG 6Il05 3 9zus sos 2l06 1eros Avnznan l7lDS os vsz oc uns 17205 2Ios nausea or NUCLIII Tlllsralnlxxun 01 so IIAIJ n SOHICB achls on rxssnzs run any xursz or Activ1rl rnAnsrcnnArxonSnqp or cosu 39 9quot HillquotX9 olulu anss l CLASS I 5z oz 3o rs az vsoz LVIGS 10 06 10 07 r EOWTIIT 1 on 10 a 59 n 15 oz uLx courzwr tl2 u 33 on 21 on LLx calrle 52 an 60 an n2I m vaua n0x on 2u as 12 as oruzn 1150 36 as 22 as 101 no I as sazuog connxrwau was EQUXVLENT xu rnncrr onanus on TXSSHBS c VIII INTIKI DP WWI ACH39H Y SVqu 0 D O QEAL xauagarzez CLASS I t5zv2 lezDI 525 GDIHDS GOIADS LUNGS 2lgt09 W ZIII 0 09 Lil 07 5 21 MIA 0 0100 aRzAST slang nulls LII09 iVlID H2l09 I9 17 su n nnuxal n quotInlol l HABHDI LIED9 55209 112209 2c 17 ea LHIGS Lvlcs Lawns H7ll0 ul09 362390 2 2 96 s IALL 51 IILL LL WALL LEE09 31209 51141 quot5 l5 EDI IL IALL EL WALL LIVER 5710 96lO l LEE 21 Ii 60 Conurued comm n 111 inLL LL llll llllxlnsl LIIDB lIl 30l I D 9 3quot lT DE vazw LIVII 2sltn 3lton Ilnlxnbzn nannxnnzu 39 zvzoq 31lc9 w1os ITIADG IIIGHTID C ntTTln nus zourIALGT xu wannar oncnns on rxssuzs rzn IFTIK or nuxr nctxvxTx svgqy ur cn su HM HM LHIE CLASS w CLASS 1 662412 x sznz 5 5202 GoIAns uoIAns Gu lns Lunss 19zIo 15299 1enq zna aIzA57 awznsr unansr 1521n 75119 522 u a nnnnuw n nannau n nxnnow s Io sszIo 51310 LUNGS LUNG LHKGS oIu 59210 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9quot750 5v 5quot fzmmIrfo 5 Z A IILE In r PM a a cuss h wu 7 a 0F 147I7039 57 quotA EMdADER quot1 29 us Iv wmunay a ma ha TAKGE H10 7 Mr 1417 mlr 39 T H 49quot s 6quot murch a g A IDVEYJ 2 z E PIAma 3 E SPA 54 39 m 5 grams 2 3 516 a tlwyzs 91 lm 1 4 39 1544 17511 5 4W0 Alf M77 QMwarrp y m2 M fre Im MAm 503 10 my 454 mast w yew A flakmy cum law 74 w J quot 5657quot 5 new mm quot Muffr a7 an I 59 M I 4 5 775 9 Ir 5quot PM TilM NilAll TlA EJ 45 RialWIFE VIJ 4 147 695 fwdz 75 v M m 5w 5 yamMR a an w a 47mm rMse39rr kr 190 T 5V 5 I zyA s son1105 elf5739 aw MilWM xysk LLI zth 9 EAO mu05 39 Wm IV 005 Zer lr 79 9 as l A 005 v77393 7 5w 53 5 5 6 5 5 5355629 53m2 3 Table LEI Conl39d Nuclidc Classf Inhalation DAC uCicml Ingestion W 005 Y 005 W 005 Y 005 W 005 Y 005 W 005 Y 005 W 005 Y 005 W 005 Y 005 W 005 Y 005 W 005 Y 005 W 005 Y 005 1 10 1 IOquot 1 10quot s 10quot 1 104 3 lo7 5 w 3 10 4 10 3 l0quot 7 l0quot 1 m39 0002 0001 3 m 2 nr 7 ms 39 n my m Nuclidl C lul f B Sui Thymid Remain Elfedin w s 7 00 Hr 656 m L7 nr 734 m 155 HTquot 195 m 77 mquot 5quot 10 v s mquot 22610 an m HI 0 7 laquot 0 wquot m wquot 9I4 w m Itquot cue w 5 ml 234 m 215 w39 z 7910 MI 739 L6 m In quot739 412 m A nquot Y 510quot 2J6 10quot 142 l0quot 591 10 us Inquot 25 039 29I IIT39 670 lo 107 Iquot Sn51 w s 7 Lo no L56 NT 405 ur ua w39 I37 mquot 310 405 wquot m Itquot y 5 ml I 24 10 37510 169 Hquot m wquot 452 m 17 urquot 522 Inquot 16 It Cosl w 5117 6 52 HT a II w 7941 0 mquot a 1 wquot 552 l0quot I as U39 171Ir H m39 o n to 911m l l 92110 693 wquot 312 w 159 W 1 Coslm w s w 49 mquot 1 wquot a Krquot 14 w 2 quotrquot 109 wquot I90 quotTquot u I39quot Y 5 quotr 3 u wquot m mquot I 34 ml 492 m 311 wquot 469 IO39quot 132 loquot 254 Itquot Cwo w 5 IDquot 40 IOquot 4 l6 mquot 3 57 I0quot 4 25 mquot 351 10quot 3721039 7 as 10 Ma Ir39 v 5 NH 76 w39 m 10 us w39 I71 10 HS 10 152 m l 531 1quot cm W 51039 I91 mquot in wquot no w z u mquot m wquot 135 w 5l6 w 3 1quot our 67IIU 81610 66910 719w IJZIO39 Miltquot Y5l0 l1ul0 Ulw 71410 65410 sumquot Mam 221m 950mquot P RTL LE SIZE CORRECT0N Hm mm m 0 64mm 04 p m M fr Hm Ixm 1 0 MM or am 5 5 HID MMquot KIM70 WHfKE DP HIm Dr J 7 5 mm 2 49 THE Fmrrmy a 775 oMMTTED nos saywi LEA7quot Hm lMn IN THE REFEK 5m nun5 RESULTN6 RESPEC TilELY FA aM DEIOSTION 11v THE NP 7395 MID3 REE0N5 0F 77 RESPR T Q TR CT FaR I llm DIAMETER MET5L5 cuss w to Maria 512 MPICTON XIIMPLE HalalMn 7n JaV DS Hazm 44054 EdiWW ozowa MHz050 gt I 007 02 quot4 7 4 summer 390 MI w all 1mm 7 MM EDAIDS k MvMow A was LL hm REM40x55 39tumwrra 5V 0 g 4 50 IHEi 5y 5quot My X040 5 5 Au marrylung SV 57 4445 a 445 3 076 4445 ajzlynz i Example calculations Class W 2060 calculations MS Excel file r w ls I More examples given on followingrpages Name 9 NE 434594 Due Date 4 1 After an intake of 1131 bioassay results indicate an initial intake of 205 E4 Bq U 344E9 transformations SEEThy Thy 001 MeVgd ALI 50 uCi nonstochastic for thyroid ALI 200 uCi stochastic w 003 Given that Calculate thyroid committed doseequivalent CDE from this intake using 2 SEE factor 5 34 447W r M 7oo 55535 l Calculate thyroid CDE using the nonestochastic ALI r 5 7 5quot quot 001 Au 105m 5 17 391 liq or I X Mu 563 5V 1 c Ca ulate the contribution of thyroid dose to the committed effective dose lc equivalent CEDE f 47 z 39 one we can gm 2 MW 11035593 SI 7e i 5v us 464 Va 504 39anz EXAM R For an oral intake of 1 HQ of quotSr in the form of a soluble salt calculate S a UL in transformations 5 b SEELLI Wall LLI Contents in MeV gquot dquot from the primary beta panicle only 5 c Oral ALI based on the dose commitment to the LLI chjr W706 er MUM Mr M214 1 am L 1 2r ma o a linkY 720 I39VEW 7v 144541 575 71 7 2g may WW ff55 8 f Tr I J 2K 90 glutEmu I J qw xl 7 a xLquotZWW 5AJ Mn Jay d MESAquot LLI 55 ELI Ahm m hawknaij 43m 2 4134 9 LLRNMA YEcQ IlHTes n a L Jagamylm 2 b SEE Lawn T 033 quot 1453 M 2 ms 901 c m LLI NWA4mmlib mil AWN 4L 1 15 51 H law an ElamHarm HT 07051 Ls CAIMLAI I39 4th 24571 07 71 pr T Mr vnck plM5 lo M 1 The nonstochastic Annual Limit on Intake ALI for Class D Sr90 is based on the committed dose to bone surfaces Decay scheme Sr90 Yv90 gt Zr90 Y90 exists insecular equilibrium with Sr 90 l 1 Total Transformations Nuglide Man MB Inta all 1313 rflt Sr90 Trabecular Bone 79136 41E5 MeVgd Cortical Bone 19137 24E5 MeVgd Y9O Trabecular Bone 79E6 19E4 MeVgd Cortical Bone 19E7 12E4 MeVgd H5 05 Sv iquot39 radiation Hwyr 16E10 E 2 Us 2 SEET Sj in Sv S j i jquotI radionuclide Given the above decay scheme data and equations calculate the nonstochastic ALI for Class D Sr9010 points rawm masmu m4 9E7246ze Ij 47 I 7357 5v 5 5w Au o r 5 7 55 at c 7 as 14 iuAuHWmliwav 7 7 SI A mLJ sz m cm 2 M4 AJ 20 01 4455154 was Estimate CEDE using the data below Stochastic ALI for Ra 226 is 133136 dpm Breathing rate 20l m Airborne particulate filter is sampled at 21pm and contains 133 dpm AHAma Jio difm If ails Q Awmlqm 54m M 1 III3W 45ml 41ml L605 5 3704 x 05 55455 Smm 31 69t 10 CFR 20 lists the following ALI values for l uv239 Class Inhalation AU uCi w 6133 lt4 plan shJim iL 54 Bone Surf 4 09 W In NM39 uidMn itali IE2 w aiwm infi Y 2E2 Bone Surf 213 2 a Which inhalation class is more limiting W 4 63 3 ML lt 2 91440 b Calculate DAC values for each inhalation class 3 w MC M xquot Lei 35 ZJACmi 2WD m Du um y Ma iii vampML J IE I c 39Which ALI is more limiting for inhalation class W stochastic or nonstochastic N Hutu g gz lt I m 6 OPEN BOOK EXAM NE 404591A TEST 2PART r 14 NOV 94 NAME umga 1 2f 11 72 13 14 Refer to the attached pages for the following Questions Which inhalation class is appropriate for a 32 labelled phosphate compound a Class D Class W c Class Y List seven SOURCE organs a through g below for INHALED radioactive phosphorus a u is e Lower wit iWiNL b SJnMaJ f 734 3979 919 mm c Small hoWl39WE EA 8m mt um MM 9 aw 17 fulesi rluz Which of the following is FALSE regarding bone dosimetry of 12lquot a 32F is assumed to be retained on bone surfaces hi Bone surfaces are distributed equally in cortical and trabecular bone c Bone surfaces and Red Marrow are target tissues AFTlt S fraction is independent of beta particle energy or material deposition pattern surface vs volume in bone for beta emitting radionuclides If the chemical form of 37P is not known which inhalation class is more restrictive a Class D Class W ct Class Y OPEN BOOK EXAM NE 404591A TEST 2PART l 14 NOV 94 NAME um Refer to the attached pages for the following questions Calculate the number of transformations U which occur in the lower large 105l intestine LLI following an ORAL intake of 1 Bq nszP SHOW ALL WORK in u 27 2 ag it a e E irr Aquwhawmum 11 1 I J g ail 2 2 7m 43979quot Mgr4 E Z 211447 M 2 ramM27447 AFSF Z 411quot 21ZVJA1J Jami E Hui mg WHOM r I 25033 1 iv 0 gm o l MS f M5 5 9amp7 1M LIZ 5 7 IMA1IIHM51L1N 106 Calculate the SEERed Marrow Trill Bone for P SHOW ALL WORK I Fde 556 me it W Mkm y 5 F 0675 MAV a 7 Al me em 0 MM 3 seem M W JJE i MM 791 m OPEN BOOK EXAM NE 40459IA TEST 2PART I 14 NOV 94 NAME 4mm kg Refer to the attached 3 es for the followin uestions 107 Calculate the committed doseequivalent H5 to the BONE SURF following an INHALATION intake of 1E6 Bq of 1 AMAD CLASS D 32 Give answer in Sv SHOW ALL WORK t M M WA 1 154 111 H Misz as Asset vj I Lee0 manes Is s l L 215 99600055 5 Ha a 5399 5 3 5V 108 Calculate the activity which gives a committed effective doseequivalent X WTHSM of lE3 Sv 100 mrem for an INHALATION intake of lpt AMAD CLASS W J2P using Give answer in Bg SHOW ALL WORK 0 2L Reported committed doseequivalents per unit intake and wT factors 2 it 7 0J1 ms7 ML 24w Ivxzi 36 5 7 SyM I39 Z 4 Alan l Exv I I6 3SV 2355 3 3 1 165 Iii r 4 b Reported ALI value 0053 E3Sv IE7 1 j gss g Limits for Intakes ol Radionuclides by Workers ICRP 30 METABOLIC DATA FOR PHOSPHORUS a Uptake to blood Dietary phosphorus is well absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract as are various inorganic compounds of the element In this report i has been taken to be 08 for all compounds of the element b Inhalation classes All compounds of phosphorus are assigned to inhalation class D except for phosphates of some particular elements which is assigned to inhalation class W This classification is adopted here Inhalation glass 11 D 08 W 08 c Distribution and retention Phosphorus entering the transfer compartment is assumed to be retained there with a halfrlife of 05 days Of this phosphorus 015 is assumed to go directly to excretion 015 to intracellular uids where it is a s med to be retained with a halflife of 2 days 040 to soft tissue where it is assumed to be retained with a halflife of 19 days and 030 to mineral bone where it is assumed to be permanently retained Phosphorus going to mineral bone has a half life of 1500 days However permanent retentlon may be assumed since radiological halflives of all isotopes of phosphorus are much less than 1 0 ays Phosphorus going to intracellular uids or to salt tissues is assumed to be uniformly distributed throughout all organs and tissues of the body excluding mineral bone Isotope u y 4 39 quot quot L l39 1 an L quot distributed in mineral bone and those with shorter halflives are assumed to be retained on bone surfaces 01 o GENERAL EQUATIONS AND OTHER DATA j wYHmTi 005 Sv ALIZ wTHEW per unit intake 005 Sv DAC ALI2400 Bqma ALI HEM per unit intakeMAX 05 Sv H50T 1SEA10025Z U539ZSEET Sl5 05 SV SEET S YEQAFI SL My 115 A5 l1l As 24 dayquot A5 6 dayquot AW 18 dayquot Am 1 dayquot BONE AFT S Values E gt 02 MeV E lt 02 MeV Source Organ Taroet Oraan B in Bone Volume B on Bone Surf B on Bone Surf Trab Bone Bone Suri 0025 0025 025 Cort Bone Bone Surf 0015 0015 025 Trab Bone Red Marrow 0 35 05 05 Cort Bone Red Marrow 0 0 0 DECAY DATA lor P32 Half Life 1429 days Decay Mode is B Yield is 1 decay Average E 0695 MeV MASSES Bone Surf 120 g Trab Bone 1000 9 Other Tissues 65000 9 Red Marrow 1500 g Cort Bone 4000 g Total Body 70000 g 7 Limits tor Intakes ol Radionuclides by Workers ICRP 30 TARGET Cort Bone Trab Bone Total Body Gonads Breast Red Surf Wall LLI Wall NUMBER OF TRANSFORMATIONS OVER 50 YEARS IN SOURCE ORGANS OR TISSUES PER Bq OF P32 INTAKE SOURCE ORGAN INHALE cuss Lungs ULI LLI Cort Bone Trab Bone Other Contents Contents Tissue D 18E4 I 1453 I 2553 I 155 I 15E5 I 28E5 COMMITTED DOSE EQUIVALENT IN TARGET ORGANS OR TISSUES pen Bq OF Psz INTAKE SvBq and WEIGHT FACTORS TARGET ORGAN INHALE CLASS Gonads Breast Red Bone ULI LLI Lungs Marrow Surl Wall Wall Inhale 42E9 26E8 Class W wT 012 wY 012 ALI tor P32 Inhalation Class D ALI tor Paz Inhalation Class W 357 Sq 1E7 Bq Gamma Photon Example Problems NE 404504 Ih W72 wdn M1 4 Nagm MAE Assam 199411 W W7 mu MM M at m m Aleppmj Jam 1241 W11 Md 104414 d 20 mkA A 444454 of fayLag I Asam MM u 5 Caquot 7 a WWW MA 77 ux 4qu 75gt M 007 Wrw an Mm j y I r 1 s f V 3 y Wanem E E 9 paling D MMMMXJ 90 a T W My fronquot 1 MINMUaagc U13 1911945 1 pl emu AZwa 14 Jlanudc 4sz 1 4 MM M Mm WW W Asz pm y M lDWN 039L WW 0 0 mo froduug Lg MW 10M 0 of 0123 Am 00 6 A 70Eo064 4 A 737qu 01 0 c 52 56 WmHM u Wm M A1F1L P F c7111 quot 37705 305561 52 LIJ IL m 11105 U A s aN we 77o oa gt663 Whig a 73575 lw 41quot 5 354 yon o quot21 11623 235 A gun242 I 7 nZz37q554 27265 T 2 7294 frMMIquot ypo o my L MW 4 my 4W2 MW 4 I m N l7 Maiazwyamqm msm d 397 5 MN 1 anquot 22 cm 77 139 0 1 7922 9111 MR Y akaJL a mega E m mug 5 0 tr Mr A Wik um AHA run a 4m i Z 7 a N lo 7 F1 Km 0 N gt A y c If NI a L N3 N1 E47 542M N3 7245 21 A19 An e quot39e 739LF zZJ Aim m 97 o 0237 I a Ma A la A456 A u 5er v VIId amp YM 57175 WW 3761041 lt04quot mm mm zwwo o39 003 s 65 5 75 m a 061 125 m ISF lb p344 Do l 57557 154 9 7w 023 77m 7 375 w 077 a 0 M754 335m am 0 003 W F 7 m e x quot 72 3595 am Ag 11650 WEI 6m 79 z A s6 57 7 N 1 Ma 57MT 7 v 44 JZ jy m lt6 Z 5 luged ltM HM gt A A g awr7Mxm 4 ml mm 17674 Mail mus9 mmv n AIIOnll 5 f AWN774 D Iva ZoaLVI E 9244 mm d ma 7 9 mm Mu my E mwmumw mm 33x Fri 4AB2 IIF7 2376 n 437 q 4 HIE InnWu I 4762an dxrzAvseHJ Y 39 t Xa e A MAM WM quot MT anew47 X 6596552 47 Ma I l air 5Wquot mm 1 W A A 01 M 1m 0150 M7611 40 47933 No Mm 4 Iquot 5m 0 3 257 02557 262 m 9474 4 a my 4747 2nt 0750 1W mm mm 237 omw mm 39 Eiuia po lm FT T 39 4 TIMW 3 e M maradazssmwm 1 M d 775mi 39 clt u Ividal 1 quot 12397J39 ul Mm a 01 1 Wrm 1L barM W 7 a 3 4 07 MM MbW maxLani 01 yT ms w 092vo7rz3s e m 739 zLLwyo 0973II339I T I 37 t 0712 395F3 0IT 1177 4 7 1355 l33 J UM 73L 33 Sam 5 10 01 031 57 939 h 01 7 al l 55 01 57 4177 Zwaz aV 13 0u 4m m Maw0 1 4335 mjml 6T Ur7 Chin39qu a1 Lou W7 W1 39 7 WWWT WM 7 X39U NE 3 5139 Aha 39 4145 Z39M JE7U17FIlopzsor la39 we 17 mumo zas 4m 4157 9X 0014364 g 01 man 3 mquot 1 4m 5 2513 2 1 3 ma01 io7s 4e a W SElt77esw r 29m 4 59ng IVA Mmeu a7 aloula k InkA i ctrJ 9 12 air 1 HIV Wham 4 4 mmg JWMW 03 um TCMLJ a yonull Hzaont R quot a I H i mud Scum M m Em wdh am bk Mop La1 fm walla S I M A l Madam 177M imamquot quotHA Sum P410 all 4h MIA may MM SW7 57 JonMA H1 and W 0R dou l39m 1 m MW39FL AN hall1N7 a I QM 39L 5V Sahib X Mum 5 273 a 111le 4 7 L HZI0Mcu 59 g r VWRSc 2955 76 L 39 S L r 29 L J 39 k Xw lb Ha E 4 E Wk an A L 1 m H mm m7 I AW Q m ml Latz IV on zmkIL 51W 7 Cm39PpI 5505 j0n 14m7 my i A L1Rl dull l X 2 j 61 725391inl75 7206IK n ingAl X 10 f 22 3 A ny in mwddw1 ym y d E 61414 mm or W m W m In lm M W m udf m M a L 1 9W MDAJ W J A JM A NW buAMup er39 i 54 1047 1 LIME ab c z 4 m 1me quotJun ACAMIS uT o M nrre A 4 51 It zr uy d wnz quot0075 61041 l s xpwr 174 f 51430 swam2 13 E I 643 jsgasrm 00257 1006 IU Lat6 m n ma mm arm4m Li Answer the following using the data and equations provided 10 a L 15 b For the geometry depicted below no shielding present what is the relation hip between the distance R and length ofa line source L at which the ux density 1 ol39 a line source is within 1 of that for a point source l39mc punt d Pow olefw ie m4 of we Estimate the dee dosee uivalent rate from a research reactor fuel assembly for the following source shield arrangement by assuming a photon energy of08 MeV a source strength of l E l 3 photons per Second and that source selfattenuation is negligib e Mom I 32 Wail M air cwla of I M M W qualms LM HIRH1 Na 39K g Vv 1 L gsLJM f Ri av a mhzlzhd I M XMM Ki ullaiu fail k mm wlMLL Rm Lizam SVwln avW J MOWM a 070 w1j u an 12 I a wwulai pad rm MM wrym3 MM 47 12049 Au Maia w m 39 m MA 7 S I L7 S r 1 7 7091 RM L JVL M 1K M L M L5 Jaw9 44RM3 x r 2i mu 5439 0 1H 5 13 47 rsmutA uar 2m7353M30D70 gal7L7 f mi Io 10 GLUHJXZWH m 5 lm 1 g 1412 17 a WWW 1 WM MA 5 inf uJl bm 271 m myevm Answ A 07 SVlx Wimp4 g A common Technical Speci cation for power reactors is to limit the activity in outside storage tanks to 10 Ci For a given 39 39ty 0360 is considered to be the most restrictive radionuclide that may be stored in such a tank For a cylindrical tank with a height of 305 cm and a radius of 61 cm calculate the exposure rate at the outer surface of a l5 foot thick solid concrete shield wall Account for selfabsoip on and buildup and assume the activity is uniformly distributed throughout the tank volume with an aqueous solution of Co60 having an activity of 10 Ci Aslo assume that the exposure point P is located at 3 meters from the center of the cylindrical tank Solid concrete wallT 15 Tank i P 3m from center of tank L E7 sz11 J 2779C I 2ij 0nz 7mquot7 15f o aogazm ag lcw I AJotfuw j 4309uu 09I70mt5 CIMF 5y 1m m m MM 00 208 74 7 50 39 3056 arzeoen Hun 137cm g glqz 1141mm Maya 3012 M9 Mew 10mm Fm Azl br005792l3IS39VY7 All 402 x 100k 53 127 HM LEE2 319 ow 744 39 Maya 1 f N 3 l 132 A 4 00521e 82 WJ IJ 9 jamI L1 j Mimi m n7 MTgtMAZW W CMV J 6 MU 14 Jrml A 23551 AL 41552 m 40642 Wr H3 quot0991 7 739 W3 01 ram7 HA1 7373 04er 5907 PJ W E 9 quot1 2 552 2161573 12s2F37 3025 1300 4 43W 39 443 74 39 3E 23 nuse 0 377quot J 11 55 WWW 7 43 6 95093 21 53 2553 7 14 gt39 6406E5W001 7U00 6 3 kA n MklL


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