Introductory Biology Ecology, Evolution, and Biodiversity
Introductory Biology Ecology, Evolution, and Biodiversity BIO 181
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This 14 page Class Notes was uploaded by Luz Rau on Thursday October 15, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 181 at North Carolina State University taught by Miles Engell in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see /class/223794/bio-181-north-carolina-state-university in Biological Sciences at North Carolina State University.
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Date Created: 10/15/15
Biology Spring 2012 Final Review Bio 181 Dr Engell All information is separated into which test it was on At the end of each section there are 5 questions with answers Review information Char ArteI39Iaricr of lift3 EDWNP P PPN Hierarchy of Organization Cellsbasic unit of structure and function Reproductionlife is continued through heritable infoDNA Energymetabolism Interact with environmentHomeostasis respond to stimuli Growth and Developmentirreversible Adaption and evolutioncore theme of biology Movementbasic property of cells Waterall living things require water Scientific IMEIIIOLIEI Discovery based not hypothesis driven Hypothesis basedScientific method Deductive general to specific Inductive specific to general Controlled experiment 0 Controlled variable influence dependent variable 0 Independent variable Manipulated control over 0 Dependent variable passively observed measured ifvulutiu n Lamarckacquired characteristics examined fossils Wallaceadaptation DarwinNatural selection Darwin s Theory 1 Variation 2 Competition 3 Survival of the fittess Evidence 1 Fossils 2 Vestigial structuresones used but are not longer used ex tailbones appendix wisdom teeth 3 Artificial selectionshumans gene crossing 4 Comparative anatomy a Homologous similar traits inherited from same ancestorDivergent evolution b Analogous similar traits evolved through same functionsConvergent evolution 5 Biochemical evidence Strongest evidence DNA Proteins 6 Embryology WW 7 Biogeography distribution of species Microevolutlon a d Changes In a populations gene pool 39r WW Canal3 1 Mutations unpredictable change in DNA new genetic variation not a major factor a Epigenetics environmental changes can change DNA memg I f 2 Evolutionary Mechanisms alteration of existing variation a Natural selection 1 way microevolution occurs i Modes Stabilizing Disruptive and Directional ii Balanced polymorphism opposite forms of gene exist equally 4quot 1 b Genetic Drift Small populations change by random chance events i Founder effect new habitat few individuals ii Bottlenecks drastic population reduction c Gene flow migration of fertile individuals d Nonrandom mating make a choice to mate with i Sexual selection have certain traits to attract a mate 1 Sexual dimorphism differences in males and females appearance ii ntrasexua vs Intersexual Macroevoiunon Changes that create new species Srmz39ies Concepts 1 Phylogenetic based on characteristics DNA 2 Biological Most often used Potential to interbreed with one another to produce viable fertile offspring cannot interbreed with other species 3 Evolutionary derived from a single lineage distinct from others and has its own evolutionary tendencies and historical fate 4 Ecological each species occupies a nice Repri lucirve mechanisms Temporal Behavioral Mechanical Gametic Habitat Zygotic mortality Hybrid sterility Hybrid breakdown Allopatric Parapatrk Svmpatrk Original population Initial step of speciatinn uro Barrier formed New niche Polymorphism entered curs Evolution of reproductive isolation In isolation In new niche within the op ti New distinct species after e uilibriation a Adaptive radlatlonl speCIes spreads into new areas q Questions 1 Who developed a theory of evolution identical to Darwin39s 2 The end result of natural selection is 3 Panda thumbs and Primate thumbs are analogous or homologous 4 The major cause of microevolution is mutation true or false 5 What is the lowest level of organization to have the characteristics of life Rev iew 2 info rli l l39r ll Modern humans and extinct great apes Modern humans extinct human species and all our immediate ancestors Bipedalismlots of advantages including freed hands and improved hunting Dinosaurs about 700 named most ate plants Mass extinctions 5 major one since life on earth 999 of all species that have existed are extinct Linnaeus39 system Domain King Phylum Subphylum Class Order Family Genus Species Scientific name genus species Phylogeny evolutionary history I M same age descend from same ancestor with no other species I Cladegroup of species that includes an ancestor and its descendants 0 Most importantwhole branch 0 besidepart of o illw39r don t share common ancestor I Cladogramsillustrate relationships and shared characteristics I Phylogenetic trees illustrate branching patterns and time Biodiversity 0 3 domains Bacteria Archae and Eukawa 0 6 kingdoms BacteriaArchae Protista Plants Fungi Animals BacteriaEubacteriaProkawotes 0 3 shapes cocci bacilli and spirillia 0 CyanobacteriaBlue green algaeproduced first oxygen and changed early atmosphere ArchaeProkawotes 0 Extremophiles Methanogens Thermophiles and Halophiles 0 Closely related to eukawotes FrotistaEukawa 0 Algaecolonial photosynthetic protists 0 FeedingIngestive or absorptive 0 Modes of moving pseudopodia flagella and cilia Plants 0 Bwophytes nonvascular plantslack vasculartissues 0 Pteridiphytes Vascular plantsdon39t make seeds 0 39 vascular Ll us and quot 39f evergreens 0 Angiospermsmost common plantsflowers o Monocots o Dicotsmost common 0 Alternation of generations Diploid sporophytegt haploid sporesgt haploid gametophytegt haploid gametesgt diploid fertilization o Sporophyte Diploid produces haploid spores by meiosis o Gametophyte Haploid produces haploid gametes gal33quotquot Fungi 0 Cell wals contain chitin 0 Multicellular Heterotrophi 0 Extracellular digestionacquire nutrients by absorption 0 Hyphaefilaments that make up body 0 Mycelium body offungi 0 Mycorrhizaclose association with plant roots 0 Lichenssymbiotic relationship between protists and fungi Animals 0 Heterotrophsfeed by ingestion 0 Tissues o Diploblastscnidarians o Triploblastseverything elseEctoderm Mesoderm and Endoderm o Sponges lacks tissues 0 Symmetry amp Cephalization o RadialCnidaria Adult Echinodermatas o BilateralEverything elseall triploblasts except adult echinoderm o AsymmetricalPorifera 0 Body Cavityfluid filled space separating the digestive tract from body walls 0 CoelomatesHave coelom derived from mesoderm only triploblastic animals have it o PseudomatesNematoda o AcoelomatesPlatyhelminthes o Devolopment OnlyCoelomates o Protostomesmouth develops firstarthropods mollusks and annelids o Deuterstomes Anus develops firstChordates and echinoderms Protostomes Deuterostomes Lophalrochozoa Ecdysozoa 27 r A 9 b 1 we 1040 wt 395 lt90 6 6 O o 393 a 5 a 3 9 x0 00 0 be QOQ a 09 80 3 94 656 as oo 5 3 0 9 9quot 9 I Q9 Y9 0 2 59 55 59 F J f i Q J 7 Q w l l f l Segmen R Magnum 39 vanan nmon me ry u adults geulerusmme Pmtoslcme development evelapmenl Coelom Iriploblusty origin at mesoderm B39Iaverals mmal and ce hulizafion I Y W p Radcl symmeiry I issue Diploblusry lednderm and Endoderm Mullicellulariry lll nuer39ic ljl ates Poriferalack tissues and symmetry feed by filter feeding Cnidarians Radial symmetry aquatic small Platyhelmintheslncomplete digestive system bilateral symmetry NematodesComplete digestive system bilateral symmetry pseudosoelom MolluscsSoft body hard mantle a GastropodsSnail mewzvie b BivalvesClam c Cephalopodsmartest group squid octopus AnnelidsSegmented worms closed circulatory system Arthropodsexternal skeleton specialized segements largest group Echinodermata Radial symmetry tube feet Deuterostome 9 all 4 dates Characteristics 1 Notochord 2 Dorsal hollow nerve cord 3 Pharyngeal slits 4 Post anal tail Subphyla 1 Tunicates 2 Lancelots 3 Vertebrates Fish Amphibiaevolved from lobe finned fishes have to return to water to reproduce Reptiliashelled amniotic egg Avesendothermic feathersmodified reptile scales amniotic egg 501979 Mammalia i MonotremesPrototheriaReptile and mammal DNA egg laying ii MarsupialsMetatheria Born premature develop in pouch iii EutheriaMost successful mammals placental mammals EcologyStudy of how organisms interact with each other and with their environment Biotic vs abiotic Climate long term weather conditions Macro global Micro local Biomes Vertical stratification Canopy low tree shrub ground forest floor and root layer 1 Tropical forest 2 Lakes and pondsLentic 3 Desert 4 Streams and rivers Lotic 5 Savanna 6 Wetlands 7 Temperate Grassland 8 Estuaries 9 Chaparral 10 Intertidal zones 11 Temperate deciduous forest 12 Oceanic pelagic 13 Coniferous forest 14 Coral reefs 15 Tundra 16 Marine benthic Behavior What an animal does and how it does it Social behavior communication is essential Visual auditory chemical tactile Social systems Dominance hierarchies and territories Most behaviors are sclfish quot to direct fitness r 39 success measured by number of offspring Some behaviors help otherscooperative behaviors hunting Altruismindividual reduces own fitness while increasing fitness of another 1 Reciprocal altruist expects a future benefit from initial sacrifice want favor returned 2 Inclusive fitnesssum of individuals direct fitness and indirect fitnessrelatives Questions A chimpanzee is a hominid true or false In plants the gametophyte generation is What is a bilaterally symmetrical triploblastic coelomate protostome Moving water makes up the biome WPWN Which is the largest phylum Review 3 info Behavior learning techniques o Fixed schedule 0 Variable schedulemore likely to resist extinction El learning by observing another s performance potty training make new associations between previously learned items to solve a new problem problem solving o l 1 wail 3 form association with another individual of object during critical period of life Populations Characteristics 1 Densityindividualsunitarea 2 Dispersionpattern of spacing within boundaries a Uniform b Randomrare c Clumpedmost common 3 Growth a births deaths immigrants emigrants b Exponential growth J shaped curve vs Logistic growth S shaped curve c Limiting factors i Density dependent only limit population when it becomes crowded ii Density independen Regardless of populations d Carrying capacitymaximum number of individuals a particular environment can support indefinitelyvaries over time Life history strategies 1 rstrategist high growth rate large offspring small reproduce once 2 Kstrategist few offspring large care for young slow maturation Species interactions 1 Competition a ntraspecific b nterspecific c Leads to a species having an ecological niche i Fundamental nichewhat you could accomplish ii Realized nichewhat you can accomplish d Competitive exclusion principle if 2 species compete directly for a limited resource one species will eliminate the other from that resource e Resource partitioning slight differentiation of nichescoexisting f Character displacement 2 species diverge in characteristics and resource usesympatric populations 2 Predation a Consumption of prey species by predator species b Coevolution of predator and preycheetahs and gazelles c Defense mechanisms Camouflage unpleasant attributes playing dead living in groups disruptive coloration d Mimicry Mullerain many well protected species resemble each other Bumblebee and honeybee or monarch and miceroy Batesian unprotected species resembles a harmful species Coral and king snakes 3 Parasitism a One species benefits other is harmed b Pathogencauses disease or death to host c Endo and ecto and social 4 Symbiosis a Close long term association b Mutualism both benefit c Commensalismone benefits other unharmed Communities Succession 1 Primarynewly formed lifeless area 2 Secondarydisturbed area faster than primary because soil already exists Eutrophicationprocess by which elevated nutrient levels lead to an overgrowth of algae and the subsequent depletion of water oxygen levels Ecosystems Autotroph Primary producers Heterotrophs Primary Consumers Detritivores and Eat dead things Decomposers o Prokaryotes o Saprobesdecomposers that absorb nutrients o Parasitesabsorb nutrients from living host 0 Feeding Obligate aerobe facultative aerobe obligate anaerobe and aerotolerant anaerobe o Protists o Phagotrophsingestive o Osmotrophsa bsorptive o Mixotrophsswitch between auto and heterotroph o Fungi o Substrate feeders o Absorptive feedingosmotrophs o Extracellular digestiondigest before absorbing 0 Animals 0 Suspension 0 Substrate o Fluid 0 Bulk Keystone speciesimpact on community is larger and more influential that would be expected from mere abundanceotters Trophic levelsbased on main source of nutrition and energy Food webs Energyat each transfer 90 of energy is lost as heat and waste Gross primary productivity net primary productivity cellular respiration Plant transport Xylemtransports watertranspiration cohesiontension stomata release water 0 Phloem transports sugarstranslocationpressure flow theory ingestion and nutrition Ruminant o 4 compartments 0 Rumenlargest converts roughages to amino acids Reticulumwhere liquid goes honeycomb structure Omasumlots of folds OOO Abomasumquottruequot stomack Monogastrics 5 tasks Mechanical processing Secretion Digestion Absorption and Elimination About 65 to 9 meters long Movement is one way PPN Major components a Mout b Pharynx c Esophagus d Gutstomach small intestine large intestine rectum and anus 5 Accessory organs a Salivary glandssecrete saliva b Liver secretes bile for emulsifying fat c Gallbladderstores and concentrates bile d PancreasSecretes digestive enzymes buffers and insulin Nutrition Fuel for all activities Raw materials for molecules Supply essential nutrients Malnourishedlack one or more essential nutrients WPF N Undernourishedlack of sufficient calories Carbohydratesmain energy source Proteinsanimal meats and soy products Fatsshould be about 30 of diet Questions 1 Due to competition most species occupy their niche 2 Oxygen is toxic to what prokaryote 3 Modifications of previous behavior based on experience represent 4 Fungi that cause animals or plants disease are 5 Predation is density dependent or independent Final exam info nsectstracheaetubes that go to whole body opens to outside of body at spiracles Fishgills greatly increase surface area for gas exchangewater flows one way blood flows opposite waycountercurrent flow FrogPositive pressure breathingforce air to lungs through glottis Reptilemore efficientbeginning of negative pressure breathing Birdsair sacs throughout body to be lighter negative pressure breathing Mammals Alveoligas exchange millions in lungsproduce surfactant to keep alveoli from sticking to each other 0 Diaphragm sheet of musclecontracts and rib cage expands negative pressure created causing lungs to expand and air to be drawn in Circulation Openblood pumped from heart through blood vessels but then leaves and enters body cavities arthropods Closedblood remains within blood vessels all vertebrates annelids Hea rts n ma mime analmlw 0 ms mum mu f m pulmonary aviary r Fullnnnary quotmm mm mammary army r m pulmunmy veins mgm pulmonary mus filelJlnum El nygenam blood 5 Dumnm c u body unguxygmm y musmm t El Blood w Ihe ama msswzly and In me quotm9 9 WW me mm Plants Development of vascular tissues stimulate cell Promote T Questions 1 Reptiles have pressure breathing U1wa Mammals have an circulatory system One bad apple can spoil the whole bunch due to Why do birds have a more efficient respiration The blood pressure is lowest in which compartment of the heart Good IUCK H0pe this helps with your Studying
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