Introductory Biology Ecology, Evolution, and Biodiversity
Introductory Biology Ecology, Evolution, and Biodiversity BIO 181
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Luz Rau on Thursday October 15, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 181 at North Carolina State University taught by William Grant in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see /class/223795/bio-181-north-carolina-state-university in Biological Sciences at North Carolina State University.
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Date Created: 10/15/15
SUPPLEMENTAL STUDY ENIPHASIS BIO 181001 Previously Untested Chapters Chapters 37 38 45 47 48 49 58 and 59 Chapter 37 Flowering Plants Nutrition Coverage Plant Nutritional Requirements pp 771773 Role of Soil in Plant Nutrition pp 776780 Biological Sources ofPlant Nutrients pp 783785 Carnivorous Plants pp 786787 Parasitic Plants pp 787788 De ne or Identify essential nutrients soil horizons humus nitrogen xation leaching mycorrhizae Compare the following paired terms macronutrients and micronutrients Discussion Short Essay Questions 1 Describediscuss some ways by which plants adapt to shade 2 Describediscuss some ways by which plants adapt to excessive light 3 Compare the following types of soil sandy silt clay and loam 4 Discuss the role of nitrogen in plant nutrition 5 List and discuss several types of symbioses that provide plants with xed nitrogen 6 Discuss some of the methods by which carnivorous plants obtain nutrients from animals 7 Review the lecture notes and powerpoints described in lecture Chapter 38 Flowering Plants Transport Coverage Introduction and Overview of Plant Transport pp 790792 TissueLevel Transport pp 795796 LongDistance Transport pp 797799 Study pp 802807 and Fig 3824 on p 808 De ne or Identify passive transport plasmodesmata active transport tracheids translocation vessel elements stomata leaf abscission guard cells membrane transport proteins Compare the following paired terms xylem and phloem symplastic transport and apoplastic transport guard cells and companion cells tracheids and sieve tube elements passive diffusion and facilitated diffusion sugar source and sugar sink Discussion Short Essay Questions 1 Discuss the cohesiontension theory pertaining to transpiration 2 Discuss the roles of transpiration cohesion adhesion and tension in longdistance water transport See Fig 3815 p 802 3 Discuss the pressure ow hypothesis pertaining to transport in phloem tissues Chapter 45 Nutrition Digestion and Absorption Coverage Study pp 937945 Overview of Vertebrate Digestive Systems pp 945950 Mechanisms of Digestive and Absorption in Vertebrates pp 950 953 Regulation of Digestion pp 953954 Impact on Public Health pp 957958 Define or Identify essential amino acids amylase essential fatty acids proteases omnivore H elicobacter pylori polysaccharidases Vibrio cholerae lipases ulcer nucleases gastrin alimentary canal bile secretin accessory structures of the digestive system proventriculus of birds ruminant lymphatic system emulsification cholecystokinin cck Compare the following paired terms digestion and absorption vitamins and minerals fatsoluble vitamins and watersoluble vitamins suspension feeder and bulk feeder intracellular digestion and extracellular digestion crop and gizzard of birds villi and microvilli lacteals and capillaries gallbladder and pancreas micelle chylomicron Discussion Short Essay Questions 1 List and describe discuss the functions of the major digestive organs in a vertebrate such as a human 2 List the components of the digestive system of a ruminant and discuss the process of digestion in ruminants 3 Compare the structure and function of the small intestine and the large intestine of humans Chapter 47 Circulatory Systems Coverage Study pp 980 992 Adaptive Functions of Closed Circulatory Systems pp 996998 Impact on Public Health pp 998999 De ne or Identify gastrovascular cavity cardiovascular system plasma hemolymph leucocytes erythrocytes hemoglobin sickle cell anemia electrocardiogram ECG QRS compleX sinoatrial node atrioventricular bundle bundle of His Purkinje bers coronary circulation pulmocutaneous circulation hemophilia lymphatic system baroreceptors angioplasty myocardial infarction MI Compare the following paired terms open circulatory system and closed circulatory system pulmonary circulation and systemic circulation sinoatrial node and atrioventricular node semilunar valves and atrioventricular valves myogenic heart and neurogenic heart p 987 Discussion Short Essay Questions 1 UI V Give examples of animals with open circulatory systems and animals with closed circulatory systems What are the advantages andor disadvantages of each Trace the ow of blood from the superior vena cava to the aortic semilunar valve of the mammalian heart Trace the electrical impulse in the heart beginning at the sinoatrial node and ending at the Purkinje bers Compare the structure of arteries veins and capillaries For each of these types of vessels discuss the correlation of structure and function Describe the role of valves in veins Chapter 48 Respiratory Systems Coverage Study pp 1001 1002 Section 483 Structure and Function of the Mammalian Respiratory System pp 10081010 including Fig 489 on p 1009 Study pp 10171018 Impact on Public Health pp 10201021 De ne or Identify gas exchange alveoli homeostasis capillaries diffusion surfactant partial pressure of a gas respiratory pigment atmospheric pressure hemoglobin spiracle countercurrent exchange mechanism tracheal system of insects hemoglobinoxygen dissociation curve asthma emphysema Compare the following paired terms gills and lungs external gills and internal gills larynx and trachea bronchi and bronchioles Discussion Short Essay Questions 1 2 LA 4 UI V O V l V Discuss the role of the respiratory system in homeostasis List and discuss several of the requirements of a respiratory system List and discuss several factors that in uence the rate of diffusion In what way does atmospheric pressure change with increasing altitude Why is the mammalian respiratory system sometimes referred to as a bronchial tree or respiratory tree List and discuss the roles of major components of the mammalian respiratory system Discuss the impact of smoking on respiratory health See p 1021 Chapter 49 Excretory Systems and Salt and Water Balance Coverage Principles of Homeostasis of Intemal Fluids pp 10251031 Principles of Fluid Filtration and Waste Excretion p 1032 Structure and Function of the Mammalian Kidney pp 10361040 Impact on Public Health pp 10421043 Define or Identify homeostasis urea osmolarity osmoregulator osmoconformer renal corpuscle glomerulus glomerular filtrate nephron loop of Henle malpighian tubules metanephridia hemodialysis Compare the following paired terms afferent arteriole and efferent arteriole proximal convoluted tubule and distal convoluted tubule aldosterone and antidiuretic hormone Discussion Short Essay Questions 1 List and describe the three main types of nitrogenous wastes and their elimination 2 The basic functions of the mammalian excretory system are ltration reabsorption secretion and excretion Discuss how those processes occur 3 Review the structure and function of the human excretory system Chapter 58 Community Ecology N Coverage Introduction p 1225 Patterns of Species Richness pp 12271229 Species Diversity and Community Stability pp 12321233 Succession Community Change pp 1233 top ofp 1236 Island Biogeography pp 12361239 Define community succession community ecology sere species richness climax community Compare the following paired terms primary succession and secondary succession Chapter 59 Ecosystem Ecology Coverage Introduction pp 12431244 Food Webs and Energy Flow pp 12441249 Biomass Production in Ecosystems pp 12501252 Biogeochemical Cycles pp 12521261 Define ecosystem ecosystem ecology primary producer heterotroph trophic level N food chain pyramid of numbers pyramid of biomass pyramid of energy biomagnification dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane DDT energy ow diagram eutrophication acid rain 3 Questions Discuss the signi cance of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane DDT in the decline of bird populations during the midtwentieth century Explain the process of eutrophication and discuss why it is of concern Completion Question Considering the biogeochemical cycles the element called has no gaseous phase and thus no atmospheric component Describediscuss the following biogeochemical cycles Phosphorus cycle Fig 5915 p 1253 Carbon cycle Fig 5917 p 1255 Nitrogen cycle Fig 5920 p 1257 Sulfur cycle Fig 5922 p 1259 Water cycle Fig 5924 p 1260 Which biogeochemical cycles are implicated in acid rain Compare the following paired terms ecosystem and community autotroph and heterotrophy primary consumer and secondary consumer herbivores and carnivores food chain and food web pyramid of biomass and pyramid of energy gross primary production GPP and net primary production NPP
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