Introductory Biology Cellular and Molecular Biology
Introductory Biology Cellular and Molecular Biology BIO 183
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Luz Rau on Thursday October 15, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 183 at North Carolina State University taught by Brenda Grubb in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see /class/223796/bio-183-north-carolina-state-university in Biological Sciences at North Carolina State University.
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Date Created: 10/15/15
Test 2 Bio 183 Final Exam Study Guide Photorespiration an inefficient way plants can produce organic molecules and in the process use oxygen and release C02 Gprotein coupled receptors are are common second messenger system components Cyclic electron flow includes photosystem 1 ATP thylakoid H gradient but does not include water Signal molecule binds to membrande receptor GPCR is activated G protein is activated cAMP is produced cellular protein is phosphorylated Contributes to the resting membrane potential negatively charged ions inside and outside the cell active transport of ions across the membrane concentration of Na and K inside and outside the cell This plant growth substance promotes stem elongation and oweringit was discovered ina fungus that infected riceit caused the rice plants to grow taller without maturing and producing the grainigibberellins Sister chromatids separate in mitosis versus not in meiosis Chromatin fibers condense and discrete chromosomes are seen in which phase of mitosis prophase The dark reactions of photosynthesis occur in the stroma Checkpoints during the cell cycle are important because they ensure the integrity ofthe cell s DNA Checkpoints found in G1 G2 metaphase but not found in cytokinesis Second messengers are molecules that trigger a cell response when activated by a signal molecul Ca DAG cAMP are used as second messengers Na is not Sodium channels open and membrande reaches threshold potential depolarization occurs potassium channels open and reploarization occursmembrande potential hyperpolarizes neuron membrane returns to rest after action potential When potassium channels are open during an action potential which way does the potassium go Out of the cells The water necessary for photosynthesis provides the electrons to replace lost electrons in photosystem II Estrogen binds to receptors inside cells What type of signaling does not affect the cell secreting the signal but does in uence cells in close proximity like neurons paracrine Which phase ofmeiosis is being described by the following sentence Centromeres of sister chromatids separate and each sister now individual chromosomes move toward opposite poles of the cell Anaphase II Sodium channels are open and potassium channels are closed during depolarization During hyperpolarization the membrande potential is lower than resting potential Number of carbons in a Rqu molecule 5 Total number of NADPHs needed in the regemation phase only for every 6C02 incorporated 0 Bio 183 Final Exam Study Guide Total number of ATPS needed in the regemation phase only for every 6C02 incorporated 6 Number of ATPS needed in the reduction phase only of the Calvin Cycle for every 6C02 incorporated 12 Number of C02 molecules needed to produce one molecule of sugar that can be converted to glucose in the Calvin Cycle 7 6 S phase phase in the cell cycle where DNA is replicated Sister 39 quot J 1 quot J forms of 39 joined together Centromeres centralized region joining replicated chromosomes Homologous chromosomes forms a tetrad in metaphase I Diploiddominant life cycle present in animals Centrosome structure at the cell poles where the spindles are formd Altemation of generations life cycle present in higher plants G2 phase in the cell cycle where the cell synthesizes proteins necessary for cell division Cytokinesis division of cytoplasm to produce two distinct daughter cells Nokinetchore microtubules spindle bers that project into the cell and elongate the cytoplasm Cartinoi are photopigments in plants that acto to dissipate the light and offer photoprotection for the plant Agricultural plants commonly have different chromosome numbers Give one reason why this would be beneficial could genetically help them not dry out during a dry seasons The cytochrome complexes of related proteins in common Epinephrine was an example of a signal molecule that required a second messenger system to trigger an increase in heart rate The life cycle type that has the shortest amount of time between fertilization and the beginning of meiosis is haploiddominant A translocation is a chromosomal mutation where one segment of a chromosome becomes attached to a different chromosome Repolarization occurs when potassium channels are open Cytokinins are the group of plant growth substances that activate the secondary meristems allow plants to expand in width as opposed to height Apoptosis is the process of cells shrinking and blabbing programmed cell death DAG and 1P3 are second messengers that trigger what ion channels to open Ca2 Interphase is the period of the cell cycle where G1 G2 and S occur Channels that require a signal molecule to bind to them in order to open are referred to as ligand gated channels The dark reactions take place in the stroma C02 and 02 travel in and out of the plant through pores called stomata Trisomy where three homolgous chromosomes are present in a cell instead of the normal two is caused by nondisjunction This is most likely due to a fragile spindle ber that breaks during meiosis ul 1 I r la and 39 39 have 39 quot ily Bio 183 Final Exam Study Guide Test 3
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