Introductory Biology Cellular and Molecular Biology
Introductory Biology Cellular and Molecular Biology BIO 183
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Luz Rau on Thursday October 15, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 183 at North Carolina State University taught by Lisa Parks in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see /class/223797/bio-183-north-carolina-state-university in Biological Sciences at North Carolina State University.
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Date Created: 10/15/15
Cell Communication between Neurons o Nervous System 0 Central nervous system CNS brain and nerve cord I Spinal cord in vertebrates 0 Peripheral nervous system PNS all neurons and projections of their plasma membranes that are outside of the CNS 3 Major roles of the Nervous System 0 Sensory input sensory integration and motor response 2 Main roles of the Nervous System 0 Central nervous system integrates sensory information and coordinates body s responses brain and spinal cord 0 Peripheral nervous system carries information between CNS and the rest of the body Neurons 0 Cells that send and receive electrical and chemical signals to and from other neurons or other cells throughout the body 0 All animals except sponges have neurons 0 Number varies widely as a function of size and behavioral complexity Neuron structure 0 Cell body or soma contains nucleus and organelles o Dendrites extensions of plasma membrane may be single or branching incoming signals 0 Axons extension of plasma membrane typically single sending signals axon hillock near cell body axon terminals convey electrical or chemical message to other cells 0 Glia 0 May function as stem cells to produce more glial cells and neurons 0 Myelin sheath interrupted by nodes of Ranvier I Produced 3 main types of neurons 0 Sensory neurons detect information from the outside world or internal body conditions afferent neurons transmit to CNS 0 Motor neurons send signals away from CNS efferent neurons to elicit response 0 Interneuron connects one neuron to another within CNS 0 Re ex arc o Stimulus from sensory neurons sent to CNS little or no interpretation signal transmitted to motor neurons to elicit response quick and automatic response Electrical properties 0 Membrane potential difference in charge inside and outside the cell plasma membrane barrier separating charges ion concentrations differ between the inside and outside of the cell polarized o Resting membrane potential when neurons not sending signals 0 Plasma membrane not very permeable to cations and anions separates charge by keeping different ions largely inside or outside cell 0 Negative ions within the cell are drawn to the positive ions arrayed on the outer surface 0 Synapses o Junction where nerve terminal meets are neuron muscle cell or gland o Presynaptic cell sends signal synaptic cleft and postsynaptic cell receives signal 0 2 types electricalelectric charge freely ows through gap junctions from cell to cell Chemicalneurotransmitter acts as signal from presynaptic to postsynaptic cell 0 Chemical synapse o Presynaptic nerve cell contains vesicles of neurotransmitter exocytosis releases neurotransmitter into synaptic cleft diffuse across cleft 0 Binding of neurotransmitter changes membrane potential Test 2 Bio 183 Final Exam Study Guide Photorespiration an inefficient way plants can produce organic molecules and in the process use oxygen and release C02 Gprotein coupled receptors are are common second messenger system components Cyclic electron flow includes photosystem 1 ATP thylakoid H gradient but does not include water Signal molecule binds to membrande receptor GPCR is activated G protein is activated cAMP is produced cellular protein is phosphorylated Contributes to the resting membrane potential negatively charged ions inside and outside the cell active transport of ions across the membrane concentration of Na and K inside and outside the cell This plant growth substance promotes stem elongation and oweringit was discovered ina fungus that infected riceit caused the rice plants to grow taller without maturing and producing the grainigibberellins Sister chromatids separate in mitosis versus not in meiosis Chromatin fibers condense and discrete chromosomes are seen in which phase of mitosis prophase The dark reactions of photosynthesis occur in the stroma Checkpoints during the cell cycle are important because they ensure the integrity ofthe cell s DNA Checkpoints found in G1 G2 metaphase but not found in cytokinesis Second messengers are molecules that trigger a cell response when activated by a signal molecul Ca DAG cAMP are used as second messengers Na is not Sodium channels open and membrande reaches threshold potential depolarization occurs potassium channels open and reploarization occursmembrande potential hyperpolarizes neuron membrane returns to rest after action potential When potassium channels are open during an action potential which way does the potassium go Out of the cells The water necessary for photosynthesis provides the electrons to replace lost electrons in photosystem II Estrogen binds to receptors inside cells What type of signaling does not affect the cell secreting the signal but does in uence cells in close proximity like neurons paracrine Which phase ofmeiosis is being described by the following sentence Centromeres of sister chromatids separate and each sister now individual chromosomes move toward opposite poles of the cell Anaphase II Sodium channels are open and potassium channels are closed during depolarization During hyperpolarization the membrande potential is lower than resting potential Number of carbons in a Rqu molecule 5 Total number of NADPHs needed in the regemation phase only for every 6C02 incorporated 0 Bio 183 Final Exam Study Guide Total number of ATPS needed in the regemation phase only for every 6C02 incorporated 6 Number of ATPS needed in the reduction phase only of the Calvin Cycle for every 6C02 incorporated 12 Number of C02 molecules needed to produce one molecule of sugar that can be converted to glucose in the Calvin Cycle 7 6 S phase phase in the cell cycle where DNA is replicated Sister 39 quot J 1 quot J forms of 39 joined together Centromeres centralized region joining replicated chromosomes Homologous chromosomes forms a tetrad in metaphase I Diploiddominant life cycle present in animals Centrosome structure at the cell poles where the spindles are formd Altemation of generations life cycle present in higher plants G2 phase in the cell cycle where the cell synthesizes proteins necessary for cell division Cytokinesis division of cytoplasm to produce two distinct daughter cells Nokinetchore microtubules spindle bers that project into the cell and elongate the cytoplasm Cartinoi are photopigments in plants that acto to dissipate the light and offer photoprotection for the plant Agricultural plants commonly have different chromosome numbers Give one reason why this would be beneficial could genetically help them not dry out during a dry seasons The cytochrome complexes of related proteins in common Epinephrine was an example of a signal molecule that required a second messenger system to trigger an increase in heart rate The life cycle type that has the shortest amount of time between fertilization and the beginning of meiosis is haploiddominant A translocation is a chromosomal mutation where one segment of a chromosome becomes attached to a different chromosome Repolarization occurs when potassium channels are open Cytokinins are the group of plant growth substances that activate the secondary meristems allow plants to expand in width as opposed to height Apoptosis is the process of cells shrinking and blabbing programmed cell death DAG and 1P3 are second messengers that trigger what ion channels to open Ca2 Interphase is the period of the cell cycle where G1 G2 and S occur Channels that require a signal molecule to bind to them in order to open are referred to as ligand gated channels The dark reactions take place in the stroma C02 and 02 travel in and out of the plant through pores called stomata Trisomy where three homolgous chromosomes are present in a cell instead of the normal two is caused by nondisjunction This is most likely due to a fragile spindle ber that breaks during meiosis ul 1 I r la and 39 39 have 39 quot ily Bio 183 Final Exam Study Guide Test 3