New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Chapter 4 Lecture

by: Caroline Hess

Chapter 4 Lecture 110.0

Caroline Hess
GPA 4.0

Almost Ready


These notes were just uploaded, and will be ready to view shortly.

Purchase these notes here, or revisit this page.

Either way, we'll remind you when they're ready :)

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

These are the Chapter 4 notes for Dr. Vine's CHEM 0110 course. The notes follow her lecture outlines and PowerPoints.
Class Notes
25 ?





Popular in Chemistry

This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Caroline Hess on Thursday October 15, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 110.0 at University of Pittsburgh taught by Paul,Stanley in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see GENERAL CHEMISTRY 1 in Chemistry at University of Pittsburgh.


Reviews for Chapter 4 Lecture


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 10/15/15
Chapter 4 Chemical Reactions Electrolyte A substance that dissolves in water to give an electrically conducting solution Strong Electrolyte An electrolyte that exists in solution almost entirely ions 0 Weak Electrolyte An electrolyte that dissolves in water to give a relatively small percentage of ions Nonelectrolytes A substance that dissolves in water to give a nonconducting or poorly conducting solution 0 Driving force of reactions 0 Formation of a solid liquid or a gas 0 Change of oxidation state Some want to be oxidized others reduced 0 Types of reactions 0 Precipitation reactions formation of a solid 0 AcidBase Reactions neutralization formation of a liquid H20 or gas C02 0 Oxidation Reduced Reaction Combination Decomposition Displacement Combustion 43 Precipitation Reactions 0 Driving force is the formation of a solid Solubility Ability to dissolve water Precipitate An insoluble solid compound formed during a chemical reaction 0 Reactants are soluble o Atleast one product is insoluble Solubility Rules 0 Group IA and ammonium com pounds are soluble 1 or 1 charge usually soluble o Acetates and Nitrates are soluble 0 Most chlorides bromides and iodides are soluble Except when in a compound with Hg Ag or Pb 0 Most sulfates are soluble Except when in a compound with Hg Ag Pb CaBaorSr 0 Most carbonates are i nsoluble 0 Most phosphates are insoluble Except when with Group lA or ammounium 0 Most sul des are i 0 Most hydroxides are insoluble nsoluble Except when in compound with Ca Ba Sr Equanns 0 Molecular A chemical equation in which the reactants and products are written as if they were molecular substances even though they may actually exist in solutions as ions 0 Complete Ionic A chemical equation in which the strong electrolytes are written as separate ions in the solution Other reactants and products are written in molecular form 0 Net Ionic A chemical equation in which spectator ions are omitted It shows the reaction that actually occurs at the ionic level 0 Spectator lon An ion in an ionic equation that does not take part in the reaction It appears as both a reactant and a product Example 111 5quot Eat 5quot N Fe2 Na 0 I cr CI CO3 D I Na amt l I x am J FeC2 Na2C03 Molecular Equation FeC2 aq Na2C03 aq l FeCO3 s 2 NaCl aq Complete Ionic Fe2 2Cl39 2Na CO3239 FeCO3 s 2Na 2Cl39 Net lonic Fe2 CO3239 l FeCO3 s Spectator lons Na and Cl39 Reaction occurs because FeCO3 is not soluble carbonates are not soluble Example H T E i CI39 Cu Mg I NO 504 CI REACTION quotall 11x all I CUSO4 Mgcb Molecular Equation CuSO4aq MgC2 aq l MgSO4 aq CuC2 aq Complete lonic Cu2 504239 Mg2 20 Mg2 504239 Cu2 20 Net lonic None No reaction occurs because neither of the products are insoluble MgSO4 is soluble because sulfates are soluble CuC2 is soluble because chlorides are also soluble Something needs to be soluble Something needs to be insoube 44 AcidBase Reactions 0 Driving force formation of water Arrhenius Acid A substance that produces hydrogen ions H when it dissolves in water Arrhenius Base A substance that produces hydroxide ions OH when it dissolves in water BronstedLowry Acid The species molecule or ion that donates a proton to another species in a protontransfer reaction BronstedLowry Base The species that accepts a proton from another species in a protontransfer reaction 0 Strong Acid An acid that ionizes completely in water It is present entirely as ions it is a strong electrolyte O o HCI 0 H2504 o HBr Weak Acid Something that only partially ionizes in water Present primarily as a molecule partially as ions o It is a weak electrolyte Strong Base Base that is present in aqueous solution entirely as ions one of which is OH o It is a strong electrolyte Polyprotic Acid An acid that yields two or more acidic hydrogens per molecule Neutralization Reactions 0 A reaction of an acid and a base that results in an ionic compound and possibly water 0 The ionic compound formed is called a salt Example 1 0 Molecular Equation HCI aq KOH aq H20 l KCI aq Total lonic H Cl39 K OH39 H20 I K CI39 0 Net lonic H OH39 H20 I Example 2 0 Molecular Equation CaCO3 s 2 HCI aq l CaC2 aq H20 I C02 g 0 Complete Ionic CaCO3 s 2H 2Cl39 Ca2 2Cl39 H20 l C02 g 0 Net Ionic CaCO3 s 2H l Ca2 H20 I C02 g 45 OxidationReduction Reactions 0 A reaction in which electrons are transferred between species or in which atoms change their oxidation number 0 2 Mg 5 02 g D 2 M90 9 Oxidation Numbers 0 O 0 Elements The oxidation number of an atom in an element is zero Monatomic Ions The oxidation number of an atom in a monatomic ion equals the charge of the ion Oxygen The oxidation number is 2 in most compounds Except when 0 is in H202 and other peroxides then its 1 Hydrogen The oxidation number is 1 in most of its compounds In binary compounds with metals it is 1 Halogens The oxidation of uorine is 1 For Cl Br I have 1 in binary compounds Compounds and ions The sum of the oxidation numbers of the atoms in a compound is zero The sum of the oxidation numbers of the atoms in a polyatomic ion equals the charge of the ion Oxidation The halfreaction in which there is a loss of electrons by a species of an increase in oxidation number 0 Reduction The halfreaction in which there is a gain of electrons by a species or a decrease in oxidation number HalfReaction Method OWE parts of an oxidation reduction reactions one part of which involves a loss of electrons and the other part of which involves a gain of electrons 0 Combination Reaction 2Na s C2 g 2NaCl s Oxidation 2 Na 2 Na 2e39 Reduction 2 2Cl39 o Decomposition Reaction A reaction in which a single compound reacts to give two or more substances 2HgO 2 Hg 02 Oxidation 20239 02 4e39 Reduction 2Hg 4e39 2 Hg 0 Displacement Reaction A reaction in which an element reacts with a compound displacing another element from it Zn 5 2HC aq H2 g ZnC2 aq Oxidation Zn 5 Zn2 Multiply by a Reduction e39 H H2 1 number so the alor39Irnnc ranrol o Combustion Reaction Reaction in which a substance reacts with oxygen usually with the rapid release of heat to produce ame C3H8 02 I C02 H20


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Amaris Trozzo George Washington University

"I made $350 in just two days after posting my first study guide."

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.