Popular in Biology 141- Introductory Physiology
Popular in Science
This 116 page Reader was uploaded by Paige Bayer on Sunday December 28, 2014. The Reader belongs to 141 at Pennsylvania State University taught by Nanette Tomicek in Spring2012. Since its upload, it has received 181 views. For similar materials see Biology 141- Introductory Physiology in Science at Pennsylvania State University.
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Date Created: 12/28/14
cell physiology lecture 2 122814 939 PM Protein degradation Old proteins must be destroyed Lysosomes break down 0 Damaged organelles 0 Foreign materials Bacteria amp pathogens Energy production Mitochondria o Responsible for producing energy 95 o Converts sugars into ATP 0 Krebs cycle 0 Requires O2 Diffusion and transport Cells much make exchanges with the environment 0 Nutrients o Wastes Plasma membrane is semi permeabe Several ways different types of substances enter 0 Simple diffusion Passive process Substances randomly move along a concentration gradient Alcohol lipids fatty acids o2 co2 Fat soluble can cross the hydrophobic lipid bilayer o Channe mediated diffusionfacilitated Passive process no atp Substances randomly move along concentration gradient Integral protein channel provides hydrophilic path though bilayer for water soluble molecultes Channel transport 2 Water ions na K Cl 2 Water soluble requires channel 0 Osmosis Diffusion of water If solutes cannot move then water will move Water will dilute concentrated solutes Cells adjust to changing solute concentrations Tonicity 2 Describes how a solution affects a cell 392 Extracellular fluid Isotonic solutions 2 Same internal and external 2 09 saline no water movement 2 Extracellular fuid inner cellular fluid Hypotonic 2 Too dilute water moves in cell bursts U ECF lt ICF Hypertonic 2 To concentrated water moves out cell shrivels U ECF gt ICF 0 Carrier mediated transport Active or passive 2 Active needs ATP Specific 2 One carrierjob Limited by number of carriers Regulated depending on needs Co transport symport 2 Two substances together same direction 2 Countertransportantiport Two substances opposite direction 0 Facilitated diffusion Passive carrier mediated transport Carrier proteins 2 Specially shaped with receptors 2 Binding cause a shape change to let molecule in Glucose after meal a lot in blood so it is let in the cells 0 Active transport Primary active transport 2 Against gradient not diffusion 2 ATP needed instead Ion pumps 0 Sodiumpotassium exchange 2 potassium inside cell 3 sodium outside of cell 0 Anti port Secondary active transport 2 Piggy backing Uses gradient set up by primary active transport Ex glucose sodium cotransporter o Glucose is the piggy rides sodium gradient 0 Sodium gradient produced by sodium potassium exchange pump Nervous System 122814 939 PM Nervous system is a communication system Uses electrical impulses Includes all neural tissue in the body Neuron nerve cell Basic functional unit of the nervous system is the neuron o Communicates o Integrates information 0 Controls body processes Brain spinal cord nerves and sensory structures are composed of neurons and other neural tissue Glia and supporting structures vessels connective tissues etc The neuron Function unit neuron Neuron anatomy o Dendrites 0 Body soma Axon Hillock 2 Connects body and axon o Axon Axolemma plasma membrane Telodendria 2 Branching of axon Synaptic terminals Neurons communicate Dendrites receive information 0 Decisions made at Hillock o Axon delievers information o Termainlas send message to next cell via synapse Presynaptic cell Delievers info Postsynaptic cell 2 Receives info How do they communicate o All cells have a membrane potential Membrane separates charge voltage Remember homeostasis of the cell 0 392 ICF is different from ECF Types of potential 2 Resting potential All neural activity begins with deviation from rest A stimulus is required to activate the cell 2 Graded potential Deviations from rest Effect weakens as distance from stimulus increases 2 Action potential All or none response only occurs if stimulus is strong enough 0 Occurs if graded potential is strong enough For neurons this activity occurs in the axon Effect is equal across length of axon 2 Synaptic activityinformation processing Resting membrane potential 0 ECF and ICF are very different in ionic composition 0 Cell membranes are selectively permeable Na and K will move through channels Leak channels and active transport pumps 0 Permeability is ion specific 0 Result ICF has voltage of 70 mV 0 Proteins are negatively charged so positive potassium is inside cell negative chloride is outside of cell Forces acting on the plasma membrane 0 Passive Concentration chemical gradients 2 K out and Na in Electrical 2 ICF is negatively charged proteins 2 ECF is positive Potential or voltage is created by separation of charge Resting membrane potential is 70mV in most cells Flow of charged particles occurs when channels open Electrochemical gradient 2 Sum of chemical and electrical forces Electrochemical force on K 0 Chemical High concentration ICF Pressure for K to diffuse ECF 0 Electrical Positive charge ECF Pressure for K to diffuse ICF 0 Must add forces together to determine which way K will move Sodium potassium exchange pump Sodium potassium ATPase 0 Pump uses energy to maintainrestore gradients to resting conditions 0 Constantly fighting leak channels 0 Every pump moves 2 K in and 3 Na out The electrochemical gradient is a form of potential energy Temporarily changes in permeability to release energy Stimulation can change permeability to active gated channels 0 Closed 0 Open active 0 Closed deactivated Stimulation will allow cells to communicate How are cells stimulated Gated channels and the neuron Dendrite o Chemically gated sodium channels Axon and telodendria 0 Voltage gated sodium channels Ex chemically gated sodium channel produces a graded potential in the neuron cell body What happens after a chemically gated channel opens The voltage changes A graded local potential is produced 0 Change from rest 2 choices Depolarization more positive than rest Hyperpolarization more negative than rest 0 Reset repolarization back to rest How do neurons communicate If a graded potential is strong enough then an action potential will fire in the axon o Graded potentials are additive Must add sum of depolarization and hyperpolarization events in cell body Net change must reach threshold 60 to 55 to fire an action potential Action potential properties Adheres to a or none principle 0 Threshold must be reached 60 to 55 0 Response is always the same 0 Cannot be stopped Chain reaction as voltage gated channels are activated along axon o Unidirectional Hillock to terminals 0 Refractory period follows Axon function and the action potential Credit to Hodgkin and Huxley for initial research on axon physiology 0 Squid giant axon What does an action potential look like Graded potential add to reach threshold at the hillock chemical gated channels contribute Action potential begins 0 Threshold triggers voltage gated Na channels to open in axon o Axon depolarizes as sodium enters ICF o Axon reaches maximal depolarization Na channels inactivatek channels activate and open K leaves ICF and cell beings to repolarize 0 K channels close but are slow Slight hyperpolarization before returning to rest Resting potential 0 Axolemma contains both voltage gated sodium channels and voltage gated potassium channels that are closed during resting potential Depolarization to threshold 0 Stimulus that initiates an action potential is a graded depolarization large enough to open votage gated sodium channels Opening of the channels occurs at the transmembrane potential known as the threshold Activation of sodium channels and rapid depolarization 0 When sodium channel activation gates open plasma membrane becomes much more permeable to Na driven by large electrochemical gradient sodium ions rush into the cytoplasm and rapid depolarization occurs Inner membrane surface now contains more positive ions than negative ones the transmembrane potential has changed from 60 to positive value Inactivation of sodium channels and activation of potassium channels 0 As the transmembrane potential approaches 30 the inactivation gates of sodium channels close This conincides with the opening of voltage gated potassium channels Positively charged potassium ions move out of the cytosol shiting the transmembrane potential back towards resting level Repolarization now begins Closing of potassium channels 0 The votage gated sodium channels remain inactivated until the membrane has repolarized to near threshold levels They regain their normal status closed but capable of opening The potassium channels begin closing as the membrane reaches resting potential 70 until all of these channels have been closed potassium ions still continue to leave the cell this produces a brief hyperpolarization Resting potential 0 As potassium channels close the transmembrane potential returns to normal resting levels The action potential is over Action potential propagation Potentials spread across the entire membrane 0 Refractory period determines direction 0 Myelination determines speed Unmyelinated slow 1ms Myelinated fast 5ms 2 Satareeaping Demyelination Destruction of myelin sheath 0 Painloss of sensation in extremities 0 Loss of motor control paralysis Causes 0 Heavy metal poisioning Kills glia o Diphtheria leather disease 0 MS Recurrent demyelination progessivly worsens U CNS amp PNS o Guiain Barre Autoimmune PNS extremities first Treatments 0 Steroids immune suppressants Propagation after the terminal Action potential stops at terminal Signal must cross synaptic cleft Message must be converted from electrical to chemical o Neurotransmitters The synapse 2 cells coming together presynaptic cell 0 usually neuron 0 sends chemical information postsynaptic cells 0 can be neuron or other cells neuromuscularjunction neuroglandularjunction 0 must have receptors Action potential In axon Occur in specific way 0 Cannot be stopped once it is started 0 Dependent on what cell is doing at rest and electrical chemical gradients 0 At rest 70 mV First step 0 Voltage gated sodium channels 0 Open sodium moves down electrical chemical gradient Moves from outside to inside ICF 60 mV opens 2 membrane depolarized 0 30 mV 3 voltage gated potassium channels 0 opens moves out of cell to ECF 4 membrane hyperpolarizes o 90 more negative than 70 5 membrane repolarizes o 70 mV myliated channels make action potential move faster Signaling an action potential arrives and depolarizes the synaptic terminal 0 synaptic vesicles inside synaptic terminal 0 action potential travels down axon extracellular Ca2 enters synaptic terminal Triggering the exocytosis of the neurotransmitter o neurotransmitter goes into synaptic cleft o finds way into various receptors on other side of synaptic cleft chemically gated sodium ion channels 2 triggers action potential in next neuron reuptake of neurotransmitters is possible removed by enzymes after action potential is achieved 0 can be recycled o synaptic fatigue can occur supply depleted events at synapse action potential reaches axon terminal depolarization at terminal triggers Ca entry Ca signals exocytosis of neurotransmitter NT crosses cleft NT binds to receptors on post synaptic cell Postsynaptic cell is stimulated then NT is removed Neurotransmitters create varied responses Many synapses are cholinergic 0 Use Acetylcholine Ach as NT Examples of others 0 Norepinephrine adrenergic synapses Sympathetic nervous system Common adrenaline o Dopamine CNS Motor control inhibitory good feelings excitatory o Serotonin CNS Focus and emotions SSrIs antidepressants o GABA CNS Anxiety Neuronal integration and decision making Post synaptic cell may have many types of recepteros 0 Therefore post synaptic neurons Can respond to NTs released from different types of neurons Collect info and make a decision 0 Remember graded potentials are additive 0 Final result will be either EPSP 2 Excitatory postsynaptic potential IPSP 2 Inhibitory postsynaptic potential Summation of responses Spatial 0 First stimulus arrives second adds to first action potential is generated Temporal o 2 stimuli arrive simultaneously action potential is generated reflex arcs 122814 939 PM Anatomical divisions Central nervous system 0 Spinal cord amp brain 0 Functions of CNS are to process and coordinate Sensory information and execute motor commands Higher functions intelligence memory learning and emotion Peripheral nervous system 0 All neural tissue except CNS 0 Mainly composed of nerves Bundles of axons 0 Peripheral nerves Cranial nerves Spinal nerves Functional divisions PNS o Afferent to bring to Sensory information To CNS receptors sensory organs plus nerves 0 Efferent to bring out Motor information From CNS to target organs 2 Muscles 2 Glands 2 divisions 2 somatic nervous system SNS soma body skeletal muscles voluntary 2 autonomic nervous system ANS visceral motor smooth muscles glands involuntary antagonistic divisions parasympathetic o slowing things down sympathetic o speeding things up spinal reflexes Some organs only have one 0 May work together Coordinate stages of a complex process Parasympathetic dominates normally Sympathetic activated with stress ANS autonomic nervous system Organization 0 More complex than somatic reflex arcs CNS motor neurons synapse with visceral motor neurons Additional synapse of motor efferent neurons 2 Synapse occurs at autonomic ganglia 2 Gangia bulge containing many cell bodies 0 Hypothalamus in the brain contains an autonomic control center Sympathetic activity Sympathetic responses 0 Heightened mental alertness Increased metabolic rate Reduced digestive and urinary function Activation of energy reserves Increased respiratory ratedilation of respiration passages Increased heart rate and blood pressure 0 Activation of sweat glands One response can be activated in visceral reflex arc All stress responses Parasympathetic activity Parasympathetic responses 0 Decreased metabolic rate 0 Increased digestive and salivary gland secretion o Increased digestive motility o Stimulation of urination and defecation o Decreased heart rate and blood pressure Autonomic tone Always on o Signals are either turned up or down OOOOO Skeletal muscle 122814 939 PM Skeletal muscle Contracts 0 Must be stimulated by CNS 0 Most skeletal muscle control is voluntary Functions 0 Movement 0 Maintain posture o Guard entrances and exits Digestive and urinary system control 0 Maintain tempproduce heat 0 Support and protect soft tissues 0 Store nutrients Emergency protein and amino acid supply Muscle cellsfibers Skeletal muscle fiber Specializations 0 Size fibers are large Forms by fusion of myoblasts Can be up to 12 inches 0 Multi nuclei Adaptation to make multiple copies of muscle proteins and enzymes Skeletal muscle cells 0 Sarcolemma Plasma membrane Change in trans membrane potential is first step in triggering contraction o Sarcoplasm Cytoplasm o Transverse tubules t tubues Invaginations of sarcolemma 2 Folded over 2 vagina Help spread action potentials Neural control Every muscle fiber has 1 neuromuscularjunction NMJ Treates myasthenia gravis Decreases AchE o Binds Ach in synaptic cleft breaks down and gets rid of signal Diaminopyridine Treates ambert eaton syndrome Keeps calcium channels open longer 0 Don39t have as many lets more molecules diffuse into cell Botulism or botox Botulism o Food borne illness 0 Clostridium botulin neurotoxin 0 1836 hours post ingestion canned food gone bad prevents release of synaptic vesicles ANS depression 2 Dry mouth double vision slurring and swallowing defects 2 GI distress vomiting pain diarrhea NMJ depression 2 Limb paralysis respiratory paralysis O Botox 0 Clinical applications 0 Localized injection paralyzes select NMJs Glabellar muscle Sweat glands Treatment of migrains Skeletal muscle cells Myofibrils o Smaller structures in muscle cell 0 Contains myofilaments and titin Thin actin Thick myosin 0 Can shorten cause muscle contraction o Anchored to sarcolemma at ends Start of exam 2 Sarcomere 122814 939 PM Proteins of thin filament o Actin G actin molecules 0 Troponin Individual protein 0 Tropomyosin String of proteins Proteins of thick filament o Myosin At m line Myosin tail amp head 2 Head is like spring 0 Titin protein Structure of sarcomere o Banding patterns on sarcomere Created by bands containing myofilaments Zone of overlap H band 2 Allows proteins to interact M ine middle of thick filaments H band where thick and thin are crossed over I band thin filaments amp titin protein Zone of overlap increases when muscle contracts Excitation contraction coupling 0 Link between sarcolemma action potential and activation of sliding filaments Coupling occurs in triads 2 Cristae and t tubues Action potential triggers calcium release from sarcoplasmic reticulum Calcium contacts zone of overlap in sarcomere 2 Bind to troponin which was covering active site on actin allows actin to be bonded with myosin Calcium interacts with troponin and triggers tropomyosin shift Tropomyosin movement exposes ctibe sites on actin NMJ stimulation 2 Ach supply Calcium supply in sarcoplasm ATP supply in sarcoplasm 0 Relaxation occurs when Ach and Ca signals are removed or ATP supply is depleted Steps in initiating muscle contraction o Ach released binds to receptors 0 Action potential reaches t tubule o Sarcoplasmic reticulus releases calcium 0 Active site exposure cross bridge formation 0 Contraction begins Steps in muscle relaxation o Ach broken down by AchE o Sarcoplasmic reticulum recaptures Ca 0 Active sites covered no more cross bridge formation 0 Contraction ends o Relaxation occurs return to resting length ATP and rigor mortis o 27 hours after death cellular breakdown allows Ca release from SR ATP supply is depleted 2 Cross bridges can form but not release Sustained muscle contrition produced 0 16 days decomposition begins lysosomes break down Z disks and titin 2 contraction ceases as fibers break down muscle hypertrophy increase in muscle fiber size 0 25 reps at 8090 max causes fluid hypertrophy more sarcoplasm mostly size increase body builders 0 8 reps of 50 max causes myofibril hypertrophy more proteins cardiovascular 122814 939 PM Cardiovascular system Heart is a functional syncytium o It is a functional unit 0 Works as a pump Vessels are a transport network Cardiovascular system is closed 0 Blood travels from heart through vessels and back 2 circuits 2 pumonary lungs to heart oxygenates blood 2 systemic heart to rest of body heart introduction heart in thoracic cavity fills from base up site of great vessel attachment 0 apex down 0 coronary circulation heart has its own blood supplu o 4 chambers 2 atria top 2 have ears 2 ventricles 2 fat lies in sulci marks ventricle boarders 0 right and left divided by interatrial septum 2 splits atrias interventricular septum 2 splits ventricles 0 heart layers 3 epicardiumpericardium 2 protective sac covering the heart 2 double layered folds over at base 2 creates pericardial cavity filled with fluid to reduce friction 2 pericarditis inflammation of area 0 O 0 right ventricle is pouch shaped left is roung function 0 0 right contracts like bellows left contracts like toothpaste tube heart has 4 chambers top right right atrium top left left atrium right ventricle bottom right left ventricle bottom left valves 0 O responsible for pumping blood out to circulation systemic everything in body strongest chamber of heart atria ventricles and great vessels 0 divided by valves atrioventricular valves 0 O OOOOO r tricuspid 3 cusps for 3 flaps parrashute strings mitral bicuspid valve anchored on side of heart and lower down muscle attached to hold things together 2 flaps valve shut when ventricle is contracted doesn39t let blood flow back into atrium in between the atrium and ventricle cusps held in place by chordae tendineae whenever open blood flows down from atrium to ventricle cusps fibrous valve flaps chordae tendineae fibrous parachute strings keep blood from back flowing papillary muscle pull chordae tendineae keep blood from back flowing semilunar valves 0 heart palpitations o atrial fibrillation 0 syncope fainting how does blood move through the heart and great vessels Start in right atrium deoxygenated blood enters RA to RV goes through tricuspid valve From RV goes through right semilunar valves and then pulmonary artery 0 Headed towards lungs to get oxygen in blood Blood enters heart again through left atrium Goes to bicuspid valves into left ventricle Left ventricle 9 goes to aortic valve to systemic circulation Blood returns back to heart through vena cava Heart introduction Heart in thoracic cavity 0 Base up Site of great vessel attachment 0 Apex down 0 Coronary circulation hearts blood supplu 4 chambers o 2 atria r amp L atria have ears 0 2 ventricles fat lies in sulci marks ventricle boarders cardiovascular system at birth foramen ovale o develops during heart formation in utero o passageway from RA to LA 0 closes at birth 3 months 0 little windownhole fetal lungs are useless get oxygen from mother makes system more efficient for moving blood fossa ovalis o depression marking site in adult heart closes hole of foramen ovale cardiac cycle 122814 939 PM Cardiac Conduction and contraction How does the heart work 0 Heart is a functional syncytium o Contraction occurs in stereotypical pattern First atria contract then ventrivles 0 Cardiac conduction system coordinates contraction Specialized conduction cells direct action potentials Contractile cardiac muscle cells then shorten together Cardiac conduction system 0 Network of specialized cardiac muscle cells Allows cardiac tissue to be authorhythmic 0 Produce and distribute action potentials o Consists of Sinoatrial SA node pacemaker 2 Spreads action potentials the fastest Atrioventricular AV node Conducting cells 2 AV bunde bundle of His 2 Bundle branches 0 Left and right 2 Prukinje subendocardial fibers 0 SA and AV nodes Pacemaker potential 2 Node cell membranes do not have a stable resting potential 392 Following repolarization membrane drifts toward threshold Rade of depolarization heart rate 2 SA depolarizes at rate of 80100 bm 2 AV 406 bm 0 Timing of heart beats Delay must exist between excitation and cardiac contraction 2 Depolarization before actual contraction Intermodal pathways direct and slow action potentials Atria must contract first Ventricular relaxation Heart monitor waves electrical events mechanical events follow Wiggers diagram First bump p wave 0 Depolarization event 0 Atrium right and left depolarizing 0 Mechanical event right after atrial contract Atrial systole 2 Less space in atria more pressure 2 Blood moves to ventricles Uses AV valves Blood moving to ventricles atrial kick 2quotd amp 3 i QRS complex 0 ventricles depolarizing o atrial repolarizing o mechanical event atrial relax with atrial repolarizing 2 atrial diastole ventricles contract with ventricular depolarization 2 ventricular systole less space in ventricles pressure increases AV valves close makes first heart sound Semilunar valves stay shut Isolumic contraction creates more pressure causes semilunar valves to open 0 No blood movement during contraction o Iso same umic pressure Ejection phase blood is going to arteries 2 Left aorta 2 Right pulmonary 4 T wave 0 ventricle repolarization o mechanical event ventricle relaxation ventricular diastole Factors affecting heart rate 2 hormones Autonomic innervation Parasympathetic decreases o Cardio inhibitory center slows down Vagus nerve travels down to heart tells to slow down Releases Ache neurotransmitter Binds to SA node on atrium Ex after finishing workout HR slows down Sympathetic increases 0 Cardio acceleratory center speeds up Info sent through spinal cord communicate with sympathetic nervous system Sympathetic ganglion communicate with heart in atrium near SA node Releases adrenalin or epinephrine causes heart to speed up SA node sends out electrical signals to atrium goes to AV node Visceral sensory neurons communicate to medulla Vagus and cardiac ANS motor nerves communicate to heart Factors affecting stroke volume 2 End diastoic volume 2 End systoic volume Drugs and heart function 0 Stimulates sarcoemma s of cardiac conduction cells Plasma membrane of cells Causes to depolarize and move faster 2 blood pressure high coming off the heart they have to resist big drop in blood pressure comes when moving though arterioles itte arteries 0 capillaries exchange vessels very thin walls very low resistance lots of exchange through diffusion o venules collects from capillary beds little veins 0 veins return blood to heart capacitance vessels vena cava biggest returns blood to heart right atrium vessels organized in parallel circuits 0 all organs get similar concentrations of oxygen and nutrients vessel structure vessels contain 0 muscle fibers 0 elastic fibers 0 collagen provide flexibility strength and control arteries 0 have more muscle 0 elastic fibers recoil veins 0 thinner 0 have more stretch vascular smooth muscle involuntary o regulated by ANS chemical or mechianical signals gap junctions mononucleate 0 small spindle shaped Cardioacceleratory 2 Increases CO via sympathetic ANS Cardioinhibitory 2 Decreases CO via parasympathetic ANS Together they are cardiovascular center 0 Pressure gradients Pressure is developed in the heart There must be a gradient to drive blood flow in vessels 2 Just like chemical gradients Pressure gradients allow flow from high to low Largest pressure gradient is between aorta and peripheral capillary beds 2 100mgHg at aorta 2 35 at capillary networks arterols provide resistnace pressure capillary hydrostatic pressure CHP U 3518 venous pressure gradient is low resistance is low 2 venous pressure 18 right atria has Lowest pressure pressure relation to resistnace and flow 2 flow is equal to cardiac output FCO 2 Flow is also proportional to pressure and resistnace in vessels F PR 2 There must always be enough pressure to overcome resistance to allow flow 2 Pressure must be greater than total peripheral resistance What causes resistnace 0 Vascular resistance Forces that oppose blood flow 2 Friction between blood and vessel wall Depends on vessel length and diameter Deiameter exerts a larger effect 0 What about vasomotion R 14r2 Blood viscosity Thick blood has greater resistance Blood viscosity is stable 5x water reduced with o pathology anemiapolycythemia o compensate for hyertentions Coumadin or warfarin El El El 2 turbulence eddies and swirls caused by irregular surface often occurs in heart between chambers and great vessels occurs with plaques 0 large plaques detected with stethoscope o brude sound heard as blood swrils by pressure drops as distance increases 2 drop is greates in arterioles resistance vesses small diameter 2 drop slow in capillaries exchange 2 capillary beds surface area Arranged in beds 0 Allow more flow with less pressure 0 Promotes exchange 0 Perfused as needed 0 Only 25 of beds are perfused at rest Venous pressure 0 Blood distribution El El El Very low 18 mmgH in venules Drops to 2mmHg in vena cava before entering RA Pressure with determine return Affects CO If pressure is too low for return then CO will be reduced Where is the blood Heart 7 Arteries 14 Capiaries 7 Veins 64 Venous reserve 20 El El El 0 Venous flow Cardiac control center in brain can stimulate venoconstriction Valves provide direction and prevent backflow Varicose veins Blood pools in lower limbs and veins stretch Valves can break and separate Venous assistance Skeletal muscle pump El El El El Skin liver lungs Can divert in case of need or hemorrhage Helps develop pressure when standing Must counter force of gravity Muscles squeeze vessels to develop pressure Valves direct flow toward heart Respiratory pump Important when exercising Inhaling expands thoracic cavity more vmume Pressure drops blood flows toward vena cava and heart Exhale decreases volume increase pressure Blood pushed to RA What is blood pressure 0 Systoic highest blood pressure entering artier o Diastoic low blood pressure 0 Mean arterial pressure D 13 S d Signle pressure used to report blood pressure 13 systolic 23 diastolic 2 heart spends more time in diastole 2 pulse pressure is not an accurate estimate 2 Must use MAP 2 What is chronic Hypertension 0 High blood pressure Hypotenstion 0 Low blood pressure 0 Heart develops pressure in waves Tow pressures felt in arteries 2 Peak pressure systolic 2 Produced during heart systole 2 Min pressure is diasolic Pressure at end of diastole 2 No mean capillary or venous pressure Pulse pressure systolic diastolic What happens if pressure is too low 0 Venous return drops 0 CO drops 0 Baroreceptors detect change Mechanoreceptors 2 Respond to stretch or pressure 2 Found in aorta 2 Carotid arteries Baroreceptors communicate to ANS to increase blood pressure Action potentials to cardiovascular center in medulla End resut corrects low blood pressure 0 O Outer layer tears o Shaped like bi concave disk High surface areavoume 2 Lots of area for gas exchange no long difstance for diffusion Slightly flexible 2 Can squeeze through capillaries that are just big enoughquot No organelles 2 Cant make proteins divide or make ATP Only live 120 days 0 Also known as erythrocytes Coloration from hemoglobin 2 Contains heme Nonprotein pigment Molecule with 1 iron atom Site that holds oxygen 392 Oxygemoglobin is bright red 2 Deoxyhemoglobin is dark red Composed of 4 protein chains 2 2 alpha 2 2 beta 2 each holds 1 heme molecule 0 anemia no blood low number of RBCs 2 total or functional low Hb content symptoms are lethargy weakness tiredness 2 oxygen transport is crictical for tissue survival 2 reduced RBCs or Hb reduces O2 transport 2 body weakens blood loss 2 easiest to recognize 2 loss of RBCs due to hemorrhage 2 trauma Androgens Ex testosterone 2 Men have more RBC and highter hematocrits Blood doping Natural o Exposing body to low 02 0 Where do Olympic athletes train Areas with low oxygen higher elevations Chea ng o Removing blood while training 0 Reinfusing RBCs before competition Drug abuse 0 Taking EPO pills o Increases hematocrit up to 65 if person is healthy Can increase blood viscosity What does this do to R Hemostasic Process of stopping blood or bleeding 0 Vascular phase Vessels spasms 2 Endothelia cells contract and release endothelin 392 Endothelin signals Smooth muscle to contract 0 More contraction To endutheial cells to divide and repar 2 Endotheial cells become sticky Lasts roughly 30 minutes after the injury endotheial cells contract and release endothelins which stimulate muscle contraction and endothelial division Endothelial cells become sticky and adhere to platelets and each other 0 Platelet phase Form platelet plug 2 Adhesion Platelets stick to endothelial cells 2 Aggregation immune 122814 939 PM lymphatic system and immunity lymphatic system responsible for defense from pathogens contain 0 lymph o lymphatic vessels 0 nodes tonsils spleen thymus bone marrow immunity ability to resist infection from defense what is lymph fluid component of lymphatic system similar to blood plasma fewer proteins 0 capillaries are leaky o hydrostatic blood pressure in capillaries forces some fluid out into surrounding tissues 0 fluid is collected by lymph vessels transported to vena cava lymphedema o blockage of lymph duct causes interstitial fluid accumulation edema swelling and distention of tissues infection risk increases in area elephantiasis caused by parasite attacking lymph vessels marked by swelling skin thickening lymph nodes and immunity lymph nodes 0 small lymph organs 0 filter lymph before returning fluid to vena cava 0 fixed macrophages big eaters eat debris and pathogens in lymph fluid 0 macrophages present bits of eatn cells to lymphocytes 0 first step in activating immune response largest nodes in groin axillae and neck prevent pathogens from reaching trunk often swell during infection OOOO more Iympth organs and tissues thymus 0 produces hormones to help mature lymphocyte T ces 0 peaks in sizefunction at 12 spleen o functions like nodes but filters blood not lymph 0 red blood cell graveyard o tears easysplenectomy commons large lymphoid nodules o lymph tissues tonsils peyer s patches appendix 2 located along digestive respiratoryurinary and reproductive tracts open systems lymphocytes one of 5 tpes of white blood cells o never let monkeys eat bananas neutrophil eosinophil basophil monocyte lymphocyte differentiation of formed elements 0 study diagram 3 classes of lymphocytes 0 t ce matures in thymus lymphoid stem cells 2 migrate to thymus from red bone marrow mature T cells transported in the blood stream to red bone marrow goes to peripheral tissues 0 b ce matures in bone marrow o NK natural killer Immunity Innate non specific 0 Contain and destroy invaders 7 methods Barriers eating poke holes call for back up turn up the heat 0 Genetically determined same response every time 5 complement system 2 consists of circulating proteins that assist in antibpdies in destruction of pathogens Iysed pathogen o 6 inflammatory response in localized tissuelevel response that tends to limit the sprad of an injury or infection inflammation 2 swelling redness heat pain blood flow increased phagocytes activated capilalary permeability increased complement activated clothing reaction walls of region regional temperature increased adaptive defenses activated 0 7 fever elevation of body temperature that accelerates tissue metabolism and the activity of defenses turn up the heat 2 Metabolism increase 2 Some bacteriavirus may not function at high temp 2 Body temperature rises about 372 celcius in response to pyrogens Adaptive specific immunity Triggered by specific pathogens T ces target and attack also activate bcells BIOL 110 Tutorials O2242014 Tutorial 6 Prokaryotes evolution and early metabolism 0 How bacteria can be bene cial o 400 different species living in gastro system 0 Symbiotic relationships between prokaryotes and other life forms 0 Host larger of 2 species o Microsymbiont smaller of 2 species 0 Mutualism both species bene t Prokaryotes that x nitrogen into ammonium 2 Rhizobium bacteria colonize on the roots of pea plants where they x nitrogen plant provides carbon for the bacteria the bacteria xes nitrogen Synthesizing vitamin K in intestines 2 Bacteria get carbon we get vitamin K Bacteria to early infants 2 Helps start immune system o Parasitism one bene ts at the expense of the others Pathogens Exotoxins 2 Proteins secreted by prokaryotes 392 Ex clostridium botulinum vibrio cholera 0 Cholera spread through contaminated water supplies 0 Colonizes in intestines exotoxin stimulates the cells that line the lower GI tract to secrete massive amounts of excess ions into the lumen creates hypertonic state in the lumen Endotoxins 2 Surface protein components of the outer cell membrane in some gram negative bacteria 2 Salmonella typhi o Commensalism benign neither bene t nor harm o Opportunistic infection A normally commensalistic bacteria becomes pathogenic in response to a changed environment 2 Usually a weakened immune system 0 Nitrogen use and the prokaryote o Nitrogen cycle is crucial to life nitrogen xation o Almost all legumes are capable of housing nitrogen xing bacteria o Rhizobia species of bacteria that participate in symboioses with plants The plants secrete molecules that act as chemical signals to a select species of bacteria Bacteria migrate towards the plants root bacteria reach root and start nodule formation they live in nodule Oxygen and metabolic relationships o Obligate aerobes require oxygen o Obligate anaerobes do not need oxygen may be poisoned by them o Facultative anaerobes can alternate their oxygen requirement 0 Origins of metabolic processes Subcellular architecture of the eukaryotic cell 0 Subcellular organization in eukaryotic cells o Nucelous Central role in providing genetic information to the cell Surrounded by nuclear envelope Nucleolus 2 Contains very active group of genes that encode and transcribe ribosomal RNA Smooth ER 2 Synthesizes lipids and degrades toxins Rough ER 2 Houses ribosomes many proteins are targeted for export outside the cell are synthesized 2 Protein targeting o Newly synthesized proteins destined for export have a unique signal sequence that directs them to the rough ER 0 Then binds to the signal recognition particle binds to the growing peptide 0 The SRP facilitates association with the rough ER and the complex docks to the rough ER at a speci c receptor site 0 Growing peptide is then inserted through the pore polypeptide now inserted into the lumen of the rough ER as it is synthesized 0 Speci c peptidases inside the lumen recognize the signal sequence and this short stretch is removed 0 Once translation is comolete the translational complex dissociates leaving the newly synthesized protein inside the rough ER Golgi apparatus 2 Where carbs are added to proteins in the process called glycosylation 2 Proteins enter on the cis face leave from the trans face Lysosomes 392 Break down material 2 Contain hydrolytic enzymes initially inactive but when reach lysosome become active 2 Only material in lysosome is degraded Vacuoles 2 In animal cells primarily storage organelles for proteins and lipids that are to be exported from the cell 2 Plants large central vacuole Filled with water that exerts pressure against the cel wall turgor pressure o Helps provide structural support Mitochondria 392 Converting food energy into ATP 2 Muscle cells may contain thousands 2 Double membrane 0 Inner has cristae for extra surface area I Own genetic material in circular DNA In Only get from mothers 0 Traf cking of proteins throughout the cell o Above under rough ER 0 Role of the cytoskeleton in cell structure and function o Micro laments Smallest bers O O Polymerized subunits of protein actin strung together like beads Cell motility facilitate cellular migration muscle cell contraction Intermediate laments Medium size made of borous proteins wrapped around one another to form a thick cable like structure Important role in supporting cell structures and anchoring organelles in correct position within the cel Relatively static within the cell Microtubules Largest cytoskeleton Hollow tubes made of rows of paired tubulin molecules Important to mitosis and major structural role within the cell The endosymbiotic theory 0 O Mitochondria evolved from prokaryotic cells that inhabitated other large prokaryotes One organism began living within another Chloroplasts Evidence Mitochondria 2 Resemble bacteria that exist replicate like binary ssion 2 Own DNA circular plasmid 2 Machinery to transcribe and translate their genomes 2 Lack histones Cynanobacteria o Use h2o and co2 to make organic molecules with the help of solar energy Protists protists with modi ed mitochondria kingdoms euglenozoa and alveolata 0 General characteristics of the protists o Single celled o Membrane bound nuclei and organelles o Most have sophisticated locomotion o Photosynthetic or heterotrophic Basic classi cation of protisits 0 Monophyletic o Eukaryotes all ancestors arose from a single common ancestor 0 Paraphyletic o Protists does not contain all of its descendants because the fungi plants and animals are recognized as separate kingdoms makes protists paraphyletic 0 Modi ed mitochondria o Diplomonads Mitosomes lack functional electron transport chains and unable to perform cellular respiration get energy from glycolysis Lack golgi but always have agella Giardia disease giardiasis 2 Attaches to intestinal epithelium causing severe diarrhea and intestinal cramps 2 Few can cause severe infection o Parabasalids Anaerobes Hydrogenosome may be a degenerate mitochondria Have functional golgi and agella T vaginais STD o o 0 Polyphyletic Major characteristics of taxonomic groups of protists o Kingdom euglenozoa Heterotrophs and autotrophs 2 groups 2 euglenoids o primarily photosynthetic all have agella 2 kinetoplastids 0 one large mitochondrion and an organelle called a kinetoplast stores extranuclear DNA 0 live in symbiosis with host organisms number are pathogenic 0 African Sleeping sickness trypanosome o From teste y 0 Chagas disease transmitted from kissing bugs o Chronic infection that causes acute symptoms between 1020 years after infection o Kingdom alveolata Most familiar and exologically interesting protists 2 Build coral reefs causes malaria algae that causes red tides Monophyletic and recognizable by their alveoli 2 Small cavities enclosed in membranes that hug the internal cell surface 3 groups 2 dino agellates distinct shapes from frames of cellulose within their walls ridged cell wall with perpendicular groves that house a pair of agella o beat within grooves causing them to rotate as they move photosynthetic phytoplankton that oats near surface of ocea some are heterotrophic can exploit chloroplasts from photosynthetic protists becoming autrotrophic for a time bioluminesce o make own light by luciferin same chemical in re ies o noctiluca oat under surface of ocean can produce glowing tides o burglar theory coral reefs o reefs engulf but do not digest them zooxanthellae live out their lives within the tissues of the corals o corals composed of exoskeletons provide corals with energy to build reefs o bleached when loose their zooxantheHae impact of humans on environment red tide o harmful algal blooms El o release toxins into the water killing animals harms humans o p esteria uses toxins to kill sh stunning them apicomplexans parasites live and reproduce in tissues of animals 0 apical complex o cluster of microtubules and organelles located in the apex of cells that are in the infectious stage penetrates host cells o malaria ciliates 0 Different ways in which protists impact humans Protists kingdoms Stramenopila rhodophyta chlorophyta and the slime molds Kingdom Stramenopila o Monophyletic group o All have hair like projections on their agella stramenquot Diatoms El Responsible for 20 of annual global carbon xa on Encased in glass like silica shell lined with perforations to allow gas exchange at the cell surface Diatomaceous earth consists of microscopic fragments of glass from silica shells 0 Used as pesticide animal feed cleaning products etc Water molds phylum oomycota El Unicellular or colonial 2 Most heterotropic decomposers feed on dead decaying matter 2 Some attack living plants and animals 2 Sexually reproducing oomycetes Similar to fungi May form hyphae diploid cells similar to fungal hyphae 2 Cell walls of cellulose not chitin 2 Convergent evolution with fungi Unrelated organisms that occupy similar environments evolve similar functional traits 2 Impact on humans 0 Downy mildew French wine disaster 0 Phytophthora infestans potato blight o Irish potato famine Brown algae phylum phaeophyta 392 Largest of protists 2 Giant multicellular species compromise kelp forests 2 Seaweeds 0 Stip stem 0 Holdfast secures to substrate 0 Blades leafs extension of surface area Golden algae phylum chrystophyta 2 Plantonic maily freshwater organisms 2 Golden color due to carotenoids and xanthophylls 2 Predators using pseudopodia to prey on smaller organisms 2 Can have population explosions similar to HAB 0 Kingdom Rhodophyta red algae o Pigments phycobilins produce pink red shades that they approach black Phycoerythrin red pigments allow rhodophytes to photosynthesize at water depths that only high energy blue and green light can penetrate Kingdom Chlorophyta green algae o Closely related to plants o Store xed carbon as starch and have walls of cellulose o Very diverse kingdom Slime molds member of kingdom amoebozoa o With fungi because of heterotrophic feeding and appearance o Plasmodial slime molds Unicellular bizzare beautiful o Cellular slime molds Most of lives in amoeba single cells 2 Join together when resources are scares The role of mitosis in the life cycle of singlecelled and multicellular organisms Single cells reproduce 0 Muticeular grow 0 13 hours to complete The phases of the cell cycle 0 Continous phase 0 M phase o Mitotic phase 0 nterphase other 3 phases o G1 growth phase o S phase synthesis phase DNA is replicated o G2 growth phase o Replication of cellular components can occur throughout these phases The major chromosomal events of each stage of mitosis Prophase o Condensation of chromosomes o 2 replicated identical chromatids attached at the centromere Prometaphse o Nuclear envelope disassembles Metaphase o Chromosomes move to metaphase plate o Important checkpoint cells will not move to next stage unless they are properly positioned o This stage takes in the longest in most cells 0 Anaphase o Chromatids separated o Centromeres dissolve o Newly freed chromatids move rapidly toward poles Telophase o Nuclear envelope reforms o Chromomes decondense 0 Cytokinesis o Cytoplasm divides o Animal cells Cell membrane pinches inward Forms cleavage furrow between two halves o Plant cells Divide by forming a new piece of cell wall in their center Vesicles deposite wall builidng material along the central area of the cell Chromosome movement during the cell cycle de ne diploid versus haploid cells 0 diploid 2 copies of each gene one from mother and one from father 0 haploid only 1 copy of each gene o in gametes summarize the role of mitosis in eukaryotes be able to diagram and label the stages of mitosis be able to explain why mitosis results in daughter cells that are genetically identical to the parent cell explain the differences between karyokinesis and cytokinesis karyokinesis separation of chromosomes 0 cytokinesis organielles and other cytoplasmic components are separated Asexual and sexual reproduction Asexual produce identical offspring o Binary ssion o Fast requires less energy avoids potential for creating a bad combitnation of genes o Disadvantage lack of genetic variation may be determental if conditions change and genetic variation becomes valuable 0 Sexua genetic material from parents combine to form offspring that are genetically distinct from parents o More energy and time provides offspring with unique genetic makeup may provide advantage in an unpredictable environment Sexual life cycles 0 Sometimes may engage in sex without reproduction Bacteria can undergo conjugation sex without dividing and reproducing Chromosomes Inheritance of traits is due to transmission of genes from parents to children 0 Genes heritable unit that codes for production of a protein o More then 1 form of a gene may exisit allels Formation of slightly different proteins and enzymes that result in differences between individuals Meiosis Formation of gametes which are haploid o When formed together form a diploid cell that will grow into a child 0 3 phases o pairing of homologoys chromosomes o synapsis of chromosomes together o segregation of chromosomes into daughter cells 0 chromosomes replicate forming sisterchromatids and nonsister chromatids o 2 divisions The two sources of genetic variation during meiosis Independent assortment o Metaphase 1 homologous chromosomes line up on the metaphase plate o Orientation is random wheter the maternal or paternal chromosome goes to what cell is random o Combinations is 2quotn nhapoid number in humans is 2quot23 0 Crossing over o Exchange of geneteric material between maternal and paternal chromosomes Recombination o In prophase 1 when paired together in bivalence pieces of 1 chromosome may be exchanged with the identical portion of the other chromosome Occurs 23 times per chromosome pair bettwen nonsister chromatids nly 0 Random fertilization increases variation greatly Discuss sexual versus asexual reproduction Identify the major features of an animal life cycle 0 Gametes are only haploid cells Describe the role of meiosis in eukaryotes and its effect on chromosome number Draw the major features of meiosis Diagram the process of independent assortment and calculate the number of different chromosome combinations independent assortment can produce Diagram crossing over in a homologous pair of chromosomes Demonstrate how events in meiosis affect heredity Fungi Mostly dicomposers assist in recycling nutrients Protists are sister group to fungi and animals The roles and importance of fungi in the biosphere Decomposers releasing carbon from plant walls 0 Plant and human pathogens 0 Mycorrhizae symbiosis with plant roots 0 Produce spores that can be dispersed in water air ground etc Basic fungal nutrition 0 Heterotrophic proli c decomposers 0 Recycle carbon trapped mostly in plant cell walls 0 Absorptive nutrtion o Digested externally then absorbed into their cells o Produce large amounts of organic acids to acidify their local environment followed by digestive enzymes to break down their food source o Almost unlimited in what they can digest Basic morphological diversity within the kingdom Filamentous vegetative structures hyphae Chitin as cell wall Group or mass of hyphae mycelium may be seen as fuzz on moldy bread o Extensive networks of mycelim give fungi big surgace area Hyphae may be separated into separate cels septa Or be continuous coenocytic hyphae Haustoria used to invade plants and absorb cellular contents of plants they are parasitic to plants Basic reproductive features of fungi Can produce asexually or sexually Referred to as or o Sexually reproduction Compatible mating types fuse plasmogamy fusion of membranes Produces heterokaryon mycelium with multiple nuclei from 2 mating types can divide in growing mycelium 2 Unique dikarytic stage gives genetic exibility 2 haploid nuclei fuse karyogamy to form a higly transient diploid state meiosis follws after and produces haploid spores Identify the general characteristics of the fungi Based on molecular data from DNA sequences and life cycle Explain how the quotbody of the fungus is adapted for its mode of nutrition Diagram the general fungal life cycle and describe the difference between plasmogamy and karyogamy Summarize the basic classi cation of fungi Describe the different types of symbiotic relationships that fungi participate in For each taxonomic group of fungi identify the major characteristics of that group and be able to discuss representatives that demonstrate the diversity of the group Microporidians O O O Intracellular parasites of animals or protists mainly affectiving invertebrates Do not have mitochondira but have mitosomes No means of locomotion able to form spores that can live outside host for long time Chytridiomycota O O 0 Many are aquatic Some possess agellated spores Not monophyletic Zygomycota O O O 0 Most terrestrial and saproves in soil Common bread molds Coenocytic hyphae Life cycle Gametangia form on and then fuse to form heterokaryotic state heterokaryotic zygosporangium developes zygosporangium developes a rough and thickened cell wall resistant to harsh conditions When conditions are favorable sygospore germination the nuclei fuse karyogamy and diploid is brie y formed then meiosis occurs and millips of haploid zygospores are formed in the sporangium by mitosis Zygosporangium germinates and releases the spores the the cycle begins again Glomeromycota o All participate in mycorrhizal relationships with plants o Monophyetic Ascomycota o Most diverse O O 0 Form 48 spores in a microscopic sac ascus Bear fruting bodies called ascocarps Can produce enormous amounts of spores called conidia Basidiomycota O 0000 O Gilled fungi gilled mushrooms Club fungi cells that have sexual spores resemble a club Excel at breaking down large plant cell wall polymers Fruiting bodies basidiocarps Gils provide large surface area Fruiting bodies mushrooms Explain different ways in which fungi impact humans either directly or indirectly The general characteristics of all animals 0 Motile heterotrophic multicellular The origin and early evolution of animals 0 Originated from colonial protists similar to choano agellates o Share some basic fetaures The major early branching points in the phylogeny of animal evolution 0 Ancestrial protest o Multicellularity o No true tissues 0 True tissues o Body cavity incompletely lined by mesoderm Bilateral symmetry triploblastic true muscle tissue o Mouth forms rst 0 Body cavity o Mouth forms secondly Body cavity enclosed by mesoderm The basic steps involved in animal development 0 Those who do not have true tissues and those who do not o Parazoans lack true tissues o Eumetazoans have true tissues Characteristics of organisms in the phyla Porifera Cnidaria and Platyhelminthes The different types of body cavities found in bilateral animals 0 Eumetazoans Radial symmetry o Multiple mirrors can be sliced through like cutting pizza 0 Bilateral symmetry o Only 1 mirror plane can separate into identical halves Body cavities o Endoderm Lining of the digestive tract liver and lungs o Ectoderm Outer covering central nervous system o Mesoderm Muscles and most of the internal organs including the heart and kidneys How certain atworms can cause disease in humans 0 Have hooks that can attach to hosts and suckers to suck out food 0 Affects human host ukes mature in blood vessles of intestine fertilized eggs pass out of feces and develop into larvae larvae penetrate snail asexual reproduction in ugs produce larvae that penetrate skin and blood vessles of humans Summarize the general characteristics of animals Review the evolutionary history of animals and their relationship to protists De ne tissues symmetry cephalization Describe the early stages of animal development including tissue and gut formation 0 Cell differentiation how a cell diverges from its early morphology into a more specialized morphology Morphogenesis how an organisms shape is acquired Pattern formation how cells tissues and organs are arranged in an organism Protostomes o Have blastomeres developmental fate is determined early determinate development 0 Deuterostomes o Indeterminate development Differentiate between radiata and bilateria diploblasts and triploblasts Discuss the role of Hox genes in animal development 0 Determine the pattern formation of the body during embryo development 0 Code for transcription factors control the expresson of other genes 0 Found in a linear sequence along the chromosome Discuss the reason for the basal position of sponges in the animal phylogenetic tree and the characteristics of sponges Explain the characteristics of the Radiata Diagram the three different body cavity types found in the bilateria Coelomats have a body cavity 0 Acoelomates do not o Gut uid lled cavity that separates Describe the characteristics of the atworms and some examples of diseases they cause Phylum porifera sponges Lack true tissues Radiate phylum cnidarian 0 Organisms with radial morphology Jelly sh corals Have true tissues 0 Can be polyp or medusa Have hox genes 0 Lack mesoderm 0 Gastrovascular cavity both mouth and anus Have cnidocytes contain organelles called cnidaee o Can sting called neamtocysts can immobilize sh for capture and use for defense guided studiesnotes exam 2 122814 951 PM fNot Just a Game Sports and politics just don39t mix 0 199039s Madison Square Garden mascot started to beat up person dressed in Arab custom everywhere cheered USA Dave Zirin author 0 Sports are political ideas about society are shaped 0 Find out a lot about wider culture by looking at sports culture 0 Sports always have an important social structure World of sports is male arena 0 Certain kind of man immune to pain against vulnerability muscular 0 Role models for what it means to be a man Steroids continuing while in pain Sacrifice bodies for team 0 NFL football Inflict pain endure pain no matter what Militaristic 2 Generals do coin toss military appreciation night Hard to find football player without body problems later in the future 610 players say they have concussion average player dies 20 years sooner then rest of the population average career is 35 years 0 sports glamorize war are sports form of propaganda 0 Pat Tillman 2001 best career 911 joined army rangers 2 died 22 months after enlisting 2 silver star story of death was lie killed by friendly fire shot accidentally by US solider 2 thought war was a mistake talked politics during the war war is illegal 2 Noah Chomasky against war Pat wanted to meet him 2 NFL showed game at Afghanistan still covered up Pat Timan s true story used life and death to promote war Struggle for women39s equality O OOOOO Women thought to fragile for physical education Sports would make women crazy Un American too manly 800 meter run in Olympics banned for 32 years 1952 wanted to eliminate women39s track from Olympics 1953 NY times eliminated track there39s nothing famine about a girl with beads of sweat any sef respecting school boy can compete with women athletes Boston marathon 1967 Kathy Swisder 5 miles into race forcibly removed by marathon director men running with her fought the man off Billy Jean King Tennis greatest women athlete Battle of sexes with Bobby Riggs Beat him in straight sets From working class on public courts 2 Fought for pay equity organized women39s tennis 2 Out of closet 2 Lost credibility and prestige 0 Title 9 Equal opportunity in sports sport participation from 3 to 33 Major networks do not cover women39s sports 16 of coverage in 2009 use to be 86 in 1990 ESPN men of covers 96 of time Athletes no longer focus care more about bodies Men afraid of playing like a girl and homophobia Most men wait for retirement to admit that they are gay Scott speaks out for gays in sports 2 Married not gay 2 Fight for equality past the debate Breaking the color barrier o Beliefs in biological inferiority o JackJohnson Set white America into a frenzy 1 black to win national title great white hope to beat Johnson 2 fights and riots in street after Johnson defeated the Great White hope 0 Jackie Robinson KKK said he would be shot Against Nixon left republican party 196039s supported MLK and movement shift away from individual achievements more at entire population incorporate entire teams and managers from negro league the courage of athletes 0 sports appear to be pure 0 commercialized turned political rebellion into a brand 2 Nike corporate power drives anti poitica athletes don39t want to loose sponsors o LeBron James 2 goals 2 Global icon like Muhammad Ali Ali gave up a lot to stand up for what he believes in represent truth and help causes Boxing was just to introduce him to world now can fight injustices 1960 changed name to Muhammad Ali 0 hero was Malcolm X 1964 o joined Islam hated by white Americans 0 against Vietnam war resisted draft sentenced to jail 5 years Ali now appreciated now that he can no longer talk 2 Be richest athlete in the world 0 Michael Jordan Golden at Olympics Used flag to hide rebook was part of Nike brand Apolitical did not want to disturb sneaker market Offend as few people as possible 0 Tommie Smith and John Carlos Rose hands at Olympics Inspired millions Suspended by Olympic Committee sent home Athletic careers ruined death threats more then a game 122814 951 PM Not just a Game 1990 Madison Square Garden game mascot dressed up as Arab and then mascot beat him up everyone cheered yelling USA Yes this is very racist Male preserve same as Zirin s male arena 0 World of sports is male arena Masculine ideal in sport men have to play through there pain and do anything to win 0 Nothing embodies and reproduces masculine ideal more then NFL What does masculinity in football have to do with militarism 0 Connection between sport and military is made to seem natural as if there is nothing political about it o Ideology works by naturalizing ideas and imagines that deflect attention away from other realities 0 Point of emphasis please see page 6 of the study guide the point isn39t that sports leagues are showing support for the military is bad but these kinds of displays are political and that seems to be a littlenoticed but glaring contradiction in the supposed nopolitics rule in sport Average NFL career is 35 years the average NFL player will die 20 years sooner then the rest of the population 1973 Battle of Sexes pitted Billy jean King against Bobby Riggs 0 Billy Jean King won fought for equality of women Title IX 0 1972 3 of girls played sports by 2010 33 played sports fase since 1999 percent of news and sports center air time for women has decreased Agree the majority of ways that women are depicted in sports is another way to sell women39s bodies to male viewers 0 Beach volleyball 2 great fears that keep men and boys in line binds the jockocracy 0 playing like a girl homophobia how many active players in men39s Big 3 sports football basketball and baseball have came out and admitted they39re gay 0 None only after retirement 0 Jason Collings came out people need to be more acceptable Robinson spoke when he followed MLK Jr Alternate form of including Negro teams in MLB 0 Moving up entire teams and coaches not just plucking the best players with the needed characteristics Muhammad Ali real name Cassius Clay said it was his slave name and he is no longer a slave he rejected the draft during Vietnam War in 1966 stripped of championship got sentenced to prison 0 More then just an athlete stood up for what he believed in and used his popularity through sport to gain power he wasn39t in it for the money 0 LeBron and Jordan differ because Jordan never offended anyone and LeBron only cares about money Michael draped flag over him during Olympics to cover up rebok logo he was a part of Nike did not want to offend anyone didn39t oppose anti segregation because republicans buy sneakers too community identity and college sport 122814 951 PM From lecture Penn states original mascot mule named Old Coaly original colors were pink and black We Are Cheer o Myth SMU football game said we are penn state will not bench black players o Reaity 197039s cheerleaders needed a catchy cheer Invented tradition traditions that appear or claim to be old and are often quite recent in origin and sometimes invented o Help establish a collective identity o Connect us to the past BIRG basking in reflected glory o Individual or group is successful we identify with them see their success as our success CORF cutting off reflected failure 0 Distancing oneself from an individual or group who preforms poo y 3 ways sports add to higher education o communa provide a mechanism for uniting people create a sense of community o educationa academic benefits to student athletes and the educational system o commercia financial benefits to institutions and to NCAANAIA direct and indirect financial benefits 2 views of college sport Myles Brand o integrated view Brand agrees prejudice against the body in the academy make athletes part of the educational mission of the university focus on harmony between mind and body student athetes would receive academic credit for their sport 0 standard view sport as an extracurricular not part of educational system intercollegiate athletics can be eliminated from the campus without in any way diminishing the educational value of the institution mes sana in corpore sano a sound mind in a sound body holism balanced emphasis on whole person body mind and spirit duism sees mind as more important body and mind are separate schoasticism keeping body healthy in order to help mind stay alert front porch philosophy 0 athletics not more important thing about school but it is the most visable flutie factor doug flutie QB at boston college 0 1984 hail mary pass to win in Orange Bowl 0 winning sports team increases college applications 1929 Carnegie report on American College Athletics 0 focused on big time football found commercialism professionalism and de emphasis on education 0 academic integrity issues at 34 of 130 schools studied 1940 NCAA control wrote rules supervising national tournaments mostly debating society 0 1940 decides it can expel schools that violate rules 1948 Sanity Code schools can provide full scholarships but no living only if student met same academics as other students and needs financial aid point shaving based on point spread gamblers would tell players to keep game within point spread so they can make the most money television contracts game NCAA power and money to regulate college sports 0 March madness Death penalty shutting down athletic program Fase before 1972 freshman were not allowed to play on varsity teams NCAA grants 4 year schoarships true Triple crises of 198039s 0 Integrity of athletic programs 0 Academic performance of athletes o Exploding costs of college sports O Bannon vs NCAA case 0 O Bannon sues NCAA because NCAA makes athelets sign contracts that say they cant make money of their likeness in college and then the NCAA sells atheletes likeness to EA sports Miami athletes accepted cash and gifts from boosters PA governor sues NCAA to overturn penalties because NCAA Dent History says real form of NCAA is unlikely 2000 stipend got turned down after it had been passed using his likeness in EA games 0 case is seeking payment to former and current athletes that have been used in games and made money off of congress has acted as a friend to the NCAA why doesn39t NCAA and atheletic programs pay income tax they are classified as charitable organizations what are comparasins between NCAA and NRA national rifle association 0 lobbysits loyal supports judge dismissed PA governors file against NCAA march madness Paying college atheletes Notion of playing athetes has been around since the early 1900s Should not be paid 0 Education is money 0 Problems with payment o University offers more then an education 0 Athletic department has its role 0 Athletes know the deal Creation of NCAA women39s movement Lecture title 9 122814 951 PM Bobbi gibbs ran along side the marathod wearing swim suite and nursing shoes they did not say she was qualitifed even though she beat half of the men Katherine Switzer used her initials to enter the boston marathon judges tried to throw her out Houston 9 9 women who left the USLTA to form their own tennis league sponsored by Virginia Slims very popular tour left USLTA because they paid men way more then women 0 Men paid 12300 women paid 1500 Houston 9 eventually allowed back into USLTA equal prize money offered for women and men in US open 1973 Mothers day massacre Margaret vs Bobby Rigs Bobby won Battle of sexes o Billie Jean King vs Bobby Riggs 1973 o Billie Jean won 0 Billie Jean It wasn39t about tennis it was about social change AIAW 0 Association for intercollegiate Athletics for Women 0 Founded by female physical educators to govern women39s college sports thought NCAA didn39t care about women39s sport 0 Promoted the educational model of intercollegiate athletics participants are students first and athletes second o NCAA finds it can make money off of women39s sports offered incentives that AIAW could not looses sponsors and television rights collapses in 1982 Maria Pepe first girl to play little league baseball Sports bra 1977 used 2 jockstraps 1984 first official Olympic women39s marathon Joan Benoit people feared they would cancel the marathon like they did in the 800 meter At last women were allowed to be publically exhausted 3 ways to comply cutting mens sport is a lazy way to comply nobody supporting title 9 wants to see mens sports cut true if athletic departments do not directly receive fedral funds they do not have to comply with title 9 1964 title 9 passed false title 9 is not only about athletics fase title 9 was not enforced 198488 schools said if they did not receive direct fedral funds to their atheletic department that they did not have to comply with title 9 gymnastics and wrestling lost scholarships Title 9 has helped women39s sports but women still lag behind men few hs atheltes go to college funding is still behind mens number of women in key functionaries positions has plummeted since 1972 0 Key functionaries positions of power and control and decision making processes Title 9 is a quota system 0 Yes but it doesn39t have to be it depends on how a school chooses to comply o 3 part test substantial proportionaity opportunities for males and females substantially proportionate to their respective enrollments history and continuing practice where one sex has been underrepresented a history and continuing practive of program expansion responsive to the developing interest and abilities of that sex interest and abilities fully and effectively accommodated where a program cannot expand for the underrepresented sex they must accommodated by the present program Mens sports have been cut since the passage of title 9 true since 1998 div 1 has lost sports but div 2 and 3 have gained sports most interecollegite athletic programs are not making a profit readings national coalition for women and girls in education o title 9 does not offere special benefits for girls and women gender neutral sex gender and sexuality lecture 122814 951 PM Bernie believes that his nephew is going to be strong and build up his upper body strength Muscles toughness and strength make a sport manly gracefulness and poise make it more feminine Binary oppositions o A pair of terms 2 opposite of each other one side typically associated with cultureal power privilege and prestige o Instead think about sex as a continuum Gender essentiaism it is normal and natural for men to be masculine and women to be feminine because of differences in biology difference stems from biological essence or innate characteristics Social constructionism ideas about whats normal and natural comes from society not biology toys Halloween costumes and sport are implicated in a gendering process Boys action figures have gotten bigger and more muscular over time 3 categories of masculinity in sport 0 1 violence football boxing hockey most masculine o 2 struggle basketball wrestling swimming track 0 3 aesthetics concerned with beauty and artistry figure skating diving 3 for women opposite most media coverage reinforces the idea of violence in sports feminine apoogetic women in masculine sports have to apologize or compensate by emphasizing appropriate feminity lesbian apoogenic feminine appearance used to disepel the lesbian stigma in women39s sports LPGA s image problem lot of lesbians took pictures and showed media of women in sexual ways Messners implications of sports 0 Men atheticism mascuine heterosexuality 0 Women athleticism feminity heterosexuality Homosocia same sex relationship no sexual relations 0 Men in sports are allowed to touch eachother and hug because they are playing their sports 2 women kicked out of seattle game in 2008 for kissing other couples were kissing and they did not get kicked out heteronormativity world view that promotes heterosexuality as the normal or preferred sexual orientation 0 underrepresentation of same sex couples discriminates against homosexuals they are thought to be outcasts homophobia fear and hatred directed at those involved in same sex relationships 0 phobia implies individual phycology rather then social phenomenon some prefer sexual prejudice 0 some prefer heterosexism connecting to the social phenomena like racism and sexism 4 manistations of homophobia in sport 0 silence atheltes staying closeted lack of response from sports advocates fear of negative reactions if one speaks againt guilt by association jason Coins only math athlete to come out in big 4 pro sports while still playing 0 denial coming out straight deniying the presence of homosexuality in athletics the need to publicaly declare ones heterosexuality 0 promotion of a heterosexualheterosexy image heterosexual appea appealing to the opposite sex in a sexually alluring ways emphasis on athletes heterosexual relationshoips o assaults on gay athletes or athletes believed to be gay physicalverbal assaults discrimination against gay athletes and coaches negative recruiting coaches tell athletes that there are no lesbians or gays on their team and that there are lesbians on rival teams tuaoo NFL player said he would have been hurt purposely during practice by other players if he had come out rene Portland 0 19802007 head baskeball coach 0 no lesbian policy 0 2005 Jennifer Harris dismissed because thought to be lesbian told to change her appearance to seem more feminine o violated school policy created a hostile and scary environment fined 10000 and took zero tolerance class Barbie and GI Joe Embodiment physica manifestation and enactment of cultural and social norms especially those that make bodies and body practives femeine and masculine is a global phenomenon Morphoogy study of shapes and body communication by walk gesture and placement provides insight to the way masculinity and feminity are embodied Body dysmporphia an excessive preoccupation with perceived flaws in appearance 4 and 5 year old soccer players 0 boys blue and green sea monsters love their banner scream No Barbie some run up to the girls and scream at them 0 girls Barbie girls green and white bows Barbie and radio dancing around don39t notice the boys until they run up and scream at them fase title 9 has not been universally implemented in the last 30 years 2005 michelle wie golfer 0 men upset invaded their competitions and space 0 women implied that women39s competitins were not good enough for her elite athletes routinely take more pills then AIDS patients false 0 AIDS patients are only people who take more Expressive control in boxing control over their external signaling so as not to let his opponent know if and when punches hurt him must control inner feelings Hypermascuinity extreme embodied expression of masculinity is both demanded of and expressed by many black male athletes as a mean to receive social rewards The outfield tale of 2 coming out stories Why was hellen carroll mad at Jason Collins for coming out o Took away spotlight from Britney griner coming out top women39s college basketball player 0 The reality of sexism in this country Men control everything Easier for women to come out 0 Women are assumed to be lesbians 0 Still negative to come out more athletes and coaches are out Sexism and homophobia in sports Clear that tackling homophobia in sports requires equally vigorous effect to tackle sexism in sport Gay men stereotyped as feminine lesbians are masculine gay less athletic lesbians because they are athletic Olympic games perseve gender stereotypes 0 Women gymnassts perform to upbeat music males perform in intense silence females in skirts men excluded from suynchronized swimming Mainstream media are challenging homophobia Athletes in sochi to be barred from gay acts New Russia law banning homosexual propaganda Fase gay athletes are allowed in Russia Black rights they can fight it but may be sent home great sport begins when heath stops 122814 951 PM Eitzens 4 paradoxes Sport is important while seemingly trival Capacity to build character Paradox sport promotes health much of sport is anti heath Overtraining Drug and supplement Knee injures o 5 to 8 times more likely to suffer ACL injury disordered eating o female athlete triad repetitive injuries issues with children39s health dehydration and heat illness play through injuries chronic conditions disability stressanxiety 0 NFL player killed himself had brain damage due to repeated tackles Junior Sea CTE 35 NFL players o Shot in chest save brain for science something wasn39t right 0 Scientific approaches What causes brain injuries What can be done to reduce them Traumatic brain injury Primary coup Secondary countercoup 0 Brian hits back of skull Concussion type of TBI o Most not diagnosed o Occurs in both mild and severe blows to the head o 1019 of athletes in contact sports suffer concussion each season 0 subcuncussive brain injury 0 hits below the concussion threshold o may be real danger cumulative effects of repetitive blows to the head Punch drunk in boxers 1928 dr Harrison Martland 23 cases of fighers who seemed goofy nutty early onset dementia and Parkinson like symptoms historical terminology DP 1937 dementia pugilistica o pug for boxers o manifests like and often confused with alzheimers or ALS 0 pro punch equivalent of 13 pound weight at 20 mph boxer might absorb dozens of such blows to the head during 1 fight should we ban boxing Nearly every major medical organization opposes boxing too much damage to boxers 1983 journal of American medical boxing is an obenity CTE chronic traumatic encephalopathy brain disease Brain disease from repeated blows to the head Dr Nennett Omalu 0 Mike Webster Steelers 2002 Died age 50 heart attack severe dementia delusional paranoia explosive behavior loss of memory 0 Terry long Steelers 2006 Age 45 drinks antifreeze commits sucicide Same tau patterns as 90 year old with advanced alzheimers 0 Andrea waters eagles 2006 Age 44 shoots himself in mouth 0 Justin strzelcyk Steelers 2004 36 swerves into oncoming traffic tau patterns CTE progressive degenerative disease in those who experience multiple blows to the head 0 Football hockey boxing wrestling soccer etc 0 Dark tancles in brain and spinal cord dense cells tau protein more damage 2004 punch drunk jockey More athletes suffering from head injuries Chris benoit 2007 0 WWE 40 murdered wife and son then hanged himself 0 CTE in all regions of his brain so damaged it resembled brain of 85 year old Alzheimers patient Bob Probert 2010 o 45 died from heart failure 0 16 seasons in NHL found CTE in brain Cindy Parlow women39s soccer player 0 50 of goals from head 0 hit heads with player once got concussion much easier to get concussions over 100 times getting concussions seeing stars o retired in 2004 from post concussion syndrome 0 always needs gps forgets where she is when driving 0 studder TBIs and Cultural Considerations SI cover Bounty Culture 0 Players were being paidbribed for really hard hits against other players 0 Historical sensibility Pay to injure smash for cash in 1996 this has happened in the past 0 Structural sensibility Commissioner and coaches allowed to happen 0 Cultural sensibility Players intimidate each other Violence sells Bracketed morality Need important staff 2 Inner city and smaller schools are less likey to have a certified athletic trainer on staff Failure to provide health cure for sports who are hurt during sports Increasing size of athletes 0 Increasing health problems 0 Keeping weight at unhealthy level Bracketed morality 0 Set morality aside for time competing in sports Guided study Lecture TBI o traumatic brain injury Coup 0 primary first part of concussion Countercoup o secondary part of concussion brain hits the back of the skull can be more damaging Concussion o a type of TBI 1019 of athletes suffer from in contact sports mild to severe head injury Sub concussive 0 head injury right under the concussive threshold could be more damaging since it happens frequently cumulative effects on the brain Punch drunk 0 1928 Dr Harris Martlard 23 cases of boxers that seemed goofy nutty after so many repeated punches to the head early onset of dementi Parkinson like effects Dementia pugiistica o 1937 neurodegenertive disease permanent damage or loss of nerve cells manifest like and is often associated with alzheimers and ALS 0 Pro punch 13 pound weight 20 mph CTE 0 Chronic traumatic encephalopathy 0 Progressive degenerative disease in those who experience multiple blows to the head football hockey soccer boxing 0 Cells deteriorate and die over time 0 Dark tangles in brain and spinal cord brains cells dense tau patterns brain resembles Alzheimer39s Readings True NFL denied that there were ong term problem with head injuries players sustained Fase football is not the only sport where CTE occurs True female soccer players report concussions more often than male soccer players Cultural considerations of CTE Violence sells Media cover covers violence more Increasing size of athletes Bracketed morality Sport may provide a temporary release from everyday morality Athletes may fail to consider the humanity of the opponent intent to injure The warrior ethic in sports Sacrificing ones body Praised for playing hurt blasted for not playing hurt O O O O O 0 Social class 0 Sports organizations failure to provide for ailing athletes 711 year old sports 0 hockey has highest concussion rate football has second football is 8x more likely to have a concussion NFL settlement 0 765 million to over 4000 players 0 NFL does not admit that they did anything wrong Future of Football 0 Lisa McHae children aren39t allowed to play football until the culture of the sport has changed Her husband died had CTE former NFL player died form accidental overdose LaVar Arrington kids need to play football to learn character shouldn39t be afaird children aren39t fast or strong enough to cause real damage Lester Pitts tackle football should be avoided until the children are at high school age play non contact like flag football instead How different are dogfighting and football 0 When a dog turns makes a submissive gesture with its head the dogs are separated and taken back to their corners Scratches one dog released to charge at its opponent Similar to football each team given chance to charge at opponent when players are hurt they are taken off the field Similar to dog fighters owners and coaches of teams allow their players to be hurt for the goodness of the game and for the crowd CTE Similar to alzheimers comes from repeated blows to the head NFL players 5x the national average to suffer from dementia Repeated blows to the head make this so it is inherent to the sport Football is more like stock car it is violent but not so unavoidably so 1905 meeting with President Roosevelt formation of the NCAA true practice can be just as dangerous as the games fans love football and idolize football players players aren39t going to give up the game when they are making a lot of money Rules trickle down that the NFL did not do anything wrong they didn39t cover up head injuries fase NFL has not always admittied that concussions could have long term effects true 1994 NFL committee found that concussions had no long term effects said dementia affects many elderly people highschool and college follow NFL still have much of the contact that is no longer allowed in the NFL pop warner and collegehigh school only changed rules after the NFL did bigger faster stronger 122814 952 PM Ronald regan Trouble in Iran Shiqs had championship belt Hulk Hogan only American hope to beat the Iranians Hulk pinned the shiq don39t mess with America Rocky Rambo Arnold Shwatzinegar Wanted to be big but overweight from on overweight family Brother was called pugsly beat up kids now called mad dog Brother smelly had a learning disability went to spots because he hated school Hulk Hogan inspired o Trained in the basement Mad dog became football captain short one because strongest in high school accused of taking steroids Routine 33 years old in California Wakes up at 330 drinks protein shake Thought muscles would be the answer only gave him a gym membership One guy won championship sleeps in car and trains at god s gym All his hero39s took steroids bothered bell 0 Both of his brothers on steroids 0 Mad dog started when he played football at Cincinnati Said he couldn39t compete there Everyone was on it quit college and started wrestling He was a dropper got beaten up to make other guys look good started taking other drugs Said hed rather be dead then average Tried to overdose on sleeping pills and walk into the Hudson river Still trying to get wrestling contract Smelly o Became pro wrestler and started using steroids 0 Had a wife took steroids to become bigger 0 Wife said do what you need to do 0 After having son didn39t want to be pro wrestler Settled down in suburbs and opened up gym still loved steroids weight lifting If you don39t like steroids your not cut out to be a championship BasebaH 0 Big mac mark mcguire won homerun champsionship at 70 0 Barry bonds 71 homeruns 0 Baseball players started using steroids 0 Jose wrote a book about it 0 Congress debated steroids in sports more then ending the 0 war in Iraq York barbell in PA saw a lot of steroid use in Olympics steroids weren39t thought of as cheating US against Olympics Russian coach admitted to using steroids so US made new type of steroids Malo azato steroids caused him to have a brain tumor John Ramono editor of body building magazine 0 0 Doesn39t believe steroids cause problems Dr Charles Y using steroids in medicine miracle drug for muscle wasting burn victims AIDS Steroids number 141 on killing list Dr Gary Walder Heart attacks strokes increases clotting cant produce evidence to show this Dr Frost cant demonstrate the adverse effects of steroids Peanuts can be dangerous etc People always do risky things like skiing so why do we care so much about steroids Candian sprinter Ben Johnson won caught fo rsteriods and taken away given to American sprinter o Said everyone was on something Overwhelming percentage of steroid use is by non athetes Used for cosmetic reasons Greg Vaentino biggest biceps in the world West side barbe strongest men train there all want to be elite athletes Dr Oxen anti doping Olymipcs 0 Many athletes failed drug tests but they were covered up 0 Lewis failed drug test kicked off Olympic team but did not actually loose the team Used the term inadvertent use to let them off the hook Harry Waxman doesn39t believe in steroids legal with medical prescription they should be banned in professional sports Supplement industry is very unregulated Oren hatch senator Utah 0 Make a quarter of all supplements have to prove to be unsafe to take it off the market Buy popular ingredients us the term prepetiutuary blend to cover up that it is just rice blend Can order steroids online in a pet store get it legally if you have enough money Human growth hormone cant be tested for Smey last meet on steroids wants to bench 700 pounds benched 705 pounds to test Or not to test 122814 952 PM Sex and gender Sex biological differences men and women xx or xy chormosomes Gender female or male social roles assigned to people 1966 sex tests peeking and probing visual examinations women walk by nude gynecological exams male athletes did not have to take sex tests bar body test testing to xx chromosomes buccal smear swabbing check and examining DNA chromosomes certificate of femininity piece of paper that said they had passed the sex test had to be shown at competitions 5 critiques of the sex chromosome test lack of disciplinary specificity or consensus about how sex is defined test and their results are unreliable and easily misinterpreted tests have failed to account for psychological or social status they violate civil legal and human rights to privacy sex chromosome test is ineffective in determining unfair athletic advantage one has to look at the enormous variation in physique in both sexes to appreciate that unfairness is more often attributable to autosomal genetic variation irrespective of the sex chromosome compement Dr John S Fox Fase Semenya did clock the best women39s 800 m time in 2009 but not in the history of the event Fase as of 2011 the IAAF still sex tests if there is any question about the sex of the athlete it has adopted a policy on heperandrogenism Current policy for sex testing Search for hyperandrogenism excessive production of androgens testosterone The IAAF says this applies to women to protect the health of the athlete There is no proven link between athleticism and androgens Caster Semenya came in second at the 2012 olympics Doping From world anti doping agency WADA from dutch dop an alcoholic beverage used by Zulu warriors to enchance their prowess in battle term first used in early 20 centry to refer to drugging racehorses Using substancesmaterials or technology to enhance athletic performance PES performance enhancing substances Amphetamines Stimulate central nervous system used by military and truck drivers to stay awake and alert can increase power strength All forms banned from IOC and NCAA and other governing bodies Tom Simpson 1 televised doping death amphetamine drugs and alcoholic stimulants last words put me back on my bike shows how much he pushed himself past him limits cared more about the race then his health deviant over conformity rigid and exclusive dedication to training athletes follow training that affects their relationships work and physical and mental heath uncritical commitment to playing with pain and injury 0 injuried runner keeps training even when it causes serious injuries selfinjurious overtraining unhealthy eating behaviors and weight control strageties o gymnast controls weight by cutting food intake to dangerous levels use of PES even though aware of health risks true there are legitimate medical reasons for using anabolic steroids wasting diseases strengthen bones and rebuild tissue anabolic steroids boost the bodys ability to produce muscle prevent muscle breakdown recover after workout Exogenous foreign or originating outside the body Anabolic steroids Endogenous originating or produced within an organism tissue or cell caused by factors within the body Heperandrogenism elevated hormone levels Boosting red blood cells Legal 0 Training at high altitude 0 Sleeping in ow oxygen chamber Illegal 0 Taking out blood reinjecting blood before a race 0 Injecting more oxygen into blood Human growth hormones Stimulates the growth of muscle cartilage and bone cellular regeneration tissue repair Quicker faster recovery time WADA world anti doping agency 3 questions to ban something must meet 2 of criteria 0 is it performance enhancing o are there health risks to the athlete 0 does it violate the spirit of sport Athlete biological passport Traditional mode reactionary testing drug comes out and WADA develops a test for it ABP reveals the effects of doping that then detects the doping substance ABP electronic record on individual athletes biology a physiological profile Establishes a baseline against which to judge future drugs 0 Looks for certain biomarkers Bigger Faster Stronger 195039s Russian coaches told US that they gave athletes sterioids US started to make their own Researchers cant study the effects of sterioids because of the ban on steroids and it would be unethical to test on someone True steroids have been used as a legitimate medical treatment since the 1930s Sterioids synthetic versions of hormones your body naturally makes 0 Cortisone and birth control are both steroids o Anabolic steroids increase size and strength and help people recover from a workout more quickly Side effects for women are not as reversible as side effects for men Since major steroid scandas in sports sports revenue has increased Utah makes 25 of all supplements The FDA does not regulate steroids people who make supplements do not have to prove their supplement is safe the FDA has to prove a supplement is not safe to take it off the market all incrediencts do not have to be on the products lable You can buy steroids online Testing the ethics of genetic testing The Olympics are a genetic freakshow Possible negative effects that genetic tests can have on children 0 Irrational dreams of the parents force kids do things they don39t want to do race and the natural athlete 122814 952 PM Lecture Winter Olympic games 0 Austria Switzerland dominate 0 Not many black athletes there Russians and Canadians dominate hockey due to where they are from not biological reasons People need a reason for why black athletes are better then whites Breeding myth monkeys Overrepresentationunderrepresentation disproportionate representation Jimmy the greek said blacks were better at sports because the strongest slaves were bread during slavery Al Campanis commented that African Americans may not have some of the necessities to fill key functionary positions in sports 1930s Jew basketba because it is a city game and when they immigrated they picked up basketball good because they are tricky and sly Jesse Owens cobb measured owens and other athletes and concluded that being black had nothing to do with athleticism 0 Coach Deam Cromwell didn39t buy into thinks that whoever wants it the most wins Italian American Brooklyn Dodger hit 40 homeruns in one session Roy Campanella good trivia because people assume he is black Cabinasian Tiger woods uses it to refer to his race caucasion black indian asain Viva baseba treated badly in US everyone thought they were black when they were other ethnicity Cobb the split sexond difference in performances of the great negro and white sprinters of the past and present are insignificant from an anthropological standpoint There is no way to measure race what is black in one country may not be black in another Anthropometry system of identification and classification based on bodily measurements Buoyancy myth myth that denser muscles and bones lower body fat make those of African descent less buoyant make them sink 0 Black children are 3 times more likely to drown than white chHdren Buoyancy myth and skull thickness are examples of scientific racism where scientific measurements are given biased meanings measings rationalize the idea that one race is inferior to another Problems using biological explanations o Suggests physical superiority intellectual inferiority bodymind o Downplays effort training determination etc o Ignored impact social and cultural factors Cultural channeling Role models Stererotypes and prejudice o Overgeneralizes and ignores differences within race Different countries define race differently 0 Brazil many different meanings for black Social construct concept or practice created by a particular group of people not a naturally occurring phenomenon 1 drop rule 1 drop of African bood black maybe its not really about race but about fear kalenjinis make up 12 of the population but 75 of elite sprinters o it is more appropriate to think of differences in the population rather then racial differences the bred during slavery story is a myth because differences have been noticeable for a long time not just a few hundred years centrality 0 location nature of responsibilities frequency of interaction with other positions stacking 0 positions segregation by race or ethnicity in team sports major group members tend to occupy central positions minority members occupy peripheral positions key functionaries cobb 0 positions within a social system that are capable of influence and performance crucial activities 0 coaches owners etc central 0 located in center leadership requires mental attributes high discrimination peripheral 0 outside center does not require leadership requires physical attributes low discrimination focuses on track because blacks make up the majority of the players studies revealed that Owens had a shorter heel none and larger calf muscle science had not revealed a single trait peculiar to the negro alone to which is athletic achievements could be attributed the biggest misconception in sports Is that blacks dominate the playing fields while white people take supporting roles there is a steady decline in African americans in sports because of the emergence of other European minorities and the rise of the black middle class the notion of blacks being better athletes is faulty purely by definition because blacks are given fewer opportunites in other areas so more of them play sports blacks have fewer oportunites to prove themselves superior slavery cant be the only reason for blacker being athleteic cultural and environmental factors must be considered as well most of the gifted black sprinters are from the south and most of the gifted black distance runners are from Kenya it is not a crime or even racist to acknowledge basic physical dfferences and characteristics among races The danger occurs when uninformed and unqualified people conclude that so caed superior physical human being translates into a limited human being intelligence wise jimmy the greek Snyder said blacks are bigger because of slave breeding when he said it people were angry and called him stupid campanis said there is no prejudice blacks just aren39t smart enough for some positions the perception of black dominance doesn39t give them enough credit for their training and implies blacks use brawn where white use intelligence cultural kinesiology 122814 952 PM doping for gold Lecture communist east Germans built the berlin wall to strop its citizens from feeling to the west the Spartacus games parallel the ancient bread and circuses that distract the citizens from the bad things happening in the country OT the anabolic steroids given to German athletes increased muscle mass and hasten recovery time allowing athletes to train harder They have a greater effect on women because they are made of testosterone The German athletes and parents did not know that they were being doped The capitalist incentives for the coaches was that they got paid depending by how well their athletes did At the 1976 Olympics no athlete failed a drug test Illona German shotputter failed her drug test in 1977 because coaches had been giving her pills until the very last minute To prevent this from happening again athletes would now be screened before events because it was better for them to be discovered at home than on the world stage The told athletes this was to protect them from false accusations from competitors Several GDR atheltes failed drug tests in 198 but east Germany boycotted the 1984 games so now athletes failed drug tests from those games Heidi Krieger was given androgenic hormones which stimulate the growth of male sex characteristics Later she underwent a sex transformation because she didn39t think she had a choice Physicians think women were part of the doping program have more injuries because their bodies cannot support the stresses of physical training The female body is not built for such loads The break down of the berlin wall revealed the stasi files Since the stasi files on doping have been revealed 70 people have been convicted for their role in the doping program Only a few have been brought to public trial and none have gone to jail for their role in the doping program Readings Muscular body images lures boys to the gym and obsession 0 More then 40 of boys in middle school and high school said they regularly exercised with the goal of increasing muscle mass 38 o said they use protein supplements and nearly 6 said they experimented with steroids The portrayal of men as fat free and chiseled is dramatically more prevalent in society then it was a generation ago Fase supplements are not regulated like drugs Fitspo fitness inspiration spin off of thinsperation which is banned from many sites for promoting anorexia The model of feminine beauty is now more toned and fit and sculpted then it was a generation ago Fitsperation why it isn39t inspirational o Thinspiration helps women keep motivation to get thin at any costs drives them to continue with eating disorders and harming their bodies to attain a certain body image what makes a body able Lecture 122814 952 PM Binary thinking two terms set in opposition thought of as oppostes 0 Instead of binary thinking consider a continuum when it comes to concepts like malefemale fairunfair natural bodytechnology the IOC did not allow Oscar pistorius to run in the 2012 Olympic games but he did run in the 2012 paralymic games the court of arbitration for sports was established in 1984 to make international athletic para in paralymics means beside or alongside every Paralympic sport has its own separate classification syste when an athlete is classified they receive a certificate but can be retested at any time in wheelchair rugby hey can only have eight points on the court ataatune 4 problems with the classification of ability in the Paralympic games this classification process demonstrates the way that disability is a social construction not that it isn39t real or doesn39t matter 0 range of disabilities within one class 0 athletes misrepresent their abilities o classifier errors 0 equitment and technology influence ability the Paralympic games wer started by Dr Luwig Guttman who worked with veterans and used sport as therapy They were called the stoke Mandeville games and he organized games with patients from other hospitals Disability sport sports designated for athletes with disabilities The extremity games are extreme sports for those with limb loss of difference Peope first anguage putting the person before the disability Casey martin sued the PGA because they wouldn39t let him use a cart on tour he won they said walking isn39t an essential part of the game Cyborg hybrid creatures compose of organic and mechanical parts Cyborification making cyborg athletes by augmenting biological bodies with prosthetic technologies Prosthetic device that substitutes for out supplements a missing of defective part of the body Gene doping used to enhance athletic performance whole gene therapy is to prevent or treat illness Readings Burkett o Biomechanical tests of athletes that are missing their legs below the knee determined that when it comes to the knee joint is used less and the majority of work is done in the ankle 0 Oscar pistorius is not the first athlete to compete in the Olympics with a disability 0 In supreme court case casey martin won the case and was allowed to use a golf cart 0 Bias against people with disabilities is called ableism O Lya first thing judged is disability 0 Classifiers ensure that athletes compete against each others with similar levels of ability 0 Classification process is different for each sport 0 Athletes unhappy with their classification can appeal 0 The Spanish mens basketball team was stripped of its gold because it was found that many of its members were not intellectually disabled at all Thompson superhuman athletes o Replacing entire joints for elite athletes would not work because too manu screws could come loose and the artificial joint wouldn39t quite match the mechanics of the natural one it would wear with within a few years under physical demands of elite sport 0 False scientists don39t think prostetics put athletes at an advantage Sweeny gene doping Fase synthetic gene is indistringuishble from its natural counterpart True WADA is worried about testing for gene doping 3 types of muscle smooth muscle skeletal muscle cardiac muscle skeletal muscle is the largest organ of the body skeletal muscle loss occurs with age EPO hormone produced in the kidney that promotes the formation of red blood cells by the bone marrow Promote development of red blood cells initiate synthesis of hemoglobin