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by: Paige Bayer

exam2.pdf 141

Paige Bayer

GPA 3.68
Biology 141- Introductory Physiology
Nanette Tomicek

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Guided Study Notes/Review for Exam 2. Exam material is taken directly from these notes, but studying this material the tests should not be difficult.
Biology 141- Introductory Physiology
Nanette Tomicek
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This 77 page Reader was uploaded by Paige Bayer on Sunday December 28, 2014. The Reader belongs to 141 at Pennsylvania State University taught by Nanette Tomicek in Spring2012. Since its upload, it has received 199 views. For similar materials see Biology 141- Introductory Physiology in Science at Pennsylvania State University.


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Date Created: 12/28/14
guided studiesnotes exam 2 122814 951 PM fNot Just a Game Sports and politics just don39t mix 0 199039s Madison Square Garden mascot started to beat up person dressed in Arab custom everywhere cheered USA Dave Zirin author 0 Sports are political ideas about society are shaped 0 Find out a lot about wider culture by looking at sports culture 0 Sports always have an important social structure World of sports is male arena 0 Certain kind of man immune to pain against vulnerability muscular 0 Role models for what it means to be a man Steroids continuing while in pain Sacrifice bodies for team 0 NFL football Inflict pain endure pain no matter what Militaristic 2 Generals do coin toss military appreciation night Hard to find football player without body problems later in the future 610 players say they have concussion average player dies 20 years sooner then rest of the population average career is 35 years 0 sports glamorize war are sports form of propaganda 0 Pat Tillman 2001 best career 911 joined army rangers 2 died 22 months after enlisting 2 silver star story of death was lie killed by friendly fire shot accidentally by US solider 2 thought war was a mistake talked politics during the war war is illegal 2 Noah Chomasky against war Pat wanted to meet him 2 NFL showed game at Afghanistan still covered up Pat Timan s true story used life and death to promote war Struggle for women39s equality O OOOOO Women thought to fragile for physical education Sports would make women crazy Un American too manly 800 meter run in Olympics banned for 32 years 1952 wanted to eliminate women39s track from Olympics 1953 NY times eliminated track there39s nothing famine about a girl with beads of sweat any sef respecting school boy can compete with women athletes Boston marathon 1967 Kathy Swisder 5 miles into race forcibly removed by marathon director men running with her fought the man off Billy Jean King Tennis greatest women athlete Battle of sexes with Bobby Riggs Beat him in straight sets From working class on public courts 2 Fought for pay equity organized women39s tennis 2 Out of closet 2 Lost credibility and prestige 0 Title 9 Equal opportunity in sports sport participation from 3 to 33 Major networks do not cover women39s sports 16 of coverage in 2009 use to be 86 in 1990 ESPN men of covers 96 of time Athletes no longer focus care more about bodies Men afraid of playing like a girl and homophobia Most men wait for retirement to admit that they are gay Scott speaks out for gays in sports 2 Married not gay 2 Fight for equality past the debate Breaking the color barrier o Beliefs in biological inferiority o JackJohnson Set white America into a frenzy 1 black to win national title great white hope to beat Johnson 2 fights and riots in street after Johnson defeated the Great White hope 0 Jackie Robinson KKK said he would be shot Against Nixon left republican party 196039s supported MLK and movement shift away from individual achievements more at entire population incorporate entire teams and managers from negro league the courage of athletes 0 sports appear to be pure 0 commercialized turned political rebellion into a brand 2 Nike corporate power drives anti poitica athletes don39t want to loose sponsors o LeBron James 2 goals 2 Global icon like Muhammad Ali Ali gave up a lot to stand up for what he believes in represent truth and help causes Boxing was just to introduce him to world now can fight injustices 1960 changed name to Muhammad Ali 0 hero was Malcolm X 1964 o joined Islam hated by white Americans 0 against Vietnam war resisted draft sentenced to jail 5 years Ali now appreciated now that he can no longer talk 2 Be richest athlete in the world 0 Michael Jordan Golden at Olympics Used flag to hide rebook was part of Nike brand Apolitical did not want to disturb sneaker market Offend as few people as possible 0 Tommie Smith and John Carlos Rose hands at Olympics Inspired millions Suspended by Olympic Committee sent home Athletic careers ruined death threats more then a game 122814 951 PM Not just a Game 1990 Madison Square Garden game mascot dressed up as Arab and then mascot beat him up everyone cheered yelling USA Yes this is very racist Male preserve same as Zirin s male arena 0 World of sports is male arena Masculine ideal in sport men have to play through there pain and do anything to win 0 Nothing embodies and reproduces masculine ideal more then NFL What does masculinity in football have to do with militarism 0 Connection between sport and military is made to seem natural as if there is nothing political about it o Ideology works by naturalizing ideas and imagines that deflect attention away from other realities 0 Point of emphasis please see page 6 of the study guide the point isn39t that sports leagues are showing support for the military is bad but these kinds of displays are political and that seems to be a littlenoticed but glaring contradiction in the supposed nopolitics rule in sport Average NFL career is 35 years the average NFL player will die 20 years sooner then the rest of the population 1973 Battle of Sexes pitted Billy jean King against Bobby Riggs 0 Billy Jean King won fought for equality of women Title IX 0 1972 3 of girls played sports by 2010 33 played sports fase since 1999 percent of news and sports center air time for women has decreased Agree the majority of ways that women are depicted in sports is another way to sell women39s bodies to male viewers 0 Beach volleyball 2 great fears that keep men and boys in line binds the jockocracy 0 playing like a girl homophobia how many active players in men39s Big 3 sports football basketball and baseball have came out and admitted they39re gay 0 None only after retirement 0 Jason Collings came out people need to be more acceptable Robinson spoke when he followed MLK Jr Alternate form of including Negro teams in MLB 0 Moving up entire teams and coaches not just plucking the best players with the needed characteristics Muhammad Ali real name Cassius Clay said it was his slave name and he is no longer a slave he rejected the draft during Vietnam War in 1966 stripped of championship got sentenced to prison 0 More then just an athlete stood up for what he believed in and used his popularity through sport to gain power he wasn39t in it for the money 0 LeBron and Jordan differ because Jordan never offended anyone and LeBron only cares about money Michael draped flag over him during Olympics to cover up rebok logo he was a part of Nike did not want to offend anyone didn39t oppose anti segregation because republicans buy sneakers too community identity and college sport 122814 951 PM From lecture Penn states original mascot mule named Old Coaly original colors were pink and black We Are Cheer o Myth SMU football game said we are penn state will not bench black players o Reaity 197039s cheerleaders needed a catchy cheer Invented tradition traditions that appear or claim to be old and are often quite recent in origin and sometimes invented o Help establish a collective identity o Connect us to the past BIRG basking in reflected glory o Individual or group is successful we identify with them see their success as our success CORF cutting off reflected failure 0 Distancing oneself from an individual or group who preforms poo y 3 ways sports add to higher education o communa provide a mechanism for uniting people create a sense of community o educationa academic benefits to student athletes and the educational system o commercia financial benefits to institutions and to NCAANAIA direct and indirect financial benefits 2 views of college sport Myles Brand o integrated view Brand agrees prejudice against the body in the academy make athletes part of the educational mission of the university focus on harmony between mind and body student athetes would receive academic credit for their sport 0 standard view sport as an extracurricular not part of educational system intercollegiate athletics can be eliminated from the campus without in any way diminishing the educational value of the institution mes sana in corpore sano a sound mind in a sound body holism balanced emphasis on whole person body mind and spirit duism sees mind as more important body and mind are separate schoasticism keeping body healthy in order to help mind stay alert front porch philosophy 0 athletics not more important thing about school but it is the most visable flutie factor doug flutie QB at boston college 0 1984 hail mary pass to win in Orange Bowl 0 winning sports team increases college applications 1929 Carnegie report on American College Athletics 0 focused on big time football found commercialism professionalism and de emphasis on education 0 academic integrity issues at 34 of 130 schools studied 1940 NCAA control wrote rules supervising national tournaments mostly debating society 0 1940 decides it can expel schools that violate rules 1948 Sanity Code schools can provide full scholarships but no living only if student met same academics as other students and needs financial aid point shaving based on point spread gamblers would tell players to keep game within point spread so they can make the most money television contracts game NCAA power and money to regulate college sports 0 March madness Death penalty shutting down athletic program Fase before 1972 freshman were not allowed to play on varsity teams NCAA grants 4 year schoarships true Triple crises of 198039s 0 Integrity of athletic programs 0 Academic performance of athletes o Exploding costs of college sports O Bannon vs NCAA case 0 O Bannon sues NCAA because NCAA makes athelets sign contracts that say they cant make money of their likeness in college and then the NCAA sells atheletes likeness to EA sports Miami athletes accepted cash and gifts from boosters PA governor sues NCAA to overturn penalties because NCAA Dent History says real form of NCAA is unlikely 2000 stipend got turned down after it had been passed using his likeness in EA games 0 case is seeking payment to former and current athletes that have been used in games and made money off of congress has acted as a friend to the NCAA why doesn39t NCAA and atheletic programs pay income tax they are classified as charitable organizations what are comparasins between NCAA and NRA national rifle association 0 lobbysits loyal supports judge dismissed PA governors file against NCAA march madness Paying college atheletes Notion of playing athetes has been around since the early 1900s Should not be paid 0 Education is money 0 Problems with payment o University offers more then an education 0 Athletic department has its role 0 Athletes know the deal Creation of NCAA women39s movement Lecture title 9 122814 951 PM Bobbi gibbs ran along side the marathod wearing swim suite and nursing shoes they did not say she was qualitifed even though she beat half of the men Katherine Switzer used her initials to enter the boston marathon judges tried to throw her out Houston 9 9 women who left the USLTA to form their own tennis league sponsored by Virginia Slims very popular tour left USLTA because they paid men way more then women 0 Men paid 12300 women paid 1500 Houston 9 eventually allowed back into USLTA equal prize money offered for women and men in US open 1973 Mothers day massacre Margaret vs Bobby Rigs Bobby won Battle of sexes o Billie Jean King vs Bobby Riggs 1973 o Billie Jean won 0 Billie Jean It wasn39t about tennis it was about social change AIAW 0 Association for intercollegiate Athletics for Women 0 Founded by female physical educators to govern women39s college sports thought NCAA didn39t care about women39s sport 0 Promoted the educational model of intercollegiate athletics participants are students first and athletes second o NCAA finds it can make money off of women39s sports offered incentives that AIAW could not looses sponsors and television rights collapses in 1982 Maria Pepe first girl to play little league baseball Sports bra 1977 used 2 jockstraps 1984 first official Olympic women39s marathon Joan Benoit people feared they would cancel the marathon like they did in the 800 meter At last women were allowed to be publically exhausted 3 ways to comply cutting mens sport is a lazy way to comply nobody supporting title 9 wants to see mens sports cut true if athletic departments do not directly receive fedral funds they do not have to comply with title 9 1964 title 9 passed false title 9 is not only about athletics fase title 9 was not enforced 198488 schools said if they did not receive direct fedral funds to their atheletic department that they did not have to comply with title 9 gymnastics and wrestling lost scholarships Title 9 has helped women39s sports but women still lag behind men few hs atheltes go to college funding is still behind mens number of women in key functionaries positions has plummeted since 1972 0 Key functionaries positions of power and control and decision making processes Title 9 is a quota system 0 Yes but it doesn39t have to be it depends on how a school chooses to comply o 3 part test substantial proportionaity opportunities for males and females substantially proportionate to their respective enrollments history and continuing practice where one sex has been underrepresented a history and continuing practive of program expansion responsive to the developing interest and abilities of that sex interest and abilities fully and effectively accommodated where a program cannot expand for the underrepresented sex they must accommodated by the present program Mens sports have been cut since the passage of title 9 true since 1998 div 1 has lost sports but div 2 and 3 have gained sports most interecollegite athletic programs are not making a profit readings national coalition for women and girls in education o title 9 does not offere special benefits for girls and women gender neutral sex gender and sexuality lecture 122814 951 PM Bernie believes that his nephew is going to be strong and build up his upper body strength Muscles toughness and strength make a sport manly gracefulness and poise make it more feminine Binary oppositions o A pair of terms 2 opposite of each other one side typically associated with cultureal power privilege and prestige o Instead think about sex as a continuum Gender essentiaism it is normal and natural for men to be masculine and women to be feminine because of differences in biology difference stems from biological essence or innate characteristics Social constructionism ideas about whats normal and natural comes from society not biology toys Halloween costumes and sport are implicated in a gendering process Boys action figures have gotten bigger and more muscular over time 3 categories of masculinity in sport 0 1 violence football boxing hockey most masculine o 2 struggle basketball wrestling swimming track 0 3 aesthetics concerned with beauty and artistry figure skating diving 3 for women opposite most media coverage reinforces the idea of violence in sports feminine apoogetic women in masculine sports have to apologize or compensate by emphasizing appropriate feminity lesbian apoogenic feminine appearance used to disepel the lesbian stigma in women39s sports LPGA s image problem lot of lesbians took pictures and showed media of women in sexual ways Messners implications of sports 0 Men atheticism mascuine heterosexuality 0 Women athleticism feminity heterosexuality Homosocia same sex relationship no sexual relations tuaoo NFL player said he would have been hurt purposely during practice by other players if he had come out rene Portland 0 19802007 head baskeball coach 0 no lesbian policy 0 2005 Jennifer Harris dismissed because thought to be lesbian told to change her appearance to seem more feminine o violated school policy created a hostile and scary environment fined 10000 and took zero tolerance class Barbie and GI Joe Embodiment physica manifestation and enactment of cultural and social norms especially those that make bodies and body practives femeine and masculine is a global phenomenon Morphoogy study of shapes and body communication by walk gesture and placement provides insight to the way masculinity and feminity are embodied Body dysmporphia an excessive preoccupation with perceived flaws in appearance 4 and 5 year old soccer players 0 boys blue and green sea monsters love their banner scream No Barbie some run up to the girls and scream at them 0 girls Barbie girls green and white bows Barbie and radio dancing around don39t notice the boys until they run up and scream at them fase title 9 has not been universally implemented in the last 30 years 2005 michelle wie golfer 0 men upset invaded their competitions and space 0 women implied that women39s competitins were not good enough for her elite athletes routinely take more pills then AIDS patients false 0 AIDS patients are only people who take more great sport begins when heath stops 122814 951 PM Eitzens 4 paradoxes Sport is important while seemingly trival Capacity to build character Paradox sport promotes health much of sport is anti heath Overtraining Drug and supplement Knee injures o 5 to 8 times more likely to suffer ACL injury disordered eating o female athlete triad repetitive injuries issues with children39s health dehydration and heat illness play through injuries chronic conditions disability stressanxiety 0 NFL player killed himself had brain damage due to repeated tackles Junior Sea CTE 35 NFL players o Shot in chest save brain for science something wasn39t right 0 Scientific approaches What causes brain injuries What can be done to reduce them Traumatic brain injury Primary coup Secondary countercoup 0 Brian hits back of skull Concussion type of TBI o Most not diagnosed o Occurs in both mild and severe blows to the head o 1019 of athletes in contact sports suffer concussion each season 0 subcuncussive brain injury 0 hits below the concussion threshold o may be real danger cumulative effects of repetitive blows to the head More athletes suffering from head injuries Chris benoit 2007 0 WWE 40 murdered wife and son then hanged himself 0 CTE in all regions of his brain so damaged it resembled brain of 85 year old Alzheimers patient Bob Probert 2010 o 45 died from heart failure 0 16 seasons in NHL found CTE in brain Cindy Parlow women39s soccer player 0 50 of goals from head 0 hit heads with player once got concussion much easier to get concussions over 100 times getting concussions seeing stars o retired in 2004 from post concussion syndrome 0 always needs gps forgets where she is when driving 0 studder TBIs and Cultural Considerations SI cover Bounty Culture 0 Players were being paidbribed for really hard hits against other players 0 Historical sensibility Pay to injure smash for cash in 1996 this has happened in the past 0 Structural sensibility Commissioner and coaches allowed to happen 0 Cultural sensibility Players intimidate each other Violence sells Bracketed morality Need important staff 2 Inner city and smaller schools are less likey to have a certified athletic trainer on staff Failure to provide health cure for sports who are hurt during sports Increasing size of athletes 0 Increasing health problems 0 Keeping weight at unhealthy level Readings True NFL denied that there were ong term problem with head injuries players sustained Fase football is not the only sport where CTE occurs True female soccer players report concussions more often than male soccer players Cultural considerations of CTE Violence sells Media cover covers violence more Increasing size of athletes Bracketed morality Sport may provide a temporary release from everyday morality Athletes may fail to consider the humanity of the opponent intent to injure The warrior ethic in sports Sacrificing ones body Praised for playing hurt blasted for not playing hurt O O O O O 0 Social class 0 Sports organizations failure to provide for ailing athletes 711 year old sports 0 hockey has highest concussion rate football has second football is 8x more likely to have a concussion NFL settlement 0 765 million to over 4000 players 0 NFL does not admit that they did anything wrong Future of Football 0 Lisa McHae children aren39t allowed to play football until the culture of the sport has changed Her husband died had CTE former NFL player died form accidental overdose LaVar Arrington kids need to play football to learn character shouldn39t be afaird children aren39t fast or strong enough to cause real damage Lester Pitts tackle football should be avoided until the children are at high school age play non contact like flag football instead pop warner and collegehigh school only changed rules after the NFL did Ability to see connections between our personal lives and the social world in which we live how personal troubles and public issues are related What are the differences between personal troubles and public issues How does a sociological imagination relate the two Personal troubles are personal and local public issues are social issues The sociological imagination connects them because it gives us the ability to see the connections between our personal lives and the social world When 1 athlete out of hundreds takes steroids it is a personal trouble but when relatively large number of athletes are taking steroids it becomes a pubHcissue Dialectical relationship between personal and public issues Public issues both affect and are affected by personal troubles 4 sensibilities needed to develop a sociological imagination historica what historical forces were at work when a particular phenomenon emerged what is the historical legacy of this phenomenon 0 how was the food industry changed to make obesity more prevalent cultural beliefs behaviors and activities vary across cultures need to understand in context of own culture helps avoid ethnocentrism 0 how has culture changed in the way we perceive people and their bodies structura the social patterns that organize society relate to relationships of power privilege and prestige critica sociological imagination is critical imagination does not take things as they are given critiques existing society obesity is a personal trouble because it affects your lifestyle and body but it is a public issue because a large portion of our society is obese we have been concerned about obesity for about 100 years it is a relatively new issue they will still be cut The players will blame themselves and think it is there personal trouble when it is a public issue since there are less opportunities Without knowing about the cold war paranoia and the different appearance of the soviet women we would not understand why sex tests were preformed Ethnocentrism thinking your culture is dominant Cultural reativism understanding a culture in its own terms Structural sensibility unfolds the interplay between agency and structure Why was society the way it was Lincoln students with BMI gt 30 must take a fitness for life course Implement to keep students healthy BMI does not take into account muscle age and ethnicity Pros making students get healthy and learn about there weight Cons making students sef conscious 122814 950 PM 122814 950 PM bigger faster stronger 122814 952 PM Ronald regan Trouble in Iran Shiqs had championship belt Hulk Hogan only American hope to beat the Iranians Hulk pinned the shiq don39t mess with America Rocky Rambo Arnold Shwatzinegar Wanted to be big but overweight from on overweight family Brother was called pugsly beat up kids now called mad dog Brother smelly had a learning disability went to spots because he hated school Hulk Hogan inspired o Trained in the basement Mad dog became football captain short one because strongest in high school accused of taking steroids Routine 33 years old in California Wakes up at 330 drinks protein shake Thought muscles would be the answer only gave him a gym membership One guy won championship sleeps in car and trains at god s gym All his hero39s took steroids bothered bell 0 Both of his brothers on steroids 0 Mad dog started when he played football at Cincinnati Said he couldn39t compete there Everyone was on it quit college and started wrestling He was a dropper got beaten up to make other guys look good started taking other drugs Said hed rather be dead then average Tried to overdose on sleeping pills and walk into the Hudson river Still trying to get wrestling contract Smelly o Became pro wrestler and started using steroids 0 Had a wife took steroids to become bigger 0 Wife said do what you need to do 0 After having son didn39t want to be pro wrestler Settled down in suburbs and opened up gym still loved steroids weight lifting If you don39t like steroids your not cut out to be a championship BasebaH 0 Big mac mark mcguire won homerun champsionship at 70 0 Barry bonds 71 homeruns 0 Baseball players started using steroids 0 Jose wrote a book about it 0 Congress debated steroids in sports more then ending the 0 war in Iraq York barbell in PA saw a lot of steroid use in Olympics steroids weren39t thought of as cheating US against Olympics Russian coach admitted to using steroids so US made new type of steroids Malo azato steroids caused him to have a brain tumor John Ramono editor of body building magazine 0 0 Doesn39t believe steroids cause problems Dr Charles Y using steroids in medicine miracle drug for muscle wasting burn victims AIDS Steroids number 141 on killing list Dr Gary Walder Heart attacks strokes increases clotting cant produce evidence to show this Dr Frost cant demonstrate the adverse effects of steroids Peanuts can be dangerous etc People always do risky things like skiing so why do we care so much about steroids Candian sprinter Ben Johnson won caught fo rsteriods and taken away given to American sprinter o Said everyone was on something Overwhelming percentage of steroid use is by non athetes Used for cosmetic reasons Greg Vaentino biggest biceps in the world West side barbe strongest men train there all want to be elite athletes Dr Oxen anti doping Olymipcs 0 Many athletes failed drug tests but they were covered up 0 Lewis failed drug test kicked off Olympic team but did not actually loose the team Used the term inadvertent use to let them off the hook Harry Waxman doesn39t believe in steroids legal with medical prescription they should be banned in professional sports Supplement industry is very unregulated Oren hatch senator Utah 0 Make a quarter of all supplements have to prove to be unsafe to take it off the market Buy popular ingredients us the term prepetiutuary blend to cover up that it is just rice blend Can order steroids online in a pet store get it legally if you have enough money Human growth hormone cant be tested for Smey last meet on steroids wants to bench 700 pounds benched 705 pounds to test Or not to test 122814 952 PM Sex and gender Sex biological differences men and women xx or xy chormosomes Gender female or male social roles assigned to people 1966 sex tests peeking and probing visual examinations women walk by nude gynecological exams male athletes did not have to take sex tests bar body test testing to xx chromosomes buccal smear swabbing check and examining DNA chromosomes certificate of femininity piece of paper that said they had passed the sex test had to be shown at competitions 5 critiques of the sex chromosome test lack of disciplinary specificity or consensus about how sex is defined test and their results are unreliable and easily misinterpreted tests have failed to account for psychological or social status they violate civil legal and human rights to privacy sex chromosome test is ineffective in determining unfair athletic advantage one has to look at the enormous variation in physique in both sexes to appreciate that unfairness is more often attributable to autosomal genetic variation irrespective of the sex chromosome compement Dr John S Fox Fase Semenya did clock the best women39s 800 m time in 2009 but not in the history of the event Fase as of 2011 the IAAF still sex tests if there is any question about the sex of the athlete it has adopted a policy on heperandrogenism Current policy for sex testing Search for hyperandrogenism excessive production of androgens testosterone The IAAF says this applies to women to protect the health of the athlete There is no proven link between athleticism and androgens Caster Semenya came in second at the 2012 olympics Doping From world anti doping agency WADA from dutch dop an alcoholic beverage used by Zulu warriors to enchance their prowess in battle term first used in early 20 centry to refer to drugging racehorses Using substancesmaterials or technology to enhance athletic performance PES performance enhancing substances Amphetamines Stimulate central nervous system used by military and truck drivers to stay awake and alert can increase power strength All forms banned from IOC and NCAA and other governing bodies Tom Simpson 1 televised doping death amphetamine drugs and alcoholic stimulants last words put me back on my bike shows how much he pushed himself past him limits cared more about the race then his health deviant over conformity rigid and exclusive dedication to training athletes follow training that affects their relationships work and physical and mental heath uncritical commitment to playing with pain and injury 0 injuried runner keeps training even when it causes serious injuries selfinjurious overtraining unhealthy eating behaviors and weight control strageties o gymnast controls weight by cutting food intake to dangerous levels use of PES even though aware of health risks true there are legitimate medical reasons for using anabolic steroids wasting diseases strengthen bones and rebuild tissue anabolic steroids boost the bodys ability to produce muscle prevent muscle breakdown recover after workout Exogenous foreign or originating outside the body Anabolic steroids Endogenous originating or produced within an organism tissue or cell caused by factors within the body Heperandrogenism elevated hormone levels Boosting red blood cells Legal 0 Training at high altitude 0 Sleeping in ow oxygen chamber Illegal 0 Taking out blood reinjecting blood before a race 0 Injecting more oxygen into blood Human growth hormones Stimulates the growth of muscle cartilage and bone cellular regeneration tissue repair Quicker faster recovery time WADA world anti doping agency 3 questions to ban something must meet 2 of criteria 0 is it performance enhancing o are there health risks to the athlete 0 does it violate the spirit of sport Athlete biological passport Traditional mode reactionary testing drug comes out and WADA develops a test for it ABP reveals the effects of doping that then detects the doping substance ABP electronic record on individual athletes biology a physiological profile Establishes a baseline against which to judge future drugs 0 Looks for certain biomarkers Bigger Faster Stronger 195039s Russian coaches told US that they gave athletes sterioids US started to make their own Researchers cant study the effects of sterioids because of the ban on steroids and it would be unethical to test on someone True steroids have been used as a legitimate medical treatment since the 1930s Sterioids synthetic versions of hormones your body naturally makes 0 Cortisone and birth control are both steroids o Anabolic steroids increase size and strength and help people recover from a workout more quickly Side effects for women are not as reversible as side effects for men Since major steroid scandas in sports sports revenue has increased Utah makes 25 of all supplements The FDA does not regulate steroids people who make supplements do not have to prove their supplement is safe the FDA has to prove a supplement is not safe to take it off the market all incrediencts do not have to be on the products lable You can buy steroids online Testing the ethics of genetic testing The Olympics are a genetic freakshow Possible negative effects that genetic tests can have on children 0 Irrational dreams of the parents force kids do things they don39t want to do race and the natural athlete 122814 952 PM Lecture Winter Olympic games 0 Austria Switzerland dominate 0 Not many black athletes there Russians and Canadians dominate hockey due to where they are from not biological reasons People need a reason for why black athletes are better then whites Breeding myth monkeys Overrepresentationunderrepresentation disproportionate representation Jimmy the greek said blacks were better at sports because the strongest slaves were bread during slavery Al Campanis commented that African Americans may not have some of the necessities to fill key functionary positions in sports 1930s Jew basketba because it is a city game and when they immigrated they picked up basketball good because they are tricky and sly Jesse Owens cobb measured owens and other athletes and concluded that being black had nothing to do with athleticism 0 Coach Deam Cromwell didn39t buy into thinks that whoever wants it the most wins Italian American Brooklyn Dodger hit 40 homeruns in one session Roy Campanella good trivia because people assume he is black Cabinasian Tiger woods uses it to refer to his race caucasion black indian asain Viva baseba treated badly in US everyone thought they were black when they were other ethnicity Cobb the split sexond difference in performances of the great negro and white sprinters of the past and present are insignificant from an anthropological standpoint There is no way to measure race what is black in one country may not be black in another Anthropometry system of identification and classification based on bodily measurements Buoyancy myth myth that denser muscles and bones lower body fat make those of African descent less buoyant make them sink 0 Black children are 3 times more likely to drown than white chHdren Buoyancy myth and skull thickness are examples of scientific racism where scientific measurements are given biased meanings measings rationalize the idea that one race is inferior to another Problems using biological explanations o Suggests physical superiority intellectual inferiority bodymind o Downplays effort training determination etc o Ignored impact social and cultural factors Cultural channeling Role models Stererotypes and prejudice o Overgeneralizes and ignores differences within race Different countries define race differently 0 Brazil many different meanings for black Social construct concept or practice created by a particular group of people not a naturally occurring phenomenon 1 drop rule 1 drop of African bood black maybe its not really about race but about fear kalenjinis make up 12 of the population but 75 of elite sprinters o it is more appropriate to think of differences in the population rather then racial differences the bred during slavery story is a myth because differences have been noticeable for a long time not just a few hundred years centrality 0 location nature of responsibilities frequency of interaction with other positions stacking 0 positions segregation by race or ethnicity in team sports major group members tend to occupy central positions minority members occupy peripheral positions key functionaries cobb 0 positions within a social system that are capable of influence and performance crucial activities 0 coaches owners etc central 0 located in center leadership requires mental attributes high discrimination peripheral 0 outside center does not require leadership requires physical attributes low discrimination focuses on track because blacks make up the majority of the players studies revealed that Owens had a shorter heel none and larger calf muscle science had not revealed a single trait peculiar to the negro alone to which is athletic achievements could be attributed the biggest misconception in sports Is that blacks dominate the playing fields while white people take supporting roles there is a steady decline in African americans in sports because of the emergence of other European minorities and the rise of the black middle class the notion of blacks being better athletes is faulty purely by definition because blacks are given fewer opportunites in other areas so more of them play sports blacks have fewer oportunites to prove themselves superior slavery cant be the only reason for blacker being athleteic cultural and environmental factors must be considered as well most of the gifted black sprinters are from the south and most of the gifted black distance runners are from Kenya it is not a crime or even racist to acknowledge basic physical dfferences and characteristics among races The danger occurs when uninformed and unqualified people conclude that so caed superior physical human being translates into a limited human being intelligence wise jimmy the greek Snyder said blacks are bigger because of slave breeding when he said it people were angry and called him stupid campanis said there is no prejudice blacks just aren39t smart enough for some positions the perception of black dominance doesn39t give them enough credit for their training and implies blacks use brawn where white use intelligence cultural kinesiology 122814 952 PM doping for gold Lecture communist east Germans built the berlin wall to strop its citizens from feeling to the west the Spartacus games parallel the ancient bread and circuses that distract the citizens from the bad things happening in the country OT the anabolic steroids given to German athletes increased muscle mass and hasten recovery time allowing athletes to train harder They have a greater effect on women because they are made of testosterone The German athletes and parents did not know that they were being doped The capitalist incentives for the coaches was that they got paid depending by how well their athletes did At the 1976 Olympics no athlete failed a drug test Illona German shotputter failed her drug test in 1977 because coaches had been giving her pills until the very last minute To prevent this from happening again athletes would now be screened before events because it was better for them to be discovered at home than on the world stage The told athletes this was to protect them from false accusations from competitors Several GDR atheltes failed drug tests in 198 but east Germany boycotted the 1984 games so now athletes failed drug tests from those games Heidi Krieger was given androgenic hormones which stimulate the growth of male sex characteristics Later she underwent a sex transformation because she didn39t think she had a choice Physicians think women were part of the doping program have more injuries because their bodies cannot support the stresses of physical training The female body is not built for such loads The break down of the berlin wall revealed the stasi files Since the stasi files on doping have been revealed 70 people have been convicted for their role in the doping program Only a few have been brought to public trial and none have gone to jail for their role in the doping program Readings Muscular body images lures boys to the gym and obsession 0 More then 40 of boys in middle school and high school said they regularly exercised with the goal of increasing muscle mass 38 o said they use protein supplements and nearly 6 said they experimented with steroids The portrayal of men as fat free and chiseled is dramatically more prevalent in society then it was a generation ago Fase supplements are not regulated like drugs Fitspo fitness inspiration spin off of thinsperation which is banned from many sites for promoting anorexia The model of feminine beauty is now more toned and fit and sculpted then it was a generation ago Fitsperation why it isn39t inspirational o Thinspiration helps women keep motivation to get thin at any costs drives them to continue with eating disorders and harming their bodies to attain a certain body image what makes a body able Lecture 122814 952 PM Binary thinking two terms set in opposition thought of as oppostes 0 Instead of binary thinking consider a continuum when it comes to concepts like malefemale fairunfair natural bodytechnology the IOC did not allow Oscar pistorius to run in the 2012 Olympic games but he did run in the 2012 paralymic games the court of arbitration for sports was established in 1984 to make international athletic para in paralymics means beside or alongside every Paralympic sport has its own separate classification syste when an athlete is classified they receive a certificate but can be retested at any time in wheelchair rugby hey can only have eight points on the court ataatune 4 problems with the classification of ability in the Paralympic games this classification process demonstrates the way that disability is a social construction not that it isn39t real or doesn39t matter 0 range of disabilities within one class 0 athletes misrepresent their abilities o classifier errors 0 equitment and technology influence ability the Paralympic games wer started by Dr Luwig Guttman who worked with veterans and used sport as therapy They were called the stoke Mandeville games and he organized games with patients from other hospitals Disability sport sports designated for athletes with disabilities The extremity games are extreme sports for those with limb loss of difference Peope first anguage putting the person before the disability Casey martin sued the PGA because they wouldn39t let him use a cart on tour he won they said walking isn39t an essential part of the game Cyborg hybrid creatures compose of organic and mechanical parts Cyborification making cyborg athletes by augmenting biological bodies with prosthetic technologies Prosthetic device that substitutes for out supplements a missing of defective part of the body Gene doping used to enhance athletic performance whole gene therapy is to prevent or treat illness Readings Burkett o Biomechanical tests of athletes that are missing their legs below the knee determined that when it comes to the knee joint is used less and the majority of work is done in the ankle 0 Oscar pistorius is not the first athlete to compete in the Olympics with a disability 0 In supreme court case casey martin won the case and was allowed to use a golf cart 0 Bias against people with disabilities is called ableism O Lya first thing judged is disability 0 Classifiers ensure that athletes compete against each others with similar levels of ability 0 Classification process is different for each sport 0 Athletes unhappy with their classification can appeal 0 The Spanish mens basketball team was stripped of its gold because it was found that many of its members were not intellectually disabled at all Thompson superhuman athletes o Replacing entire joints for elite athletes would not work because too manu screws could come loose and the artificial joint wouldn39t quite match the mechanics of the natural one it would wear with within a few years under physical demands of elite sport 0 False scientists don39t think prostetics put athletes at an advantage Sweeny gene doping Fase synthetic gene is indistringuishble from its natural counterpart True WADA is worried about testing for gene doping 3 types of muscle smooth muscle skeletal muscle cardiac muscle skeletal muscle is the largest organ of the body skeletal muscle loss occurs with age EPO hormone produced in the kidney that promotes the formation of red blood cells by the bone marrow Promote development of red blood cells initiate synthesis of hemoglobin kinesiology and the social imagination 122814 950 PM Kinesioogy the muti discipinary study of physical culture Physical culture physical fitness exercise martial arts physical education recreation dance active leisure sport Personal troubles located within the character of the individual and within his or her immediate relations with others ex getting a coldhaving a fight with a friend pubHcissues located in the organization and institutions of the larger society social issues ex college tuition costs sensibility awareness or consciousness critical cultural historical structural human agency our ability to act according to our free will social constraint systems of rules and conventions allocations of resources and opportunities that constrain or enable individual actions ethnocentrism belief that your group is superior to all other groups or cultures anthropometry measurement of human individuals the kinesiological sub discipines that this course will focus on are athletic training and sport medicine sport marketing and management coaching and instruction fitness leadership understanding the issues of physical culture requires an integrative understanding what is the sociological imagination Ability to see connections between our personal lives and the social world in which we live how personal troubles and public issues are related What are the differences between personal troubles and public issues How does a sociological imagination relate the two Personal troubles are personal and local public issues are social issues The sociological imagination connects them because it gives us the ability to see the connections between our personal lives and the social world When 1 athlete out of hundreds takes steroids it is a personal trouble but when relatively large number of athletes are taking steroids it becomes a pubHcissue Dialectical relationship between personal and public issues Public issues both affect and are affected by personal troubles 4 sensibilities needed to develop a sociological imagination historica what historical forces were at work when a particular phenomenon emerged what is the historical legacy of this phenomenon 0 how was the food industry changed to make obesity more prevalent cultural beliefs behaviors and activities vary across cultures need to understand in context of own culture helps avoid ethnocentrism 0 how has culture changed in the way we perceive people and their bodies structura the social patterns that organize society relate to relationships of power privilege and prestige critica sociological imagination is critical imagination does not take things as they are given critiques existing society obesity is a personal trouble because it affects your lifestyle and body but it is a public issue because a large portion of our society is obese we have been concerned about obesity for about 100 years it is a relatively new issue this issue began to emerge at the turn of the 20 century 1890 work became more sedentary wiis does human agency or social structure guide behavior We can think of both agency and structure as being important but neither as being solely responsible for a social phenomenon rather such a phenomenon is a result of a combination of agency and structural factors Fase no federal law requiring PE in American schools Fase PE requirements are not set by the national government National association for sport and physical education recommends Elementary students 150 minutes PEweek 0 Middle and high school 225 minutes PEweek Schoasticism keeping the body healthy to help the mind stay alert and receptive to intellectual process Government farm subsidies go to the meat and dairy farmers rather than veggies and fruits Critical sensibility asks you to imagine alternate futures Debunking motif Debunk expose the falseness or hollowness of a myth idea or belief unwillingness to accept without question BMI kgm2 Adolphe Queteete created BMI classifications BMI measures International standard for obesity measurement find body mass medical research government policies center for disease control national institutions of health world health organization individual diagnostic tool C Wright Mis the Sociological Imagination The sociological imagination invites one to look for connections between the personal and the social and it demands an investigation of values where they come from and how they are reproduced The sociological imagination was the stimulus for me to explore the ways in which the physical and sport is linked to the social As athletes work their way up there are fewer and fewer opportunities Although they may have done everything they could they will still be cut The players will blame themselves and think it is there personal trouble when it is a public issue since there are less opportunities Without knowing about the cold war paranoia and the different appearance of the soviet women we would not understand why sex tests were preformed Ethnocentrism thinking your culture is dominant Cultural reativism understanding a culture in its own terms Structural sensibility unfolds the interplay between agency and structure Why was society the way it was Lincoln students with BMI gt 30 must take a fitness for life course Implement to keep students healthy BMI does not take into account muscle age and ethnicity Pros making students get healthy and learn about there weight Cons making students sef conscious 122814 950 PM 122814 950 PM 122814 950 PM Kansas City chief fan Cheered when own quarter back got sacked and injured Chief39s Eric Winston said they are not gladiators in the coliseum Civilized is a loaded term Residual cuture elements of the past remain present in contemporary society 3 theories about residual sporting violence people will always be drawn to violence sport and society have gone through a civilizing process that eliminated much of the violence of earlier times the civilizing process has disguised and transformed the appearance of violence in sport philosophy regarding physical culture in ancient Athens Balanced lifestyle between wisdom and exercise responsibilities and personal development military readiness and the good life a holistic approach to physical culture Hoism a balanced emphasis on whole person body mind and spirit Duaism see mind and body as separate mind more significant Schoasticism keeping the body healthy to help the mind stay alert and receptive to intellectual processes Ancient Greek Olympics Only free men who spoke Greek could compete in the games women could not watch as spectators Ancient Greek events included equestrian events pentathlon races combat sports pankration Heavy events wrestling boxing pankration because they were combat events with no weight classes Boxers did not use boxing gloves Pankration complete strength all force The amateur atheletes did not get cash prizes but were financed by city states getting prizes food or lodging Ancient Rome Olympics Sports were more spectator sports chariot races and gladiator contests were more popular Mostly slaves and lower class people raced the chariots Bread and circus sport became a spectacle for the purpose of diversion from the harshness of the real world Cooseum naval battles gladiators chariot races animal fights men and women against animals condemmed criminals thrown to the animals in animal skin Sportization creating rational rue governed sport from violent unregulated pastimes In fox hunting the use of hounds to kill the foxes is called killing by proxy Gouging in colonial America was scratching someones eye out Use of boxing gloves might be less civilized since they protect the hands of the boxer they increase the amount of blood shed and knockouts Poytheists believing more then one god Bread and circus sport became a spectable for the purpose of diversion from the harshness of the real world Sacred truce people competing in the Olympics were allowed to get there saftely during times of war circus circular track for chariot racing Civilizing process based on western Europe between middle ages and moder times Building nation states centralization of political control government can use force and to impose taxes Refinedment of manners and social standards importance of conscience to regulate behavior Stricter taboo on violence may push violence behind the scenes Sportization creating rational ruegovernend sport from violent unregulated past times By proxy agent action on behalf of others Hounds killing foxes rather than people Most of the games we now play are of ancient origin It is most violently combative sports football and boxing that have spread the widest The US sports industry generates more revenue than the US movie industry One communality between among many ancient and modern sports is the existence of violence and aggression contests MMA in 1993 was brutal with almost no rules after adding 31 fouls and 8 ways to end a match MMA was brought back into the spotlight Violence in hockey leads to lower attendance and decreases the teams probability of winning A sociologist is more concerned with the causes of human behavior economist would be interested in how violence affects attendance revenue or success historian would be most interested in social processes that have lead to the development of modern sports Asserting dominance theory spectators live vicariously through athletes so when a player makes a play its like the spectator did it Catharsis theory sports provide a wy to contain human aggression for athletes and spectators serves as an outlet Much of the relationship between violence and sports in the ancient world derived from the connection between sports and warfare Drivedischarge theory war and sports are substitutes in the release of aggression Cultural pattern theory the more warlike a society is the more likely warlike sports will be found in that society Gladiators were prisoners or slaves Dogfighting is illegal in all US states Differences between bullfight and dogcock fighting o Bull fighting is a big business and practiced openly in major western countries 0 Bull fighting has been romanticized by western culture 0 Humans fight the animals Economic perspective on presence of violence 0 As long as demand for violence and aggression exisits the sports leagues and teams will provide aggressive and violent spectacles Prize fighting fell into sharp decline because public officials felt the health of Victorian moralists Following 1889 Suivan Kirain fight how did boxing change What are new characteristics Now prize fighting was a spectator sport with rules and gloves Fox was the most popular sports star of the 19 century Athletic clubs had cards billiards drinks food swimming running track gymnasiums 0 Gave sign of high society Amateur code Participated in sport for the sheer joy of playing Best sportsmen could win without too much exertion Fase women were allowed to play golf and tennis but were restricted in the clothes they were required to wear and not fully embraced as players People thought exercise could hurt womans reproductive organs and that they were not suppose to exert themselves Had to wear long skirts Womens basketball Not allowed to cross center line less players no physical contact Muscular Christianity Participation in vigorious sports would produce a man who understood the values of fair play good sportsmanship and the appreciation of the Ten Commandments Hughe s novel Tom Browns School Days Roosevek Advocated strenuous life Softness at home imperiled Americas future needed strong men Wanted men to be outside become strong rather than sit behind a desk Jim Thorpe Football track baseball Pentathon Stockholm Olympics won 1 4 places Played for a cass d baseball team 19091910 and was paid to play Basketball Urban cores of American cities Needed indoor sport for winter guided study 3 American exceptionalism and challenging the fratility myth 122814 950 PM American exceptionalism Notion that US was created differently and has to understood differently 0 Liberty equality individualism populism laissez faire path dependence model how does it explain that sports are still popular today theory to explain dominant physical culture emergent sports baseball football basketball established during American sportscape considered American inventions uniquely American from its first contest intercollegiate sport has been a commercial enterprise and professionalism followed closely at its heels basketbaH invented by James Naismith in 1891 springfield massachusettes people wanted something to do in the winter rules were different for women movement mostly restricted basebaH abner doubleday apparently invented baseball chadwick was saying it was an English game but abner graves said he watched doubleday invent it in cooperston NY AG Spalding Spalding was a sports manufacturer he believed baseball was created in America by and American important to prove this because if it was thought to be un American people were stop playing and he would loose business The Mills Commison was appointed by Spalding to find out the origin of baseball and they found it to be doubleday Graves claimed doubleday invted baseball it was later found out that he was crazy and murdered his wife 0 The motivation for launching the investigation of the origins of baseball was equal parts patriotism and commercialism First inter coegiate sporting event Havard yae regatta Football evolved from rugby and soccer and folk football Flying wedge illegal football play player with ball stands behind wall of other players Problems associated with early collegiate football Lack of governing bodies no eligibility rules tramps atheletes serious injury and death After roosevelts meeting with Harvard Princeton and yale the NCAA is created and the American Football Rules Committee To make college football a spectacle sports media was created around the event and cheerleaders fight songs homecoming events and mascots were added Why soccer game is not popular It did not appeal to American spectators Too tame after seeing American football Crowded out Not scientific enough too much running 3 interrelated reasons why soccer failed crowded out by football and baseball nonnative activity when nativism and nationalism were at all time high soccer was cursed in US by poor leaders that did not establish and organizational framework baseball fans thought cricket was socially egalitarian and less competitive than baseball they didn39t think cricket accurately reflected life in the new world they new york knickerbockers was the first formally organized baseball team of middle class men in 1845 by alexander cartwright kicking a ball with diverse shape and for various occasions was common to many cultures in different segments of the globe soccer and rugby originatd in England in the eary midde 19 century from private schools oxford and Cambridge American baseball advocates denied the English roots of the game Amerian football was advocated did not deny the English roots The first college football game was on Nov 6 1899 in new Brunswick between Princeton and rutgers Rutgers won first college football game and soccer game in modern American history Soccer disappeared in the 1870s and reappeared in 1902 because of rugby style football was dominate Walter camp was the founding father of football he got rid of the English scrum and made a center snap made the gridiron and downs reduced number to 11 and created positions did this at yale Roosevelt demaneded that the game be changed to eleinate obvious brutality led to NCAA Values of brains and brawn Baseball became sport of lower classes in late 1800s football became popular with coege taiored middle class Jim thrope and Glen pop warner came out of Carlisle indian insutrial school Not amateurs because schools were getting revenue form games Big three are baseball football and basketball Basketball is authentically American and has gained the most popularity around the glove Women played basketball with modified rules Hockey became popular because it was opening foreign close with Canada US entered at the turn of the century Evidence that soccer could be making a push includes 0 National pro league MLS with stars and TV coverage 0 The world cup gets good TV ratings 0 Demographic forces are in soccer39s favor NASL was popular 30 years ago but fizzled out America was independent from Britain so soccer39s inability to stick here is really a product of historical forces Passion is all over the world but fans don39t like to watch it Challenging the frailty myth Male preserve Majority of opportunities and rewards go to men Frailty myth Belief that women are naturally weak and frail and are prohibited from sport for their own good Vital energy theory Women have a limited amount of energy that should be directed toward the home Eugenics Selective breeding to improve the quality of race Victorian life influenced physical culture because women were not at the same level as men Baby carriages were seen as evil because they gave women mobility Women played sports at some all women colleges Play days Times set aside for girls to play with each other rather than against each other Colleges would mix up players and all play together Suzanne lenglen was the first women39s sport superstar French tennis player Wore dresses on the court always looked good super star quality Style of play had a dance like aspect ballet The only match she lost was because someone put water in her brandy flask Gertrude Ederle was the first women to swim the English channel Broke existing male record by over 2 hours Swam freestyle rather than the men who swam breaststroke Skirt theory Women could only participate in sports in which they could wear a skirt 0 Tennis archery rowing Bardon de coubertins thought women39s participation in the Olympics was incorrect impractical and unnecessary the women39s Olympic games in the 192039s was a successful and popular in the 800 m race a few women stumbled across the finish line 0 a man wrote a false story about how they all fainted from exhaustion and never crossed the finish line 0 in reality the top 3 set world records 0 it would be 32 years before a women could run the 800 again Babe Zaharias was the best woman athlete of the century She got 3 medals in the 1932 olympics Excelled at high jump hurdles and javelin and participated in the LPGA golf tournament Thought she could have children because she trained too hard Bloomer girl basketball teams went from town to town playing any men39s team that would participate Jackie Mitchell was a 17 year old pitcher First women to sign a professional baseball contract Commissioner Landis banned Jackie and all women from participating in organized baseball Philip Wrigley started the A american girls baseball league because the men were at war African Americans were excluded African American did eventually play pro baseball Toni Stone was the first woman in the Negro league Dr Ellis Cashmore If not the a history of medical myths and a lack of athletic opportunity it is at least possible that in all sports that demand skill as opposed to pure brawn women might have been competing at levels comparable with their male counterparts People were always worried that sports would do damage to women39s reproductive organs Residual effects people recommend conservative amounts of exercise when women are pregnant Fipside men taught to ignore the pain and persevere Article recommends that women do housework instead of exercise They an go shopping as a replacement for walking the golf links Doing laundry works all the same muscles as rowing ironing makes the right arm strong like sailinging and the steam expands the pores of the skin baking bread works the same muscles as swimming Sweeping beautifies the body because with each stroke the chest is expanded and respiratory power increased walking also brings the leg muscles in to play No exercise indoors or out should ever be carried out to the point of real fatigue Gallico What types of sports should women avoid 0 Any sport that they do not look beautiful playing 0 Squash tennis track basketball baseball badmittion golf fencing swimming What types of sports can women play 0 Fishing archery flying kites riding and shotting backstroke swimming speed and figure skating skiing People still do not accept women in many sports or they are not taken seriously in the sports industry one day 122814 950 PM 1972 Olympic games held in Munich Germany want to make people forget about Nazi Germany security very relaxed members of Israeli Olympic team taken hostage by terrorist group Black September Palestinian o Munich massacre Ambury president of Olympic games says games must go on Palestinians demand plane to fly hostages back to country Germans waiting at airport 5 of 8 terrorists killed All hostages killed terrorists threw grenades and fired shots at airplanes Germans gave up 3 remaining terrorists during staged hijack GS 4 122814 950 PM Drawing the Color Line Great Migration how did it affect race relations 19141917 hundreds of thousands of African Americans to migrate to northern cities 0 labor shortages o racism in the south 0 educational opportunities provoked interracial tensions and violence myriad forms of discrimination in the Northing 0 housing mortage empoloment edu sport etc African American success in sport was seen as a threat to the dominant social order Monkey making opportunities of whites Positons of prestige Exluded from mainstream sport Rationalized with scientific data 0 Success justified as natural athlete arguments that athletes were closer to primatives Jackie robinson was not the first African American to play professional basebaH 1915 birth of a nation demonstrated racial atmosphere of the time played at white house made the KKK look like heroes How did US culture handle African American success in sport Rationalized with scientific data 0 Closer to primates 0 White success was attributed to hard work determination and training characteristics prized in American democratic system 0 Blacks became popular in boxing cycling horse racing Mashall Major Taylor 0 Cycistwore military uniform 0 Winning banned from comp in Indianapolis 0 Banned from leage of American wheelman world 1 mie srint champion 18991901 0 Moves to Europe retires in 1910 Isaac Murphy 0 Made 10000 20000 per year most jockeys made 5000 o 1 to win 3 KD o winning record of 44 lstjockey elected to national racing hall of fame Moses Fleetwood Walker o Played professional baseball blue stockings 0 Peter Jackson 0 Black boxer from Australia wants to fight Sullivan best American white boxer he refuses to fight a black boxer Gentlemans Agreement 0 1887 agree not to sign black players 0 people afraid once one black playerjoined it would be floodgate and many others would follow great white hope hope for great white athlete to emerge and win over blacks nadir lowest race relations in US history miscegenation marriage cohabitation and sexual relations color line difference between whites and blacks Jack Johnson black fighter world heavyweight champion Had to offer Burns 30000 to fight fought for 8 years before given chance for heavy weight champion Johnson beats Jeffries in fight of 1910 says he could have never beatJohnson o Riots in more then 25 states and 50 cities 0 At least 23 blackes and 2 whites dead hundreds injuried 0 Fight films banned Mann act banned transportation of women stop women in prostitution 0 Johnson charged with it from a time before it was ever written or in effect 0 Lucille Cameron charged with abduction she wont say anything against him marries in 1912 o Belle Schreiber ex lover says she was transported for prostitution Johnson ruined her life Judge Landis is judge he is charged 1 year and a day in prision Johnson said they were in a relationship and he did not transport for prostitution Johnson fleed before the trial for him to be put in jail got on train with baseball team may have bribed to let him go An American Dilemma 122814 950 PM Desegregation of sports NFL sings first black players in 1946 WWII African americans had fought for the country should be allowed to play sports American Diemma white prejudice and discrimination keep negro low in standards of living This gives support to white prejudice they both cause each other Racial segregation is a denial of fundamental American Values Integration Structure in question on every level is significantly altered full racial equality Desegregation Efforts to end systematic institutionalized racism allowing parcipitation of racial minority into dominant culture often a process of tokenism Kinesiology 141 Introduction to the Social amp Cultural Dynamics of Kinesiology Welcome Kinesiology Kinesiology the multidisciplinary study of physical culture From the American Kinesiolo Association AKA Kinesiology is an academic discipline which involves the study of physical activity and its impact on health society and quality of life It includes but is not limited to such areas of study as exercise science sports management athletic training and sports medicine sociocultural analyses of sports sport and exercise psychology tness leadership physical educationteacher education and preprofessional training for physical therapy occupational therapy medicine and other health related elds I Philosophy of Physiology of Physical Physical Activity Activity History amp j Biomechanics ik Sociology of Physical Activity Sport amp Physical amp quot Exercise Health Ed Psychology Teacher Ed Motor Behavior Kinesiology Also Includes 0 Athletic Training amp Sport Medicine 0 Sport Marketing amp Management 0 Coaching and Instruction 0 Fitness Leadership 0 Other pre professiona options Physical N A Culture Physical Fitness Exercise Dance Active Leisure Sport Recreation Physical Education Martial Arts J Understanding Issues of Physical Culture Requires An Integrative Understanding 0 We need to sub discipines of the kinesiology for a more complete understanding of physical culture and human movement From the micro level to the macro level of human movement Cells Cuvcure 0 For a contextual understanding of physical culture it is important to develop what C Wright Mills characterized as a 0 It enables us to grasp history amp biography amp the relations between the two within society 0 The ability to see connections between our personal lives and the social world in which we live 0 How personal troubles relate to social issues Personal Troubles Individuals deal with them on a personal level Located within the character ofthe individual and within the range of his or her immediate relations with others ie the individual39s miieu Mills 1961 p 8 In other words It39s something about that person or within herhis personal social sphere friends family peers Examples Unemployment Divorce Suicide Criminal behavior Graduation from school Obesity A sociological imagination helps use appreciate the larger social issues that contribute to these personal troubles Social Issues Largescale issues amp challenges Social issues are located in the organization and institutions of the larger society Solving social issues demands collective action beyond the capabilities of individuals When 1 athlete out of hundreds takes steroids it is a personal trouble When a relatively large number of athletes are taking steroids it becomes a social issue Dialectical relationship personal troubles both a ect and are a ected by social issues 1 Minute Writing Exercise 0 In what ways is obesity a gersonal trouble 0 In what ways is obesity a social issue 1 Minute Writing Exercise What are the Pros amp Cons 0 June 2013 The American Medical Association classi es obesity as a disease 1 Minute Writing Exercise What are the Pros amp Cons 0 July 2013 The Boy Scouts of America ban individuals with BMs over 40 from Jamboree Developing A Sociological Imagination Requires 4 Sensibilities Historical Sensibility Cultural Sensibility Sensibility Awareness or Consciousness Structural Sensibility Critical Sensibility Historical Sensibility A historical component of the sociological imagination involves analyzing how our society got to be the way it is Willis 1996 p59 What has changed over time that accounts for the increase in obesity rates To be overweight in the US was once desirable a sign of wealth health amp beauty Doctors believed thinness related to contagious diseases Advised a certain amount of weight was good Historical Sensibility Concerns about obesity are new about 100 years old Turn of the 20 century c 1890 Changes in work more sedentary Growing medical awareness about fat Aesthetic of slenderness New products Diet fads Fat becomes a moral issue symbolizes lack of discipline Early 1900s Use of weight standards doctors amp insurance companies de ne what it means to be normaloverweightobese WWI Healthy eating becomes a patriotic duty WWII Many American men un t for service PostWWII New data shows Americans less t than Europeans PostWWII Insurance companies notice more overweight patients dying of cardiovascular disease Cultural Sensibility 0 Beliefs behaviors activities vary across cultures impossible to say what39s normal 0 To understand humans beliefs behaviors activities in the context of their own cultures 0 Helps avoid belief that your group or culture is superior to all other groups and cultures Belief that your own culture or society as normal or natural and other societies because they are different are abnormal amp inferior Cultural Sensibility Why are obesity rates in some states higher than others Why are they higher in certain countries Why are rates affected by race ethnicity education amp income Overa crosscultural analyses suggest that most cultures in the world have valued moderate fatness and avoided extreme thinness Sobal J 2001 Social and cultural in uences on obesity In P Bjorntro ed International textbook of obesity John Wiley amp Sons 306 Structural Sensibility STRUCTURE A fundamental sociological question What guides behavior b social structure or human agency 7 AGENCY What guides behavior social structure or human agency Social Structure factors of in uence such as organizations government economy schools and social categories religion social class race ethnicity sex that determine or limit a person39s options Agency an individual s ability to act independently amp make herhis own choices We can think of both agency and structure as being important but neither as being solely responsible for a social phenomenon Rather such a phenomenon is a result of a combination of agency and structural factors Willis 1996 p 76 Obesity What Guides Behavior Social Structure What foods are available in your area What can you afford Are there safe and convenient places to exercise Do you have the time moneyenergy to do it Human agency we can eat what we want we can exercise when we want i Structural Considerations Children amp Weight 1 Educational Policies Food provided physical activity opportunities 2 Food industry Nutritious content portion sizes advertising 3 Government policies Food subsidies safe spaces for activity Educational Policies Recess for elementary students required in only 9 states Constraints S facilities personnel pressures to increase test scores True or false Today there is a federal law requiring physical education in American schools True or false All PE requirements are set by the national government True or false you have to have a certi cate in physical education to teach PE True or false Students can earn PE credits online National Association for Sport amp Physical Education NASPE recommends Elementary students 150 minutes of PEweek Middle amp high school students 225 minutes PEweek Keeping the body healthy to help the mind stay alert amp receptive to intellectual process Critical Sensibility 0 The sociological imagination is a critical imagination Critical at negative 0 To be critical you have to become skeptical Molnar amp Kelly 2013 p28 0 It does not take things at face value 0 It connects all other SI sensibiities 0 It imagines aternative futures Critical Sensibility amp The quotDebunking Motif Berger 1963 Debunk Expose the falseness or hollowness of a myth idea or belief An unwillingness to accept without question what we see or are told about physical culture Berger also calls this an unmasking tendency of sociology working to strip away the surface and look beneath it From An Invitation To Sociology How Do We Determine Obesity Body Mass ndexBMI Blll 393939 W IIquot Pc l Underweight lt 185 Heathy 185249 BMI 0 11 Overweight 25299 Obese 30 An anthropometric measure The scienti c study of the measurements and proportions ofthe human body Inexpensive easy noninvasive safe Critical Sensibility BMI Body Mass Index BMI became international standard for obesity measurement in 1980s 1998 NIH moved overweight threshold from 278 to 25 Does not take into account age sex race or ethnicity Does not distinguish between lean body mass and fat mass Remember A critical sensibility connects all 4 sensibilities Historical Sensibility BMI classi cations created between 1830 and 1850 by Adolphe Quetelet known as the Quetelet Index or QI Formula t pattern he observed Not meant to assess individual bodies Standards created using only Caucasian samples Dutch 1970s Ancel Keys changes QI to BMI Keys et al 1972 the body mass index WH2 proves to be if not fully satisfactory at least as good as any other relative weight index as an indicator of relative obesity p 339 Scien Cultural Sensibility Scale Ce News from universities journals and other research organizations Wldel y Used Body Fat Measurements overestimate Fatness In African Americans Study Finds Is BMI Scale Weighted Against African Americans gt1l 39iii39 Structural Sensibility Endorsing BMI Medical Research Government Policies Center for Disease Control CDC National Institutes of Health NIH World Health Organization WHO Becomes an individual diagnostic tool instead of a way to assess population based weight trends Application of BMI Examples Some insurance companies offer discounts to customers with BMI 1925 Insurance companies make more S from healthy customers keep paying premiums longer Employers eg Safeway State of Alabama charge employees who have BMI gt 30 To cover increased insurance incentive to reduce Weight Grades on students report cards Lincoln University freshmen with BMI gt 30 must take 1 credit Fitness for Life course Bariatric weight loss surgeries BMI gt 40 or BMI gt 30 health problems 10 Alternatives to BMI I 7 E I3L3 V I I 0 Caiper measured skinfold thickness 0 Hydrostatic weighing 0 Dua energy X ray absorption 0 Air dispacement plethysmography 0 Waist circumference 0 Waist to hip ratio WH R Obesity Is A Social Construction Historical Sensibility Have ideas about obesity changed over time Cultural Sensibility Are ideas about obesity different in other cultures Structural Sensibility Are certain institutions or organizations responsible for defining and legislating obesity 0 Critical Sensibility How are those ideas made to seem natura amp can we imagine alternative futures In Review For a contextual understanding of physical culture it is important to develop what C Wright Mills characterized as a sociological imagination We need to consider the relationships between personal troubles and social issues Developing one s sociological imagination involves requires 4 sensibilities historical cultural structural critical 11


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