GEOG 355 Lecture Notes for the first 3 weeks
GEOG 355 Lecture Notes for the first 3 weeks Geography 355
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emilee Wu on Thursday October 15, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Geography 355 at a university taught by Megan Ybarra in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 17 views.
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Date Created: 10/15/15
Modernization Why is Columbus celebrated He was not the rst European at the Americas the Vikings came way before him and EVEN AT THE TIME he was regarded as a criminal Celebrating Columbus was a way for Italian Americans to feel belonged and welcome in the US Dif culty in celebrating racerelated holidavs in the US since 19805 c In 1980s Mexico39s Dia de la Raza normal in Mexico became a dif cult concept to accept when it was brought over to the US 0 In 1992 Indigenous People s Day was created at the same time as when Nobel Peace Prize went to an indigenous guy for the rst time Question Why does Columbus Dav a dav off but not Indidenous People s Day At what point do we decide how comfortable we are with what we choose to celebrate Visions of development Fanon PostColonial Trained in psychology and philosophy Outlines MUTUALLY TROUBLING RELATIONSHIP between colonists and the colonized concerned with daily relationships in POSTCOLONIAL societies 0 Thought similarly to Lenin 1 Demands psychologic independence for BOTH colonists and the colonized in addition to economic independence and political independence 2 Demand that we think outside of the box about nation states Doesn39t believe that geographic boarders mean as much as what is happening inside HoChi Minh NonAligned Movement 0 Quoted USA39s Bill of Rights 1 This drew similarities between US France and Vietnam at time of independence implicitly arguing that Vietnamese independence should be as valuable as that of US and France 2 France at the time was asking US to help rule Vietnam Ho Chi Minh is reminding US of why not to get involved 0 Calling for Vietnamese people to know that Vietnam doesn39t need to rely on othersquotNationalism is the right to forge your own political pathquot 0 This was not an exclusively Vietnamese movement The same was happening in Africa Truman Truman Doctrine It wasn t clear until Truman that US and USSR would be great enemies Helped quotgood democraciesquot that we quotlikedquot The moment when we signed up as the quotworld s policemanquot It explains why people resent us today for not being involved in foreign affairs McNamara Basic Needs 0 Identity as the president of World Bank and Secretary during the Vietnam situation causes people to rejectdeny the impact of his vision of development c A vision simple enough to get behind quotIf we cover basic needs and education for people they will realize that US is actually awesome and that democracy is goodquot 0 Related to the US Army Hilary Clinton 0 Important because of her identity quotFight Terrorism not only by dropping bombs but also building schoolsquot Her vision came at a time when people were doubtful about our continuous involvement in the Middle East 0 quotWe should celebrate development because it is our new defense strategyquot Developing World Name and De nition A What are more accurate names for the developing world quotUnder representedquot by Western media quotMajority Worldquot B Be wary of Euro centric biases Developing World and its relationship with Societies A quotPoorquot as a description is received with anxiety in the US but accepted in the developing world B They feel no guilt for being poor whereas we do Hence the different comfort level The Third World A Where did the term quotthe Third Worldquot come from Albert Sovi The French Revolution This explanation of origins is received negatively by some third world countries Example Haiti B What is quotthe Third Worldquot about according to Prushad 1 Nonaligned movement 2 Anticolonial nationalism 3 quotSelfdirected projectquot with quothopequot The West vs The Rest A Positive de nitions are associated with the West Masculine gogetter Negative associated with quotthe restquot B Orientalism 1 Only useful in telling us about the West and how it sees itself 2 Example Environmentalism in the West frames the problem as one about overpopulation in the 3rd world even though the west comsumes much more per capita Discourse and Power A Representation shapes action and solution B Examples 1 US feminists representing problems FOR colored women forcing them to have birth control instead of helping them with what THEY want more children 2 Katrina photo of race being an implicit determinant in how the situation is represented C How the relationship between post colonized countries and the West is framed 1 quotReparationquot vs quotForgivenessquot vs quotDevelopmentquot and quotdebt repaymentquot all have controversial implications Jamaica CARICOM Reparations Commissions and David Cameron represent the range across the spectrum in what the relationships could look like D The dispute on titles exists for Development Studies too 1 There is no clean break between Colonialism and Development Colonial of cers39 story and the ne line between exploitation and humanitarianism The negative connotation of quotColonialismquot and quotImperialismquot is a recent change It used to be a positive thing before Lenin wrote his essay There is no single story of development Did it begin with imperialism Colonialism Post war independence Kothari39s position is with the latter Dependency Theory What was Alliance for Progress Supposedly it was Latin America39s quotMarshal Planquot reparation efforts for post WW2 Supposedly a 10 year plan designed by Kennedy to bring about economic growth democracy and land reforms features of the modernization in the 505 and 605 o It was also a noncommunist manifesto for the Latin American countries Why does lllich dislike Alliance for ProgreSS 1 Due to language barriers the dogooders will only get proximity to a small group of Mexican elites who would give them positive feedback wrongfully representing the real situation for the majority in Mexico 2 The rich will hence get richer and inequality will grow as a result despite economic growth in the region What were lllich s thoughts on the relationship between US money guns and idealist 0 Those are the biggest US exports to other countries used to make people think more like Americans 0 The guns and ideals work together hence lllich thinks that even people with goodintentions are responsible for the threat that US guns pose to others Because what would happen if people reject our help They might get labeled as a nonally or even an enemy What does lllich think should happen instead 0 People should get involved with domestic issues such as the problem at Chicago or with foreign policy There were race quotriotsquot at Chicago at the time Note that they were called quotriotsquot which indicate violence but not events that hint at necessarv political discussions which they were lllich said that the dogooders would get spat on in Chicago because they are privileged people exercising their privileges However that is still better than doinggood in third world countries Dependency Theory o It draws heavily on Lenin39s theory about imperialism It is a third world invention aka the third world39s way of talking back to the rst world for inventing quotmodernizationquot quotI underdevelop youquot It describes the relationship between the developed and developing from the perspective for the third world It is a critique of the perspective of modernization which assumes that underdevelopment is a condition In dependency theory quotunderdevelopquot is an active verb describing how the core exploits the periphery Make note of the caveat that not everyone is rich in the core countries and not everyone is poor in the periphery Exploitation can happen vice versa as well White savior industrial complex Cole KONY 2012 wasn t just a humanitarian disaster it signals a bigger structural problem that is much more complex What savior industrial complex happens when people look for the immediate need to ll but not at the political condition that created the need Emotions play a big role in international justice 1 The KONY 2012 guys got used because people supporting it were driven solely by emotions and didn39t bother looking into the more complex side of the story 2 US humanitarians were compared to angry hippos they are defensive and will get angry if they get criticized 3 The more people become invested in nonpro ts as careers as they lose faith in government the harder it is to tell them they might be wrong There is always a need for a bridge character People with white saviorindustrial complex aren39t able to care or relate to issues without there rst being someone that they can relate to to introduce the Issues Anticolonialism Haiti39s Article 44 1 Only Africans and Indians could become Haitians because the president of Haiti was concerned that white French people will go to Haiti and claim land The Article does not allow Haitians to intervene in other countries Signi cance Haiti was a revolutionary sanctuary state The article represents the model of universal suffrage and citizenship and separation of church and state Haiti got it before US got it right It is also representative of what freedom looks like from a developing countries39 perspective Coulthard s landasrelationship view 1 Instead of seeing land as merely resources like Rostow and modernists he thinks that land should be viewed as resources identity and as something to have a relationship with Whereas Marxists Capitalists modernization theorists are focused on money time and more shortsighted views of land Coulthard focuses on a long term relationship with the land that is both reciprocal and sovereign Measuring Development Why do the different measurements matter People aren39t always talking about the same things when they say quotdevelopmentquot That means they might not even have the same goals Measurements Absolute Poverty Line 0 focused on infrucstructure for business development 0 Gave loans not grants to communities Genuine Progress Indicator 0 accounted for social bads in the market 0 realizes that economic growth doesn39t always mean REAL development Human Development Index 0 focuses on Health Education and Income 0 focus on giving social welfare programs Critiques and Flaws of these development measurements 1 They focus on Absolute poverty and neglects relative poverty even though there is an improvement of a shift away from just economic improvements to some social development included 2 They only discuss income inequality and never wealth inequality which is even more severe than the former a People especially Americans like to believe that hardwork pays off Hence they prefer to ignore the impact of wealth debt savings paren39ts capitals b Also a problem with the Champagne Glass Distribution visual it is still just showing income inequality What does absolute measures entail or encourage 0 Enonomic growth since it helps people meet the minimum need 0 It inspires creativity and helps everyone according to World Bank and UN 0 This is the focus of most all big development organizations 0 Basic Need 0 Poverty Line 0 Most HDI standards 0 Focus of Policymakers amp Americans The Debt Crisis 0 In 1982 Mexico announced that they are defaulting on their debt unable to pay even the minimum payment In just two years 40 countries also defaulted on their debt 0 In the 19805 more than half of World Bank39s aid was given out in loans This means that the third world was paying back surfacepayments interest more than they owned What caused the debt Crisis 0 Market was increasingly gobaized and was unpredictable due to natural disasters Weakened currency Countries had to pay back their debt in US dollars This means that they have to actually pay back more because their money was worthing less 0 Interest rates was adjustable and can differ year to year this was what happened to Mexico Who should pay for the debt 0 Should the people have to pay back for their corrupted dictatorial government who took out a bunch of loans Should the debt be paid back 0 The countries were paying back for a few years Before debt forgiveness they already paid back the money they owed plus interest They39re not hurting the banks by defaulting jus tnot allowing them to make even more pro t A response to the debt crisis How should businesses and governments function now a Neoliberalist view vs a Marxism view Neoliberialist like Lal or Friedman favored businesses over states They think businesses a is efficient and b allows people to make choices They think states are a inefficient b allows for less choices and punishes people for choices they didn39t make c are corrupt bureacrats that can make bad choices or don39t care enough They think people are more powerful as consumers than they are as voters quotvote with your dollarquot Note the context Neoliberalism felt direct and empowering because up until this time modernism was the mainstream which was a top down process Neoliberalism argues against that and says that poor people can think for themselves too bottom up approach Marxists like Harvey seem to hate everyone both business and states They also hate neoliberalism and capitalism because it is They think businesses rely on states but say they don39t so that they can get subsidies without paying more in taxes They think states make the rich richer through a privitizing b guranteeing loans and bailouts and c Subsidies They think the people are workers that are getting tricked
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