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Cultural Anthropology

by: Dr. Rasheed Bahringer

Cultural Anthropology ANT 252

Dr. Rasheed Bahringer
GPA 3.58

James Wallace

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James Wallace
Class Notes
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This 15 page Class Notes was uploaded by Dr. Rasheed Bahringer on Thursday October 15, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ANT 252 at North Carolina State University taught by James Wallace in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see /class/223833/ant-252-north-carolina-state-university in anthropology, evolution, sphr at North Carolina State University.


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Date Created: 10/15/15
Gender Diversity Topic 11 ANT252 Cultural Anthropology Instructor Tim Wallace North Carolina State University 1 Key points to be reviewed Human Sexuality Gender Roles Gender Stratification Gender Ideology Exploitation Caused by Gender Ideology Gender in the United States EIEIEIEIEIEI i Gender El Refers to the way the two sexes are perceived evaluated and expected to behave El There is a wide range of ideas about what it means to be feminine or masculine El US culture recognizes only two genders male and female but other cultures recognize a combined malefemale gender Elli Eurai Ea erns Oi Homo sexuality United States El Cultural de nition of male homosexuality does not make a distinction between preference and activity El It is assumed that a man who chooses to engage in homosexual activity does so due to a dominant homosexual preference El 91 of males surveyed reported some homosexuality during their lifetime only 28 claimed a homosexual preference and identity Eulfural iaffems Oi Homosexuality Azande El Due to a shortage of women Azande men sought sexual satisfaction for a limited time through homosexual activity nrnarried men serving in military units o en married boys between the ages of 12 and 20 These male wives performed household chores and served as sexual partners When the husband was old enough to take a female wife marriage to the boywife ended and both were free to marry a woman U U U Elli fural Eafferns Oi Homo sexuality Sambia El Defines male homosexuality as a requirement before men assume masculine roles an heterosexual relationships Sambian women are viewed as sexually dangerous because they can sap a man of his semen Before a boy can develop into a male adult he must receive ingestions of semen from older men for 6 to 8 years during adolescence El El Division of Labor by Gender El Men have greater body mass and strength and are better equipped for hunting warfare and land clearing El Women do tasks that are compatible with pregnancy breastfeeding and child care Gender Inequality El 23 of all the illiterate people in the world today are women El The world s women are concentrated in the lowestpaid occupations and receive less pay and fewer benefits than men El Women are more likely to work parttime have less seniority and occupy positions with little or no upward mobility Women and Inequality El Women makeup 12 the world s population but I do approximately 23 of the work I earn 110 ofthe world s income I own less than 1 ofthe world s property Enhance Ol omen lI IEO Workforce Key Factors El As industrialization became more complex more clerical workers were needed most were women El Women bore fewer children increasing the number of years they could work outside the home n rance o omen n o e Workforce Key Factors El Rising rate of divorce forced women to support themselves and their children El The baby bottle enabled women to work outside the home without jeopardizing their infants El Two salaries are often needed to make ends meet ilccupafiona Eegregafion E ong Gender Lines Women make up 99 of secretaries daycare workers and checkout clerks U 96 of nurses 83 of librarians 71 ofteachers 1 of corporate CEOs 6 ofpartners in private law rms 8 of state and federal judges EIEIUUUEI Earnings Gap in the US El Female clerical workers earn 64 cents for every dollar earned by a male clerical worker El Female sales workers earn 57 cents for every dollar earned by a male sales worker El Female executives make less than twothirds what their male counterparts earn Ethnographic MethodsTheory in Cultural Anthropology Topic 4 ANT 252 Cultural Anthropology Tim Wallace Some key theories in Anthropology El Evolutionism El Neoevolutionism El Structuralism El Cultural Materialism El Postmodernism 1 1 Evolutionism El All cultures pass through the same developmental stages in the same order El Evolution is unidirectional and leads to higher levels of culture El A deductive approach is used to apply general theories to speci c cases El Ethnocentric because evolutionists put their own societies at the top 1 2 Functionalism El All parts of a culture are interconnected so a change in one part of the culture is likely to bring about change in other parts El Bronislaw Malinowski El First proponent of Participant Observation methodology El From Poland who moved to England but famous for his multiyear research in the Trobriand islands Bronislaw Malinowski quot Human H mm Functionalism El Through fieldwork anthropologists can understand how cultures work for the individual and the society El Society is like a biological organism with many interconnected pars El Empirical fieldwork is essential El The structure of any society contains indispensable functions Without which the society could not continue Neoevolutionism in Brief u Cultures evolve in proportion to their capacity to harness energy u Culture is shaped by environmental conditions u Human populations continuously adapt to technoenvironmental conditions u Because technological and environmental factors p culture individual factors are de emphasized Cultural Materialism D Material conditions determine human thoughts and behavior Claude Levi ampaus s u Theorists assume the viewpoint of the anthropologist not the native informant nthropology causal explan is seen as capable of generating ations Deemphasizes the role ofideas and values in determining the conditions of social li e lll Claude LeviStrauss amp structuralism Postmodernism El Calls on anthropologists to switch from El Calls on anthropologists to switch from cultural generalization and laws to cul uml generalization and laws to description interpretation and the search for description interpretation and the search for meaning meaning El Ethnogmphies should be written from several El Ethnographies should be written from seveml voicesithat of the anthropologist along with voicesithat of the anthropologist along with those of the people under analysis those of the people under analysis El Involves a return to cultural relativism El Narrative ethnography Participant Observation Empirical Social Science Methods B Participating extended El Quantitative 7 dominated by numerical stay at research site information countin and the use of tables g and c s in presenting results better in giving veri cation through testing hypotheses El Qualitative 7 relies more on generating descriptions from on site observations and interviews Its strength is its ability to make discoveries generate hypotheses and to provide interpretations El Interviewing u Systematic observation ll Two sides of the same coin El Qualitative approaches generate hypotheses and discover relationships in behavioral patterns a bit better while quantitative approaches are better at verification of the hypotheses and determining the strength of observed relationships within data Sequencing in Social Science Research El Step 1 7 De ne a research problem El Step 2 7 Formulate hypotheses El Find the best site El Do background research El Develop language skills 1 3 Steps in Ethnographic Research Step 3 7 Make operational de nitions Step 4 7 Make the research design Systematic observation Sampling for interviews EIEIEIEIEI Types of interviewing l Casual conversations I Semistructured I Recording techniques r Characteristics of Ethnographic Fieldwork Inductive rather than deductive Stays a long time Small community Observational skills vs questionnaire skills Gets to knowinterview everyone Facetoface openended interviewing vs mediated narrowfocused interviewing Personal experience Sees real behavior rather than only some High impact from presence EIEIEIEIEIEI EIEIEI More on basic methods in design More steps EIEIEIEIEIEIEIEI Census taking MappingG18 Geographic Info Systems Genealogies Experimental tests Freelisting amp pile sorts El Step 5 7 Gather the data Getting permission Reciprocity Staying committed to one s research and to the subjects sincerity 5 Keeping track of the data El Fieldnotes El Coding El Qualitative data analysis software More steps El Step 6 7 Analyze the data Categorizing Comparing Hypothesis generation I Patterns I Draw conclusions Step 7 7 Report the results El Making it useful El Making it interesting El Making it appropriate to the audience The Subjects and the Monograph El Who should decide What gets into and stays out of a monograph El Should the subjects read the manuscript before it gets published El If the subjects don t like it Who has nal say II Ethics Informed consent Is it possible in the eld How do you protect the subjects privacy EIEIEI What are your responsibilities to subjects and to clients Who has priority those that pay you or that you study What to do if there are illegal activities Do you get involved to change things El EIEI


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