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Language and Culture

by: Dr. Rasheed Bahringer

Language and Culture ANT 254

Dr. Rasheed Bahringer
GPA 3.58

James Wallace

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James Wallace
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Dr. Rasheed Bahringer on Thursday October 15, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ANT 254 at North Carolina State University taught by James Wallace in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see /class/223835/ant-254-north-carolina-state-university in anthropology, evolution, sphr at North Carolina State University.

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Date Created: 10/15/15
Historical Linguistics Language Change What causes change in language 7 m Enghsn for examp e O d Enghsn from 4 r nvade CEME Emam Em enmvy BeowuY WEE Nuvman Cunquest English changes K M dd e Engh5h106671500 7 cameer 717nm EaHy Madam Enghsn 15m ram n39Snakeweav WEIEI e Pvesem Madam Enghsn pmmg presswas amund 145 Wi lam Caxton 14221491 Fvst Enghsn pnrmng press mws Pnnted Canterbury Ta es 5 mom LOSE l SHIRE ALHLUSE HALF0PM OPEN E 5 6 7 W mm mm 39 amgwgum wwiw man an L gz skmgnzlt ni The Great Vowel Shlft mm gg o gwe e I 5 quot39739 T e Great Vowel Shi was a massive sound 395 gwg gsfg gmwi ang ff gthe long vowels of nglish I m gum mmnvg yyu t urIngthe eenth to eighteenth c t n h g 6w W ma m Basically the long vowels shi ed upwards that I u is Wg m r mm lth t sedtobe pr n dI I ff wfmwx place In the mouth ould epro need In a km w m dlfferent place higher up In the I 5 WFEWHW re V el Shi ha hadl r grwgr xew EWW implications foramon other hings I gm mggeab mw orthography the teaching of reading and the a ktqughmmwg w understanding of any En lishlanguage text I gagglmw lgtfsmww written before or durIngt e Shi u tummy fr use 4 BWQWBMWWW e W magi mm Ill QLI Il shl K Early Middle English Vowel Shift Occurred earlier than the great vowel shift the vowels of the 2 d word in alternating morphemes were shortened thus we have pleasepleasant sereneserenity crimecriminal signsignal the later GVS only affected lSt word GVS took 8 steps When we talk about the GVS we usually talk about it happening in eight steps It is very important to remember however that each step did not happen overnight At any given time people of different ages and from different regions would have different pronunciations ofthe same word Older more conservative speakers would retain one pronunciation vsnile younger more advanced speakers were moving to a new one some people would be able to pronounce the same word two or more different ways The same thing happens today the word quotroutequot can rhyme with quotbootquot or with quotoutquot and may switch from one pronunciation to another in the midst of a conversation j Language changes at a fast rate compared to some aspe cts of culture Language changes are evidenced in phonology morphology syntax semantics phonological changes One clear example is the Great Vowel Shift other examples Loss of phonemes eg X as is nixt is today night or druxt is today drought Addition of a phoneme the z in leisure azure An allophone becomes a phoneme eg f K M were allophones in OE ofer becomes 1 l i 7 Morphological Change eg case endings Case Nou Noun End Stem ing 9 lupus lup us nominative lupl lup i genitive lupo up o dative accusative p lube lup e vocative Example The wait runs A sheep in wnlfs clothing leefood to the wait l bought the waif Walt come neiei F Lexical Change Addition of new words eg sandwich egghead smog NATO flak skybox Borrowing OE had ox cow swine calf sheep deer but in ME we get beef veal pork bacon mutton venison at least 10000 Norman k derived new words were added during j IVIIZ Lexical change cont mammet doll or puppet Loss of words porridge buckboard surrey locomotive F Semantic change Broadening ME dogge meant a specific breed holiday meant holy day Narrowing in 17th 0 meat meant food and esh meant meat deer meant animal Meaning Shifts silly OE happy to ME naive to ModE foolish lust meant Syntactic change OE used more most at same time as er and est eg more gladder more lower moost royalest moost shamefullest f Sociocultural Changes personal pronouns he him itare no longer being used much by American writers For example it was common to l t is the student s responsibility to know the date for each test so he should consult the course outline for those dates k Now it might be more common to write j l t is the student s responsibility to know the date for each test so he or she should consult the course outline or I t is the students responsibility to know the date for each test so they should consult the course outline J


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