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Date Created: 12/29/14
Ethnic Tensions in Pakistan Main Points of Ethnic Con ict in Pakistan Regions 0 Sindh 0 Punjab Baluchistan NWFP Violence in Regions Baluchistan Not very large middle class 0 Civil Con ict for regional autonomy 0 Separatist movements 0 Economic backwardness in contrast to other regions such as Pakistan 0 Infrastructure being built but not bene ting the common man 0 Ethnic tensions between Baluchis Pashtuns and Punjabis SindhKarachi Sindhi vs Mohajirs tensions 0 1984 Mohajir Muttahida Quami Movement signi cant political presence in Karachi 0 Punjabis vs minority ethnic groups 0 Punjabis are the majority 55 consider themselves the core of Pakistan 0 Dominant economically politically and militaristically Sunni Sectarian Differences 0 After the 1979 Iranian Revolution Tehran facilitated the organization of Pakistan39s Shi39a communities culminating in the establishment of the TjP Tahrik jaferia Zia39s regime was also in the midst of an lslamization project based on Sunni interpretation of Islam 0 Irm Haleem quotEthnic and Sectarian Violence and the Propensity Towards Praetorianism in Pakistanquot 0 Sectarian violence gt legitimizes military interference in civic life 0 Army seeking alliances with sectarian groups o How was the military utilized ethnic and sectarian cleavages to justify direct and indirect praetorianism in Pakistan o The military would form alliances with or create ethnic or section groups ton maintain legitimacy and control Article quotSectarian lmaginaries in Northern Pakistanquot 0 The Northern areas is a de facto province that were directly administered by the central government until 2009 Majority Shia population 0 Regional and secular ethnonationalist movement emerged in the 1970s 0 The army intelligence agencies in the local StateSponsored Sectarian Con ict Differences between Shia and Sunni communities are reinforced through secular education and textbooks 0 State sponsorship of Sunni and Shia religious organizations and intelligence paid religious leaders to demonize other sects 0 State suppression of Shia religious activities 0 State supported Sunni militia groups orchestrated sectarian riots Ethnic and Sectarian Con ict in Pakistan Part II The Rise of the Pakistani Taliban o In 2007 the Tehrik i Taliban T39P was formed as an umbrella organization of Taliban groups functioning in FATA and NWFP Stated goals o Resist the Pakistan state o Enforce Sharia o United against NATO forces in Afghanistan o Target US cities in retribution for drone strikes Federally Administered Tribal Area FATA Semi autonomous tribal areas governed by the Pakistani federal government through the 1901 British Frontier Crimes Regulations FCR 0 Major criticism allows for collective punishment for individual ac ons Ex If militant is captured from a particular village entire village faces military intervention PreIndependence Ethnonationalism 0 Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan launched the Kudhai Khidmatgar Movement KKM in 1929 0 Non violent political movement against the British colonialism that sought to use traditional Pashtun institutions to maintain law and order 0 Did not support the Muslim League which represented the interests of the landlords in the NWFP movement sought to empower the pooragricultural laborers etc PostIndependence Ethnonationalism Fearing Punjabi domination KKM demanded the creation of an independent state of Pashtunistan 0 NWFP became part of the Pakistan following the July 1947 Referendum in which they had vote for accession to India or Pakistan 0 KKM sought to increased provincial autonomy within Pakistan which was undermined by the quotOne Unit Systemquot Party Politics in NWFP 0 In 1957 the National Awami Party NAP was formed in Dhaka from a merger of left leaning parties NAP sought increased provincial autonomy and rights for ethnic minorities The NAP won the majority of the national assembly seats in the 1970 elections immediately proceeding East Pakistan39s secession 0 NAP was reconstituted as the Awami National Party ANP in 1986 under the Wall Khan39s leadership 0 From 20082013 the ANP was a member of the national coalition government led by the PPP and ed the provincial government of Khyber Pa khuntkhwa Geostrategic Factors 0 After the 1979 Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan Pakistan hosted by Afghan mujahideen and refugees in the NWFP In 1996 Pakistan US and Saudi Arabia supported the Taliban a mujahideen faction assumption of power in Afghanistan 0 Following the 911 Al Qaeda terrorist attacks on the United States Pakistan joined the US led War on Terror 0 Following the US invasion of Afghanistan the Pakistan military deployed the military in FATA to capture Al Qaeda and Afghan Taliban militants 0 Pakistani Taliban largely emerged as militant rebels and Islamic leaders sought resist and retaliate against Pakistani military operations and US missile strikes the region Islamic Politics in FATA and NWFP Following the secession of East Pakistan Zia sought to counter Pashtun ethnonationalism with lslamization of Pashtun society 0 Zia39s regime provide support to the Jamiat Uema e slami a Deobandi political organization that seeks strict enforcement and traditional Islamic law 0 Thousands of conservative religious schools or madrassas were constructed by Zia39s regime with funds from Saudi Arabia 0 slamic mullahs religious teachers and clergy empower at the expense of traditional Pashtun tribal elders