Cultural Anthropology ANT 252
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Dr. Rasheed Bahringer on Thursday October 15, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ANT 252 at North Carolina State University taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 68 views. For similar materials see /class/223842/ant-252-north-carolina-state-university in anthropology, evolution, sphr at North Carolina State University.
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Date Created: 10/15/15
Ant 252 Test 1 Study Guide Fall 2012 Cultural Anthropology ANT 252 Dr Stevan Jackson Test 1 Study Guide Chapter 13 Author Brent Hewitt What is Anthropology began in the 13quoth century in Europe with its development being related to the expansion of m 2 The cultural one of whose worldview the maps reflect These problems are inseparable 0 Most American maps quotAmericacentric Myths and folklore were once the major way in which humans quotunderstoodquot their surroundings death lightning 1 Myths were a very subjective way of explaining reality Anthropology is different from myth and folklore as a way for humans to understand themselves 39 to be and not subjective 1 Difficult to be subjective because were studying ourselves 2 If a group of people were different from the classic European they were considered quotsavagesquot or quotbarbariansquot Early Europeans were extremely 35 T V quot Belief that we are the best people centered Maybe we can look at people in a more scientific way Eary anthropologists started from hard sciences The study of humankind from a scientific point of view The science or study of HomoSapiens using a holistic approach S The f 5 was an important early attempt at classifying life in which each form was placed on a graduated scale of perfection Theologians determined what made up perfection Subjective Goals of Anthropological Research 1 Describing explaining and analyzing human cultural similarities and differences 2 Formulate hypotheses to develop theories supported by data Seldom prove anything gt Use statistical probability with evidence 3 Anthropologists do fieldwork to become familiar with situations and recognize patterns in the data 3 Studies usually take a year b Goes back to sense of perspective Chapter 1 Anthropology Core Concepts in Cultural 39 39 5m Ed I quot quot39 NutesClass Notes 11 An Anthropological Perspective Ant 252 Test 1 Study Guide Fall 2012 Anhropology is holistic comparative field based and evolutionary Trying to fit together all that is known about human beings Attempts to produce an encompassing picture of human life i human societies as possible before generalizing about what it means to be human a A Since anthropologists are interested in human beings across all places and time they are curious about how we got to be what we are today This major branch of study is concerned with the biological evolution of the human species over time including the study of human origins and genetic variety and inheritance in living human populations 12 The Subfields of Anthropology 4 Major Sub elds PhysicaLinguisticArchaeologyCultural Physical W yeiggiip a nal Aimtin 3 Focuses on humans as biological organisms evolution and human variation 1 Study physical aspects and relate to behavior 2 No such thing as race social concept 3 Physical changes because of cultural change cooking food changedfacial structures 1 Sizes shapes hair color eye color i i u Study chimpanzees and gorillas Study fossilized teeth and bones of human s earliest ancestors Study of the Stone Age and beyond Lucy Mr rush Haiti irrrm orgy Use their knowledge of human anatomy to aid lawenforcement and human rights investigators by assisting in the identifications Appied Anthropology DNA Cultural Zu i39i u rgi Tammi M ii uv39 5 Investigate how variation in the beliefs and behaviors of members of different human groups is shaped by sets of learned behaviors and ideas that human beings acquire as a society the study of the behavior of culture 1 Behavior of a group of people routine Eating 3 meals a day 2 Cognitive 3 Thinking about a behavior What food do eat b Certain parameter in decisionmaking 3 Material bowl cereal milk i5 Report of ethnology putting data into a report Participant Observation 1 year immersion benchmark 1 unding 2 ccess 3 anguage Learn language quotlost in translation 4 apport Very difficult 5 thics quotDo no harm 7quot Same evolutionary scale no subspecies Ant 252 Test 1 Study Guide Fall 2012 Race no such thing social cultural construct Humans made up no bio differences Al part of humankind just different variations Races created from Western Europe slavery conquer lower classes justification 2 i l Study culture from a holistic approach If we want to understand any group of people we must study 1 Family 2 Biology 3 Musicetc 3 All parts must fit together rather well Most cultures parts work together senses 4 All cultures adapt to environmental influences 5 Common threads through all anthropology should look at cultures as Archaeology 3 A cultural anthropology of the human past involving the analysis of the material remains of earlier human societies u Things made by mankind desk mug chair Bones are not artifacts o 2 Branches Prehistoric Before writing prelanguage Historic Postlanguage Linguistic he system of arbitrary vocal symbols we use to encode our experience of the Studies human world and of one another 0 nguages are structured syntax o Tracng back in tIme o Study of language in social settings 0 How language is related to culture i 7 r awi vivu w I Aim to improve people s capacities to maintain their health produce their food and otherwise adapt to the challenges of life in the contemporary world 1 3 Is Anthropology a Science Modernism Postmodernism and Beyond i V VI r Undistorted and thus universally valid knowledge about the world 14 Reflexive Anthropology Field work had to become a activity in which anthropologists carefully scrutinized both their own contribution to fieldwork interactions and the responses these interactions elicited from informants v Chapter 2 Culture De ning Culture 1 3 Law in 1871 is the complex whole which includes knowledge belief art law morals and customs is a set of shared ideals values and standards of behavior Ant 252 Test 1 Study Guide Fall 2012 is a group of people who occupy a specific place and share a common cultural traditions and dependent on one another for survival Culture is an abstraction society is a group There can be no culture without a society and no society without individuals 0 All human societies have culture 21 Culture Against Racism The Early Twentieth Century Were thought to be distinct biological subpopulations or even subspecies of humanity 1 7quot 39 39 Er ii h Showed that the diverse beliefs and practices that distinguished different groups of human beings from one another were due to differences in social learning not racial biology the process of learning to live as a member of a group The process by which people come to terms with the ways of thinking and feeling that are considered appropriate in the group Gaining of cultural knowledge without it each generation would have to start over All human groups designed to achieve the same overall goals for the group s members Boasians stressed the plasticity of human biology under different environmental circumstances 23 Culture and Symbolism Human culture depends on them to distinguish us from other animals something that stands for something else which is conventional and arbitrary 24 E thnocentrism and Cultural Relativism quot 1 Using the practices of your own people as a yardstick to measure how well the customs of other different peoples measure up quot quot A perspective whereby anthropologists were urged to interpret specific beliefs and practices in the context of the culture to which they belonged Avoid llsnap judgementsquot Characteristics of Culture 1 Learned through one s environment 2 Shared 3 Cumulative dynamic adaptive and diverse o Innovations Creating new ideas from inventions o Inventions o Diffusion When inventionsinnovations are passed from culture to culture 4 Integrated Amish abide by state laws 5 Symbolic Cultural Differences 0 Much variation within a culture and between cultures 0 Gender roles gt cultural expectations of a certain sex 0 Age Senior discounts o Subgroups Functions Every Culture Must Provide It must provide for the production and distribution of goods and service considered necessary for life 2 It must provide for biological continuity through the reproduction of its members 3 It must enculturate new members so that they can become functioning adults Ant 252 Test 1 Study Guide Fall 2012 4 It must maintain order among its members as well as between them and outsiders 5 It must motivate its members to survive and engage in activities necessary for survival 27 Culture Contemporary Discussion and Debate i t The mixing and reconfiguring of elements from different cultural traditionsis nowledged and even celebrated n o Cultural features that may have originated in the West or in America but have been adopted by local people for local purposes i 9 r2 i n31quot ack Chapter 3 Language The study of language The study of sound 5565 possible sounds How we put sounds together to mean something The changes in meaning language A system for the communication in symbols of any kind of information 0 Through language people share their experiences concerns and beliefs and communicate these to the next generation Impression Management 0 An organism may be unable to control all the signals it emits o A sender cannot always determine who the receivers will be 0 The sender may intend one thing by the signal but the receiver might get another meaning altogether Symbols 0 A symbol is a sign with a meaning that is made up by us 0 Closed or open system of symbols The formal structure of a language it has 2 dimensions 1 TNT vi pi Determines how simple sounds are organized to form units of meaning in sentence structure i 9 ix 39 2 Determines how words are strung together to form statements The manner in which minimum units of meaning n are combined Studying a Language 0 Isolate the phonemes or the smallest classes of sound that make a difference in meaning ex Bat or Pat Buh Puh Ant 252 Test 1 Study Guide Fall 2012 0 Determine all groups or combinations of sounds that seem to have meaning See how morphemes are put together to form phrases or sentences The smallest unit of sound ziii Li gmi The study of the history of languages including their development and relationship to other languages 0 One way to study language change takes the form of looking at how the phonology of a language changes over time Scottish and Irish Gaelic uage and Culture 39 A specialized field that analyzes the relationship between a language and culture A subfield of linguistics that analyzes the relationship between language and culture with a focus on how people speak in social context 39 A hypothesis about the relationship between language and culture that states that language constructs perceptions Nonverbal Language as Part of Symbolic Communication Paralanguage IndoEuropean Languages 0 Prototype llorigina In or llfirst language 0 The beginnings ofa new language
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