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Geology I Physical

by: Ian Davis

Geology I Physical MEA 101

Ian Davis
GPA 3.87

David McConnell

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David McConnell
Class Notes
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ian Davis on Thursday October 15, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to MEA 101 at North Carolina State University taught by David McConnell in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 50 views. For similar materials see /class/223848/mea-101-north-carolina-state-university in Marine Science at North Carolina State University.


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Date Created: 10/15/15
Physical Geology Deformation and Metamorphism Today39s Ltnming Objectives Exptatn huvv and and deep tevetstnthe er Sketch and tapet the three majurtypes ptrautts Denne the terms smkeeshp fautt ndrrnat fautt reverse fau t hanging wath tddtwath fuhatmn ant tehne synchne Desertpe the edndtttdns underwht eh rnetarndrphtsrn Wdutd deeur and narne rdur rnetarndrphte racks Why ruck behave dtfferen y at shattdw ust Exptatn huvv rnetarndrphtsrn dttters vn h ptate Ectumi settth How Rocks Respond f0 5fress attamwmu s sss ckvemamsessemtaHy changed Stvatnr changes m s ze t r shape rnetarndrphtsrn nstderrtow mtneras respond at analow Versus 00 deep pndtttons Temperature and pressure rnerease vhth depth Consider the simdum beha WU of IUL KS a shallow uersus deep Condmons tumtutuquot gt TEmpEraturE and pressure rnerease thh depth Observe three hrrrds of stress and reSuImg structures sinkeenp faultr movement on fault parallel to Strike movementparallelto dip Numal faultr nangmg Wall mUvEs dawn tenslun Reverse fault urtnmst raulte nan mg Wall mwes up umpresslun What type of fault is illustrated in this image 0 A Normal fault nangmg vvall moved up 0 B Reverse fault ham mg wall moved U mi 2 Normal fault hanging Wall moved down 1quot 00 D Reverse ramp nangmg Wall moved dover 0 A Hanging wall 0 B Footwall 10 What type of n strikeslip fault 39 is the San Andreas fault 0 A Left lateral 0 B Rig ht lateral unger urnpress cunvergent buun Match the plate boundaries with the deformation Convergent x Divergent Lemiateral faults Transform Metamorphic Rocks Changes in mineral composition and texture that can occur in any solid rock Changes due to increasing temperature andor pressure andor the presence of uids eTernperstures high encugn 1c prurnute chemical reamlunsbutnuthlgh eneugn a cause melting AppmxlmatelyQElD C m we uepenulng un ruck type and cunumuns Simllartemperaturesfuund geep lrl crust andcur nearmagma chambers Response of Rock Deformation faults folds Grow larger crystals Rotation of minerals to form a oi 39 n Grow crystals of new minerals change composition Formation of veins Metamorphic Rocks lncreaseu pressures and A 39 Em EramrEs cause tabular minerals El take url a erre e Metamwphism of SedimentaryIgneous Rocks increasing metarnurphisrn er shaie nute fuiiatiun 7 1 5 rn Concam Metamorphic packs Waterman m a k amnr sm asing ecu no e temperature and pressure aiung piate buundanes The conversion 39om bread to toast can be seen as an analog for the formation of a metamorphic rock by 0 A Contact metamorphism 0 B Regional metamorphism Today39s Learning Objectives Expiain huvv and Wny racks behave differentiy at shaiiuvv and deep ieveis in the crust Sketch and iabei the three majur types uffauits Denne the term stnkesitp ramp nurrnai fauit reverse fauit hanging wait fuutvvaii fuiiatiun anticiine synciine Describe the cunditiuns underwhich metamurphism new uncur and name fuur metarnurphu racks Expiain huvv metamurphism differs Wi n piate tectuni Settirig Physical Geology Earthquakes Learning Objectives Desertbe what ts rneant by the terrns ebteenter focus and rautt scarp Explatrt the retattetnshtb between the qtobat dtstrtbuttetn and frequency ufearthquakes and plate teetunte processes Explatrt huW ruck defurm bEfDrE and a erfault rnetyernents that produce earthquakes Desertbe the brtnetbat types or setsrnte Waves Exbtatn how setenttsts toeate the source or an earthquake Explatrt the dtrrerenees tn earthquake rnaqnttude and lntEnSl Desertbe the prtnctpal hazards asseetated Wtth earthquakes Fault amp Earthquake Terminology M H m Earthquakefeatures t e neusnrhyrmcemere e Entcenteretucatturt un surtace abuye thetucus 7 Fault scam wstep tn tartd surtacetutrned by rnuyernertt unthetautt e Setsmtc waves e ttayet tn att dttecttuns awav tturn tucus 7 other sourceseyutcantsrn landsltdest etc Ea hqutetemm onypattat tattan mate autth t ultimate An earthquake occurred on the Erte fault 5 kttorneters beneath San Gabrtel Darnage from the earthquake was greatest tn nearby Fremont The rarthest reportotshaktng was recorded tn Stockton Where was the earthquakes eptcente A The En39e Fault B San Gabriel 0 Fremont D Stockton Approxtmately how rnuch do rautts rnoye durtrtg a large earthquake Fault in an or ard 05 meters A 5 meters 50 meters 500 meters pow Fault Motion and Plate Tectonics Fault rneyernents are drtyen by stresses produced by plate tectentes rnqtan alanglhe teutt Allyn kse tekttv smeae ts enauehm eteste rhebuttu upat muse mast teuttsta stess museslhe mm sttw la detamt mange shape bum up to te ntettan end muse teutt quottavern ent sttp Faults and Plate Tectonics Why are faults with the potential to produce large 39 earthquakes located In the western US r Fault Motion and Plate Tectonics This stream has been offset 130 meters by the fault Faults and Plate Tectonics Iquot 39 quot quot Stresses 39om Major faults are hundreds or kilometers long Major faults break l segmentsrone part atatime lfthe San Andreas fault moves 500 cm 5 meters per big earthquake and fault 1 mo emen 39s 25 cmyr 0025 myr equivalent to plate motion How many years of plate motions must accumulate to produce one big earthquake A 2 years B 20 years C 200 years D 2000 years Which map best represents the distribution of Iar earthquakes A A B B C C D D Frequency and Distribution of Eanhquakes Observe paiienns of euniiiquuke distributions eisu 4a a ii i i e M 4m Dnvlh hm Haw Subdi ion Cans Ea hrustfauits Vnicanues a e uunary megainmsi Deep siab Seismic Waves Anima on Seismic Waves and Earthquake Detection Ciuseveavihuuakliessiimebemeenwav EiggEYEathuakESibiEEEYWaVES Concept Seismic Waves SeiSmogram irecord of seismic waves snews arrivais and SiZE em 5 and surface waves es Seismic waves 7 Siuvver vibratiuns caused by an LDVEi Review traVEi Earthquake airing Earth s surface Travei iri aH directiuns 4 er frum ine mm P enn s waves rave inreugn Earth s interim Smquotme hon swim a kwiiiiii nine en 5mm Semmlm wawliwadwm me sinime 7 i gunman k1 S39amnim iienm Seismic Waves and Earthquake Detection 7 2types orsurraee waves Rayleigh waves resutt tn vemeat rnq Surface Waves are respunstbie rerrhueh er earthquake qarhaqe Seismic Waves and Earthquake Detection a s waves amve after F39 P waves are the rst tn q aph haves befure surraee Waves amve at a setsm stattun 6 krhsth crust ecqrhpress rhatehat evmra parauet tq travet qtreettqh travet qu ahatq 4 kms tn erust te perpendteuiar tq dtre tun me By Shhkv ahat A tarqe earthquake eeeurreq atehq a rautt ahq has reeerqeq ata setsmugraph stau qh sun rhavvav Thehext day a srhaher earthquake qeeurreq atthe exaetsarhe iueattun un the fault Which statement is most accurate A Prwaves Wuuid have ivaveied tuthe setsm maph stattun 1n W e rwaves wqutq have traveteq tn the setsmueraph stattun mqrequtcktv tuttqvme the seam earthquake c The Prwaveswuum have taken thesarhetvhe tq reach the stattqh attereach eanhquake Measurement of Earthquakes Earthquake size earr be determtned by measurtn the ufthe setsmtt Wave reenrd eEquattqhs take aeequht qr qtstahee ahq earth rhatehats t mne Emmi if ll wo Pstmmmmu 1mm EJUVME u HKH e THWUUH ethe ehh ehter theeanhquakeV quot quot B O m HOW Wouid thts dtagram changeifthe Se A vavaves vvqutq amve tater tsrrh Sewaveswuuid amve tater there vvqutq be a tarqer gap between the FL and Sewaves the Srmveswuuid arrive hefure the FL vvaves ArarandCUniy Measurement of Earthquakes Two methods of measurrng earthqulkes Magnitude standard measure ufthe shakmg anddr energy rereased frum an earthquake eareurared usmg sersrnre Waves an a sersrndgrarn Intensity 7A measure ufthe effems dr an earthquake un pedpre and buddrngs damage Earthquake Magnitude Earthquakc Imus y Magmtude rs measured 39 HIEHS Wi fE S D 39 quot an a ugarrmrnre snake Flame and strumrasi PmvmnmsIuvslmwnh rneasured usmg me reaund mu 1N1 and 7 Each mwsmn represents lduh mnhvxhqulkn 3 WW mmm m Mddrned Mereaur Scare atomquotrum mm a u 939quot druurrd medan 7 1242mm scare usmg r r r Each mwsmn 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