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Earth System Science Exploring the Connections

by: Ian Davis

Earth System Science Exploring the Connections MEA 100

Marketplace > North Carolina State University > Marine Science > MEA 100 > Earth System Science Exploring the Connections
Ian Davis
GPA 3.87

David DeMaster

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David DeMaster
Class Notes
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This 20 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ian Davis on Thursday October 15, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to MEA 100 at North Carolina State University taught by David DeMaster in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see /class/223849/mea-100-north-carolina-state-university in Marine Science at North Carolina State University.

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Date Created: 10/15/15
TABLE 91 Prebiotic Archean M odem Atmosphere Atmosphere Atmosphere Surface 1 10 bars 12 bars 1 bar pressure 39 N2 10 80 50 80 78 02 about 0 about 0 21 C02 30 90 10 20 0036 CH4 10 100 ppm 1000 10000 ppm 16 ppm Atmospheric composition 46 billion years ago Today Other gases lt1 Other gases trace amounts Atmospheric pressure bars 12 1 2 1 O 1 0 8 8 6 6 4 4 2 2 1 bar FIGURE 87 Possible atmospheric composition and pressure during the heavy bombardment period compared with today 10 f I l l 0 9 l l Solar luminOSIty relative to today 0 3900 l I l l i 4 3 2 Time byr BP 07 L O FIGU RE 1 1 3 Estimated change in solar luminosity with time The unit of age on the horizontal axis byr BP stands for billions of years before the present After DO Gough Solar Physics 74 p 21 1981 During the early earth s history gas compositions in the atmosphere were very different from today and the sun was 30 cooler than at present The increased levels of CO2 may have prevented the early earth from being a frozen planet 57o muhun m the Dmsenl Geologic Time v2 m 7 mcenazmc Era 7 Havana Epoch 39w Mmm 7 Eva va a Phanemzorc Enn 7 m Pa eozmc 5r BACTERIA ARCHAEA I Haloferax ECOi Rifta sym 777777 W mfrochondria C anObaCterla I Methanosarcina A9r0b3Cterile Su fO ObL S r Chlorobium Pym Ictium Methanobactenuml Cytophaga Thermoproteus O Epulopiscium I I I I quotgzm Methano gens o cyanobacteria 777777777777 W as part of the 1 RNA tree of 10 change life EUCARYA acrosco ic multiqellu ar Tritrichomonas a om Coprinus 6392 1398 Hexamlta I I I grphfl fammec quot7 Vairimorpha Dictyostelium Naegleria Euglena Trypanosoma Copyright 2004 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc En tamoeba Encephaltozoon 51 BCPDB o 0 513CTOC H 8 B130kerogen i 20 ii I 7 40 39 60 39 I I I 35 30 25 20 15 Time Ga Copyright 2004 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc Carbon Isotopes in ancient organic matter The very negative values at 27 by ago probably indicate organic matter produced from methane Three different types of Cyanobacteria 2aMe 1 7aH 21 BH hopane Copyright 2004 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc An organic molecule thought to a paleo indicator of cyanobacteria Stromatolites Concretions formed in the past and present primarily by cyanobacteria 21 billion year 0 1011 stone Indicates high 02 Energy flux Ultraviolet Visible Infrared Harmful l Benign l 1 I l l 1 1 l l I l I l 1 1 1 1 1 O2 and 3 002 absorbs absorb Solar flux at surface 1 Shaded region Absorbed by 03 l I I I I I I I l I I I l l I I I l I I I I l I I I I 1 1 1 i l 200 300 400 700 Wavelength nm Copyright 2004 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc Ozone absorption in the ultraViolet region of the spectrum 03 column depth Dobson units 1000 P Today s average value 100 Partial screen 10 e 1 1 01 l l l l l l 0000001 000001 00001 0001 001 1 10 Atmospheric oxygen present level Copyright 2004 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc Ozone Column Depth As a Function Of Atm Oxygen Level 5 30 PDB Tertiary Cretaceous Cambrian lOrdovician I Sil llDevon Carboni fl lPermiaanriassllJurassic 500 30 100 Q Ma Copyright 2004 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc The carbon isotope record from carbonates Oxygen 10A18 moles 100 40 Oxygen 5 OSDlCIF RL KT 500 400 300 200 1 oo 0 TIME my Copyright 2004 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc Modeled 02 concentrations in the atmosphere versus time O2 Copyright 2004 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc A fossil dragon y from 300 million ago with a wingspan 0f 60 cm 2 feet Photosynthesis co2 H20 gt CHZO 02 Oxygen minimum zone CH2O 02 002 H20 Decay Depth km 3 Dissolved 02 concentration Copyright 2004 Pearson Prentice Hall inc The vertical pro le of O2 in the low lattitude ocean Atmospheric 02 A Burial of organic carbon V Deepocean 02 O A CP ratio in sediments Copyright 2004 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc A likely feedback loop for controlling atm O2 involving the CP in marine sediments Atmospheric 02 ll Burial of organic carbon A V Forest fires O CP ratio in sediments Copyright 2004 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc A possible feedback loop by which forest res help control atm 02 Sulfur particle 1 hvi l gt H Sulfate 39 particle Copyright 2004 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc The atmospheric sulfur cycle in an ancient anoxic atmosphere 8348 oo D 5333 o 3 pyrite 9 erage barite I I l 3 5 Copyright 2004 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc Sulfur isotope concentrations in billion year old rocks A338 versus time 25 20 15 39 10 39 o SP m4 05 n 00 39 05 3 0 39 3 2 I s 39 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 Age Ma Farquhar et al Science 2000 Copyright 2004 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc Deviation of sulfur isotopes from the normal Mass fractionation line


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