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by: Mr. Olin Stracke


Mr. Olin Stracke
GPA 3.82


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Class Notes
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This 19 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mr. Olin Stracke on Thursday October 15, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to SSC 051 at North Carolina State University taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 93 views. For similar materials see /class/223866/ssc-051-north-carolina-state-university in Soil Science at North Carolina State University.

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Date Created: 10/15/15
SOIL ANALYSIS Objectives of soil tests r provide an index of nutrient availability or supply in a given soil predict the probability of obtaining a profitable response to lime and fertilizer provide a basis for recommendations on the amount of lime and fertilizer to apply Soil testing nutrient recommendation system r Collect a representative soil sample from the field Determine the quantity of plant available nutrient in the soil sample soil test Interpret the soil test results soil test calibration Estimate the quantity of nutrient required by the crop nutrient recommendation General Methods Collecting the sample The largest source of error in the systemllll Field average sampling 9 dividing the field into units that have similar management history and can be managed differently for the current crop Sample 5 Sample I Sample l l 1 I 3 39 LIMED UNLMED 1 49 spot ample Sample4 Sample 11 gejo a g e aquot Gentle sloping s Sample 10 Sample 7 gop39mg p fquoto m quote 73 Bottomland Sample 9 Sitespecific sampling 9 dividing the field into a grid with cells from 15 a in size then sampling the entire cell or the taking samples around a grid point Cell Sample Point Sample It Sampling Depth 9 tillage depth or8inches in cultivated crops gt 4 n m estabhsned pastures awns and nottH systems N03 and son motsture 4m 4mm depth Son tests Nitrogen 2MKCL K39 removes NH from exchange sttes and Ct removes any N03 netd by OM or amon exchange Ht son tests remove P yt J t Potassium extracted thn NHAOAC ammonmm acetate any NH m Menhcn Ht extracts K where NHA39 removes K39 from exchange stte i Sulfur Because 8042 s mobHe and S mtnerahzatton s a maJor source of ptant avanabte Sr 8042 son tests are not rehabte Micronutrients Fe Zn Mn Cu Extracted thn cnetates sucn as EDTA and DTPA Cahbrattng son test son tests are canbrated to do the foHong correctty denttfy the degree of deftctency or suf ctency of the nutnent I 4 40 WELD INCREASE bua nterpretation of results and recommendation 395 Soil test data are interpreted based on the probability of a yield increase to additional fertilizer PROBABILITY OF PROFITABLE INCREASE I x I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I l I V LOW LOW MEDIUM HIGH V HIGH 0 20 40 60 so 100 P205 RATE lba LEVEL OF SOIL FERTILITY Goal is to maintain plant nutrients at a level for sustained productivity and pro tability PLANT NUTRIENTS S NOT BE LIMITING 9 Mobile nutrients N05 804239 Cl39 9 crop yield is proportional to the total quantity of nutrient present in the rootzone thus the recommendation is based on nutrient present ie N in the pro le and a yield goal For example N recommendations are based on quantity of N needed to produce expected crop yield or yield goal Nmp I quantity of N supplied or available in the soil during the growing season Nson Nrec Ncrop Nsoil Nerop is determined by 9 yield goal buac x N coef cient lbs N bu yield lbs Nac Nerop varies between crops regions or climates and laboratories making the N recommendation For example corn contains 07 lb N bu assuming all N applied recovered in the grain Unfortunately N recovered in grain can vary between 40 and 70 thus usually 09 17 lb Nbu is used for Nmp In winter wheat 18 24 lb Nbu yield goal is required 21 lb Nbu average For a 60 bua yield goal Ncrop 60 bua X 21lb Nbu 126 lb Na So the recommendation now becomes Nrec Ncrop Nsoil Nrec Ncrop PTOIIIe Nos39 NllIIfl 0M NllIIfl legume NllIIfl Manure The N50quot factors are determined for each specific eld by the laboratory 9 lmmobie nutrients 9 crop yield is proportional to the quantity of nutrient near the root surface and the soil test provide an index of the nutrient availabili y P RATE FOR MAX YIELD lba W Management strategies A build up when soil test levels are below the critical level nutrients should be added to increase soil test level B maintenance when soil test levels are above the critical level nutrients are added to replace the nutrients removed by the harvested crop Soil Tat Level Time Understanding Nutrient Availability 9 know nutrient cycles in soils N39H Plant and animal No residues 7 P x U like J 6 l 739 NH quot0quot N I39glalilzzan39 39an Dznim calian rew PREDICTING NUTRIENT REQUIREMENTS Plant Analy s IU reduclion in 90th Luxury 100 ConsumpIIon 43 80 CrII39IcaI nmriem V 5 range VIsuaI no sympIoms symptoms a o VisuaI sympIoms GROWTH quot5 OF MAXIMUM m 0 Ohm concemmion n o CONCENTRATION OF NUTRIENT IN TISSUE DRY BASIS RELATIVEYIELDlt CriIical concemrauon 2 3 SIN MIXED HERBAGE a Soil Testing 9 determines soils ability to provide plant nutrients NORTH 1m 4 NORTH m ERAVA P ppm 300 300 EAST an H Soil test informat ovide ani ion used to ex olnu trienf availability in soil The soil test or extractant is designed to extract a portion of the nutrient 39om the same pool ie solution exchange organic or mineral used by the plant NchoPD ppm PROBABIL P TREATMENTS lbsa oi P205 100 annual 150 triennial 50 annual 150 at seeding 0 annual El 82 MEDIUM HIGH LEVEL OF SOIL FERTILITV v HIGH LOW provide a basis for fertilizer and lime recommendations Soil test Relative sources cl nutrients Su icieney level at di erem soil test levels level 1 00 E Nutrients Nutrients required available soil Soil testi nutrient recommendation 5 stem 1 Collect a representative soil sample 39om the eld n L quot test 3 Interpret the soil test riasults low medium high very high 4 AL 1 Am r 04 TILLAuE DEW SAMlquot needec io39alltesteomermzn N 5 24quot 77 sunsmlswplc i needed rm residual N reel 3439 7 EEEP SUESDIL SAMPLii V5 needed rm irrigaied Sulls and lot aboutng crop rE39 To determine fertilizer rate 1 Plant Requirement yield potential X nutrient content 2 Plant Requirement Soil Available Nutrients Additional Nutrients Needed Fertilizers manure etc What39s in the Fertilizer bagKmart Home Depot Lowes etc actualy NPK BUT surprise N P205 K20 9 forexample3 3 3 1846 101010 Fertilizer grade NUTRIENTS in FERTILIZERS Cation3 Cation2 Cation Neutral0 Anion1 Anion2 Macronutrients Ca2 K N03 HPO4239 Mg2 NH4 H2PO439 sof Micronutrients Fe3 Fe2 H3303 cr M0042 Mn2 Zn2 Cu2 Ni2 Whataresalts 9 Cation Anion combinetoformasalt FOREXAMPLENa Cl39 9 NaCIWOWwhatisthis Sodium Chloride Guess what this is similar to a major fertilizer K Cl39 9 KCI Potassium Chloride NH4 N03 9 NH4N03 Ammonium Nitrate 2K 804392 9 K2804 Potassium Sulfate FERTILIZER FORMS AND APPLICATION METHODS FERTILIZERS are 9 Solids amp Liquids Solids 9 most common inexpensive disadvantage difficult to alter the fertilizer grade NP205K20 Liquids 9 more flexible application methods sprayed on soil surface injected below surface add w irrigation easy to dilute change fertilizer grade 9 Inorganic salts amp Organic plant animal industrial wastes Inorganic 9 salts ie KCI meansthey are 100 soluble 9 IF used properly correct rate application method and timing ALL ARE ENVIRONMENTALLY SAFE Organic 9 improves soil productivity by increasing soil OM water holding capacity and CEO 9 materials must decompose first to provide plant available nutrients nutrient release or mineralization see N cycle can occur after plant need thus N available for leaching 9 much more expensive than inorganic fertilizers Green manure 9 crop that is incorporated into the soil to increase fertility Fertilizer Application Methods Broadcast 9 applied uniformly over land area Banding 9 applied in a concentrated band Foliar 9 sprayed on leaf surface low concentration Broadcast Subsurface Surface Broadcast Subsurface band incorporated an topdressed sidedress or knife spoke dribble knife spoke Broadcast Surface band With Subsurface band Surface unincorporated dribble seed below and to an 39da dribble BEFORE PLANTING AT PLANTING AFTER PLANTING Broadcast Foliar Togdress Surface Band Subsurface Band A cancen lralnd J hand 01 lm lnnmd WINIEHIS L 7 f I hilliiili lliiiilhih 5 VJ Nutrients and Agricultural productivig N0 TREATMENT LNPK NPK LN K LNP 210 No lenilizer subpluts N AI C D FertilI39zer started 1 i in 955 In 39 g 170 i subplots NB J I 1 1 I u g 3yr Rotation v13o r i a 2yr RotatIon i E gt Z 90 Contlnuous Corn 5 U 10 I I I I I I I 19 1 1913 1925 1937 1949 1961 1973 19851991 YEAR E 99 E g 90 s E 70 11 4 g 60 l101a01manure 2 wow 5 50 Mba0 a 0 1m 01 N residue burned 1 1 1 1 1 1 1931 1941 1951 1961 1971 1991 YEAR b N Leaching potential I Veryrlgh Single N Application Split N Applications l l l i i i i i i i Cumulative N Applications 100 7 Km 7 7 N Supjeci 75 7 75 7 7 a lo Losses N Subjeci 3 z39 D Losses ai so 7 50 7 5 Crop N Uplake Crop N Uptake 25 7 25 7 7 Toial N Applied Total N Applied 0 7 100 at Crop Need 7 n 7 l mooa oi Crop Need 7 i i i i i i i i i i mmwc seams usurp MATu ATlON HARVEST mmwc sggowc RAPlD MATURATlON ntnvssr GROWTH Gmer CROP GROWING SEASON Minimizinq environmental impact ofnutrient use in aqriculture 1 Apply tne correct nutrient rate use soil testing plant analysis etc 2 Apply in tne placement tortne intended cro 3 apply small amounts more frequently split application 4 Use crop rotations 5 Minimize otner factors tnat potentially can reduce yield and recoyery ofapplled nutrients nsecls Possible and produc on diseases ImpwPer Weeds


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